2010 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
The overall goal of this research is to develop practical pig production technologies resulting in increased nutrient utilization and gastrointestinal and manure microbial ecology modification leading to a reduction of the impact of swine production on the environment.
1) Manipulate dietary ingredients to improve nutrient utilization and reduce nutrient excretion and the production of volatile organic compounds.
2) Identify microbial populations and modify in situ microflora in the pig gastrointestinal tract to reduce the formation of volatile organic compounds.
3) Quantify the impact of dietary regimen on nutrient metabolism of the gastrointestinal tract and the whole animal.
4) Characterize and quantify the production of impact odorants in vapor phase and on particulates from production facilities, and determine how the manure matrix influences emissions of odorants in the solution phase.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
First, dietary ingredients (corn, soybean meal, distiller dried grains, soybean meal, beet pulp, crystalline amino acids, etc.) will be manipulated to improve nutrient utilization in the animal; and reduce nutrient excretion and the emission of volatile organic compounds into the environment; second, gastrointestinal microbial populations will be identified and subsequently modified to reduce the formation of volatile organic compounds; third, the impact of dietary regimen on nutrient metabolism of the gastrointestinal tract and the whole animal will be quantified; and fourth, the production of impact odorants in vapor phase and on particulates from production facilities will be characterized and quantified, and determine how the manure matrix influences emissions of odorants in the solution phase. Additional studies will be conducted for the enhancement of energetic efficiency as a means of improving nutrient utilization in swine production systems in Objectives 1 and 3 of the current project.
This is the final report for the project 3625-31000-003-00D, terminating July 31, 2010.
Over the five years of the project, substantial results were realized. A manure storage system was developed which determined the length of time necessary for manure to "age" in which to obtain manure composition and air emissions information that is reflective of swine production facilities. Results relating diet modulation to manure quality and air emissions include: decreasing dietary crude protein lowers ammonia emissions, increasing dietary sulfur increases sulfur emissions, and increasing dietary fiber increases volatile fatty acid emissions, but decreases ammonia emissions. Animal metabolism trials utilizing byproducts from the biofuels industry demonstrated their energetic value for animal growth, thereby providing the livestock industry with alternative feedstuffs to be used in feed formulation. Studies identified key air emissions generated from swine, beef, and poultry production facilities and indicated that the nature of odor changed with distance. Studies elucidated the difficulty of quantizing emissions from livestock production facilities, being crucial in conducting future air emission research. Experiments altering the level and quality of dietary fiber, lipid, and protein fed to growing pigs revealed both positive and negative impacts on gastrointestinal integrity and immune competence. Research in this arena is critical in understanding local and systemic impacts on metabolism and nutrient utilization, and, therefore, on animal performance. Assessment of diet modification on microbial ecology of the alimentary tract and stored manure was completed revealing the complex diversity associated within each of these biological systems. Microbes capable of digesting complex carbohydrates in the pig were isolated and subsequently fed as a probiotic, whereupon it was demonstrated that fiber utilization by the pig was improved. Research was completed relative to the understanding how Salmonella survives and communicates within the digestive tract of pigs, and how stress and diet modulation affects their survival and subsequent shedding, and how manure storage affects Salmonella survival. Both projects have implications on how Salmonella populations, within the animal and in manure storage structures, can be modulated to improve food safety and decrease environment risks.
This project was replaced with 3625-31000-004-00D within NP214 entitled: Animal and Manure Management for Sustainable Production and Reduced Environmental Impact. This project will build upon the past project, with objectives being: improved retention of nutrients in the animal thereby reducing environmental impact, the effects of agricultural byproducts on the microbial ecology of the large intestine and manure of pigs with subsequent impacts on the manure composition and air emissions; quantification of dietary regimens on local- and systemic-nutrient metabolism and immune function in the pig; and the exploitation of genetically-mediated mechanisms involved in Salmonella colonization of the swine gastrointestinal tract to reduce subsequent shedding into manure.
Salmonella in mouse and swine: models of pathogenesis. The mouse model of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection is a systemic disease model using inbred strains of mice and has been widely utilized for investigations of Salmonella pathogenesis. In contrast to the mouse, Salmonella Typhimurium predominately colonizes the gastrointestinal tract of swine. It was demonstrated that Salmonella Typhimurium colonization and disease outcomes comparing the mouse and swine hosts are not always consistent. This finding is important since the Salmonella Typhimurium mouse model is often used to develop and evaluate interventions including vaccines to decrease Salmonella colonization and pathogenesis of animal hosts. This research finding illustrates the importance and need for performing Salmonella colonization experiments in swine for the development of intervention strategies that enhance food safety and reduce environmental risk. This information is important for veterinarians and scientists who develop pathogen interventions for animal production.
Prediction of metabolizable energy of corn co-products in swine and poultry. Several trials were conducted in swine and poultry determining the metabolizable energy concentration of various corn milling co-products, and subsequently relating these values to analyzed ingredient composition. Data show that several of these co-products can be used as an alternative energy source in swine and poultry diets, but with the modest levels of dietary fiber, their inclusion level in practical feed formulation will be limited. In both swine and poultry, a measure of dietary fiber was central to predicting the metabolizable energy concentration of these feedstuffs, indicating that processes that remove starch, but leave fiber residue, have a dramatic impact on the energy values of feedstuffs for nonruminant farm animals. This information is important for nutritionists at universities, feed companies, and livestock production facilities for the determination of the energy value of various corn-co-products for use in feed formulations, and provides a basis from which to assess its economic value.
Biofuel co-products and oxidative stress in pigs. Biofuel co-products may have use in swine diets, but their impacts on swine health are not known. Using a cell culture model, evidence was put forward that oxidative stress can directly impact immune function at the level of the intestine in pigs. This is important because dietary factors such as biofuels co-products contain such factors as increased polyunsaturated fatty acids and heated fatty acids that can lead to increased production of oxidative stressors within the digestive tract. This data is important for personnel in the animal industry who, in feeding these co-products, need to be aware that animal metabolism and immune function may be impacted when the animals are exposed to pathogens or other stressors.
5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
A Reimbursable Agreement entitled: "Apparent metabolizable energy of corn co-products in broilers" with Auburn University was created to work with their expertise in broiler nutrition to develop an understanding of the caloric value of corn co-products for growing broilers and the ability to predict apparent metabolizable energy from nutrient analysis. Additional details can be found in the annual report for this project.
Kerr, B.J., Weber, T.E., Dozier III, W.A., Kidd, M.T. 2009. Digestible and Metabolizable Energy Content of Crude Glycerin Originating from Different Sources in Growing Pigs. Journal of Animal Science. 87:4042-4049.
Kidd, M.T., Corzo, A., Dozier, W.A., Araujo, L., Coufal, C.D., Kerr, B.J. 2010. Decreasing Diet Density: Direct Fed Microbials and L-threonine. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 9(1):5-9.
Dozier, W.A., Corzo, A., Kidd, M.T., Tillman, P.B., Purswell, J.L., Kerr, B.J. 2009. Dietary Lysine Requirements of Male Broilers From 14 to 28 Days of Age Subjected to Different Environmental Conditions. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 18:690-698.
Kerr, B.J., Weber, T.E., Miller, P.S., Southern, L.L. 2009. Effect of Phytase on Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Phosphorus in Corn-Soybean Meal Diets Fed to 100 kg Pigs. Journal of Animal Science. 88:238-247.
Weber, T.E., Trabue, S.L., Ziemer, C.J., Kerr, B.J. 2009. Evaluation of Elevated Dietary Corn Fiber from Corn Germ Meal in Growing Female Pigs. Journal of Animal Science. 88:192-201.
Kerr, B.J., Ziemer, C.J., Weber, T.E., Trabue, S.L., Bearson, B.L., Shurson, G.C., Whitney, M.H. 2008. Comparative Sulfur Analysis Using Thermal Combustion or Inductively Coupled Plasma Methodology and Mineral Composition of Common Livestock Feedstuffs. Journal of Animal Science. 86(9):2377-2384.
Ziemer, C.J., Kerr, B.J., Trabue, S.L., Stein, H., Stahl, D.A., Davidson, S.K. 2009. Dietary Protein and Cellulose Effects on Chemical and Microbial Characteristics of Swine Feces and Stored Manure. Journal of Environmental Quality. 38(5):2138-2146.
Ziemer, C.J., Bonner, J., Cole, D., Vinje, J., Constantini, V., Goyal, S., Gramer, M., Mackie, R., Meng, X.J., Myers, G., Saif, L.J. 2010. Fate and Transport of Zoonotic, Bacterial, Viral, and Parasitic Pathogens During Swine Manure Treatment, Storage, and Land Application. Journal of Animal Science. 88:E84-E94.
Nagy, M., Kerr, B.J., Ziemer, C.J., Ragauskas, A.J. 2009. Phosphitylation and Quantitative 31P-NMR Analysis of Partially Substituted Biodiesel Glycerols. Fuel. 88:1793-1797.
Bearson, B.L., Dowd, S.E. 2010. Molecular Profiling: Catecholamine Modulation of Gene Expression in Enteropathogenic Bacteria. In: Lyte, M. and P.P.E. Freestone (eds.). Microbial Endocrinology, Interkingdom Signaling in Infectious Disease and Health. New York, NY: Springer. p. 229-241.
Bearson, S.M., Bearson, B.L. 2010. Traversing the Swine Gastrointestinal Tract: Salmonella Survival and Pathogenesis. In: Ricke, S.C., Jones, F.T., editors. Perspectives on Food-Safety Issues of Animal-Derived Foods. Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Press. p. 35-48.
Bearson, B.L., Bearson, S.M., Lee, I., Brunelle, B.W. 2010. The Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium QseB Response Regulator Negatively Regulates Bacterial Motility and Swine Colonization in the Absence of the QseC Sensor Kinase. Microbial Pathogenesis. 48:214-219.
Sharma, V.K., Bearson, S.M., Bearson, B.L. 2010. Evaluation of the Effects of SDIA, a LUXR Homologue, on Adherence and Motility of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Microbiology. 156(5):1303-1312.