2008 Annual Report
Objective 2: Field sampling methods were modified to include only canisters and sorbent tubes. Gas chromatorgraphy-olfactometry (GC-O) techniques using sorbent tubes were applied to field sampling at several different animal feeding operations. Key odorants associated with both cattle and swine production facilities included both phenol and indole compounds, while swine operations also had several volatile fatty acids as part of its key odorants. Odorous compounds associated with particulate matter (PM) were similar to those detected in the vapor phase. Extraction of odorants from PM was enhanced with the use of humidity.
Objective 3: Several studies were conducted in nursery and growing pigs to determine the impacts of dietary fiber on pig productivity and various physiological parameters. The results of these studies indicate that pigs tolerate fiber quite well in terms of limited to no impact on pig performance and feed efficiency. In addition, it was shown that fiber may impact intestinal gene expression, with additional studies planned to delineate the importance of this expression.
Objective 4: Over 1200 bacterial isolates which utilize cellulose, xylan, and/or pectin have been grouped by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence similarities with isolates with sequence identities not represented by cultured species having been characterized biochemically. Samples from the intestinal tract in pigs fed either traditional diet or one with high levels of dried distillers grains with solubles have been fixed for fluorescence in situ hybridization and had DNA extracted for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis on bacterial and archaeal (methanogenic) populations. This will further elucidate relationships between diet and microbial responses in pigs and determine the bacteria and archaea that dominate each section of the gastrointestinal tract and represents an important contribution to knowledge of fiber fermentation in pigs.
Research in these objectives contributes to the ARS Strategic Plan Goal #2, Enhance the Competitiveness and Sustainability of Rural and Farm Economics, being part of the NP 206, Objective 2, Performance Measure 2.2.
Weber, T.E., Kerr, B.J. 2008. Effect of sodium butyrate on growth performance and response to lipopolysaccharide in weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science. 86:442-450.
Kendall, D.C., Gaines, A.M., Kerr, B.J., Allee, G.L. 2007. True ileal digestible trypotophan to lysine ratios in 90 to 125 kg barrows. Journal of Animal Science. 85:3004-3012.
Weber, T.E., Ziemer, C.J., Kerr, B.J. 2008. Effects of adding fibrous feedstuffs to the diet of young pigs on growth performance, intestinal cytokines, and circulating acute phase proteins. Journal of Animal Science. 86:871-881.
Bregendahl, K., Roberts, S.A., Kerr, B.J., Hoehler, D. 2008. Ideal ratios of isoleucine, methionine, methionine plus cystine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine relative to lysine for white leghorn-type laying hens of twenty-eight to thirty-four weeks of age. Poultry Science. 87:744-758.
Corzo, A., Kidd, M.T., Burnham, D., Kerr, B.J. 2004. Dietary glycine needs of broiler chicks. Poultry Science. 83:1382-1384.
Guzk, A.C., Shelton, J.L., Southern, L.L., Kerr, B.J., Bidner, T.D. 2005. The tryptophan requirement of growing and finishing barrows. Journal of Animal Science. 83:1303-1311.
Patton, B.S., Huff-Lonergan, E., Honeyman, M.S., Kerr, B.J., Lonergan, S.M. 2008. Effects of space allocation within a deep bedded finishing system on swine growth performance, fatty acid composition and pork quality. Animal. 2:471-478.
Patton, B.S., Huff-Lonergan, E., Honeyman, M.S., Crouse, J.D., Kerr, B.J., Lonergan, S.M. 2008. Effects of deep bedded finishing system on market swine performance, composition and pork quality. Animal. 2:459-470.
Trabue, S.L., Scoggin, K.D., Tjandrakusma, S., Rasmussen, M.A., Reilly, P.J. 2007. Ruminal fermentation of propylene glycol and glycerol. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 55:7043-7051.
Trabue, S.L., Scoggin, K.D., Mitloehner, F., Li, H., Burns, R., Xin, H. 2008. Field sampling method for quantifying volatile sulfur compounds from animal feeding operations. Atmospheric Environment. 42:3332-3341.
Trabue, S.L., Scoggin, K.D., Li, H., Burns, R., Xin, H. 2008. Field sampling method for quantifying odorants in humid environments. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 42:3754-3750.
Dean, D.W., Southern, L.L., Kerr, B.J., Bidner, T.D. 2007. The Lysine and Total Sulfur Amino Acid Requirements of Six- to Twelve-kilogram Pigs. The Professional Animal Scientist. 23(2007):527-535.
Powers, W.J., Zamzow, S.B., Kerr, B.J. 2007. Reduced Crude Protein Effects on Aerial Emissions from Swine. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 23(4):539-546.
Sun, H., Trabue, S.L., Jackson, W., Scoggin, K.D., Pan, Y., Zhao, Y., Mitloeher, F. 2008. Alcohol, volatile fatty acid, phenol, and methane emissions from dairy cows and fresh manure. Journal of Environmental Quality. 37:615-622.