2010 Annual Report
Over the five years of the project, substantial results were realized. A manure storage system was developed which determined the length of time necessary for manure to "age" in which to obtain manure composition and air emissions information that is reflective of swine production facilities. Results relating diet modulation to manure quality and air emissions include: decreasing dietary crude protein lowers ammonia emissions, increasing dietary sulfur increases sulfur emissions, and increasing dietary fiber increases volatile fatty acid emissions, but decreases ammonia emissions. Animal metabolism trials utilizing byproducts from the biofuels industry demonstrated their energetic value for animal growth, thereby providing the livestock industry with alternative feedstuffs to be used in feed formulation. Studies identified key air emissions generated from swine, beef, and poultry production facilities and indicated that the nature of odor changed with distance. Studies elucidated the difficulty of quantizing emissions from livestock production facilities, being crucial in conducting future air emission research. Experiments altering the level and quality of dietary fiber, lipid, and protein fed to growing pigs revealed both positive and negative impacts on gastrointestinal integrity and immune competence. Research in this arena is critical in understanding local and systemic impacts on metabolism and nutrient utilization, and, therefore, on animal performance. Assessment of diet modification on microbial ecology of the alimentary tract and stored manure was completed revealing the complex diversity associated within each of these biological systems. Microbes capable of digesting complex carbohydrates in the pig were isolated and subsequently fed as a probiotic, whereupon it was demonstrated that fiber utilization by the pig was improved. Research was completed relative to the understanding how Salmonella survives and communicates within the digestive tract of pigs, and how stress and diet modulation affects their survival and subsequent shedding, and how manure storage affects Salmonella survival. Both projects have implications on how Salmonella populations, within the animal and in manure storage structures, can be modulated to improve food safety and decrease environment risks.
This project was replaced with 3625-31000-004-00D within NP214 entitled: Animal and Manure Management for Sustainable Production and Reduced Environmental Impact. This project will build upon the past project, with objectives being: improved retention of nutrients in the animal thereby reducing environmental impact, the effects of agricultural byproducts on the microbial ecology of the large intestine and manure of pigs with subsequent impacts on the manure composition and air emissions; quantification of dietary regimens on local- and systemic-nutrient metabolism and immune function in the pig; and the exploitation of genetically-mediated mechanisms involved in Salmonella colonization of the swine gastrointestinal tract to reduce subsequent shedding into manure.
5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
A Reimbursable Agreement entitled: "Apparent metabolizable energy of corn co-products in broilers" with Auburn University was created to work with their expertise in broiler nutrition to develop an understanding of the caloric value of corn co-products for growing broilers and the ability to predict apparent metabolizable energy from nutrient analysis. Additional details can be found in the annual report for this project.
Dozier, W.A., Corzo, A., Kidd, M.T., Tillman, P.B., Purswell, J.L., Kerr, B.J. 2009. Dietary Lysine Requirements of Male Broilers From 14 to 28 Days of Age Subjected to Different Environmental Conditions. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 18:690-698.
Kerr, B.J., Weber, T.E., Miller, P.S., Southern, L.L. 2009. Effect of Phytase on Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Phosphorus in Corn-Soybean Meal Diets Fed to 100 kg Pigs. Journal of Animal Science. 88:238-247.
Weber, T.E., Trabue, S.L., Ziemer, C.J., Kerr, B.J. 2009. Evaluation of Elevated Dietary Corn Fiber from Corn Germ Meal in Growing Female Pigs. Journal of Animal Science. 88:192-201.
Kerr, B.J., Ziemer, C.J., Weber, T.E., Trabue, S.L., Bearson, B.L., Shurson, G.C., Whitney, M.H. 2008. Comparative Sulfur Analysis Using Thermal Combustion or Inductively Coupled Plasma Methodology and Mineral Composition of Common Livestock Feedstuffs. Journal of Animal Science. 86(9):2377-2384.
Ziemer, C.J., Kerr, B.J., Trabue, S.L., Stein, H., Stahl, D.A., Davidson, S.K. 2009. Dietary Protein and Cellulose Effects on Chemical and Microbial Characteristics of Swine Feces and Stored Manure. Journal of Environmental Quality. 38(5):2138-2146.
Ziemer, C.J., Bonner, J., Cole, D., Vinje, J., Constantini, V., Goyal, S., Gramer, M., Mackie, R., Meng, X.J., Myers, G., Saif, L.J. 2010. Fate and Transport of Zoonotic, Bacterial, Viral, and Parasitic Pathogens During Swine Manure Treatment, Storage, and Land Application. Journal of Animal Science. 88:E84-E94.
Nagy, M., Kerr, B.J., Ziemer, C.J., Ragauskas, A.J. 2009. Phosphitylation and Quantitative 31P-NMR Analysis of Partially Substituted Biodiesel Glycerols. Fuel. 88:1793-1797.
Bearson, B.L., Dowd, S.E. 2010. Molecular Profiling: Catecholamine Modulation of Gene Expression in Enteropathogenic Bacteria. In: Lyte, M. and P.P.E. Freestone (eds.). Microbial Endocrinology, Interkingdom Signaling in Infectious Disease and Health. New York, NY: Springer. p. 229-241.
Bearson, S.M., Bearson, B.L. 2010. Traversing the Swine Gastrointestinal Tract: Salmonella Survival and Pathogenesis. In: Ricke, S.C., Jones, F.T., editors. Perspectives on Food-Safety Issues of Animal-Derived Foods. Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Press. p. 35-48.
Bearson, B.L., Bearson, S.M., Lee, I., Brunelle, B.W. 2010. The Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium QseB Response Regulator Negatively Regulates Bacterial Motility and Swine Colonization in the Absence of the QseC Sensor Kinase. Microbial Pathogenesis. 48:214-219.
Sharma, V.K., Bearson, S.M., Bearson, B.L. 2010. Evaluation of the Effects of SDIA, a LUXR Homologue, on Adherence and Motility of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Microbiology. 156(5):1303-1312.