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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: REDUCTION OF NUTRIENT LOSSES AND AERIAL EMISSIONS FROM LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION FACILITIES
2008 Annual Report


1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
The overall goal of this research is to develop practical pig production technologies resulting in increased nutrient utilization and gastrointestinal and manure microbial ecology modification leading to a reduction of the impact of swine production on the environment. 1) Manipulate dietary ingredients to improve nutrient utilization and reduce nutrient excretion and the production of volatile organic compounds. 2) Identify microbial populations and modify in situ microflora in the pig gastrointestinal tract to reduce the formation of volatile organic compounds. 3) Quantify the impact of dietary regimen on nutrient metabolism of the gastrointestinal tract and the whole animal. 4) Characterize and quantify the production of impact odorants in vapor phase and on particulates from production facilities, and determine how the manure matrix influences emissions of odorants in the solution phase.


1b.Approach (from AD-416)
First, dietary ingredients (corn, soybean meal, distiller dried grains, soybean meal, beet pulp, crystalline amino acids, etc.) will be manipulated to improve nutrient utilization in the animal; and reduce nutrient excretion and the emission of volatile organic compounds into the environment; second, gastrointestinal microbial populations will be identified and subsequently modified to reduce the formation of volatile organic compounds; third, the impact of dietary regimen on nutrient metabolism of the gastrointestinal tract and the whole animal will be quantified; and fourth, the production of impact odorants in vapor phase and on particulates from production facilities will be characterized and quantified, and determine how the manure matrix influences emissions of odorants in the solution phase. Additional studies will be conducted for the enhancement of energetic efficiency as a means of improving nutrient utilization in swine production systems in Objectives 1 and 3 of the current project.


3.Progress Report
Objective 1: Two trials were completed evaluating the metabolizable energy concentration in crude glycerin fed to growing swine. Data shows that crude glycerin is a valuable energy source, but has a moderate amount of energy variation due to the concentration of glycerin in the crude glycerin product. Research was also conducted showing the ability of pigs to perform optimally when fed diets high in dietary sulfur, which has an impact relative to diets containing dried distillers grains with solubles. A series of collaborative trials were conducted showing the ability of crystalline amino acid supplementation to practical diets to maintain pig and laying hen performance, which is valuable during times of high feed prices as well as reducing the impact of animal production on the environment.

Objective 2: Field sampling methods were modified to include only canisters and sorbent tubes. Gas chromatorgraphy-olfactometry (GC-O) techniques using sorbent tubes were applied to field sampling at several different animal feeding operations. Key odorants associated with both cattle and swine production facilities included both phenol and indole compounds, while swine operations also had several volatile fatty acids as part of its key odorants. Odorous compounds associated with particulate matter (PM) were similar to those detected in the vapor phase. Extraction of odorants from PM was enhanced with the use of humidity.

Objective 3: Several studies were conducted in nursery and growing pigs to determine the impacts of dietary fiber on pig productivity and various physiological parameters. The results of these studies indicate that pigs tolerate fiber quite well in terms of limited to no impact on pig performance and feed efficiency. In addition, it was shown that fiber may impact intestinal gene expression, with additional studies planned to delineate the importance of this expression.

Objective 4: Over 1200 bacterial isolates which utilize cellulose, xylan, and/or pectin have been grouped by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence similarities with isolates with sequence identities not represented by cultured species having been characterized biochemically. Samples from the intestinal tract in pigs fed either traditional diet or one with high levels of dried distillers grains with solubles have been fixed for fluorescence in situ hybridization and had DNA extracted for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis on bacterial and archaeal (methanogenic) populations. This will further elucidate relationships between diet and microbial responses in pigs and determine the bacteria and archaea that dominate each section of the gastrointestinal tract and represents an important contribution to knowledge of fiber fermentation in pigs.

Research in these objectives contributes to the ARS Strategic Plan Goal #2, Enhance the Competitiveness and Sustainability of Rural and Farm Economics, being part of the NP 206, Objective 2, Performance Measure 2.2.


4.Accomplishments
1. Utilization of crude glycerin from the biodiesel industry in swine and poultry. Crude glycerin is potentially an energy-containing ingredient which may be a viable feedstuff in the swine and poultry industry. To date, however, no data is available demonstrating the energy availability of this product to the livestock industry. Experiments were conducted and summarized demonstrating that crude glycerin contains an energy concentration similar to corn and, depending upon its price, can be utilized as an ingredient in swine rations, being included at levels up to 10% in the diet. This is the first data published showing the energy value of this product to the swine and poultry industry. In addition, this data has provided the biodiesel industry another marketing outlet for their by-product from biodiesel production. Research for this accomplishment contributes to the ARS Strategic Plan Goal #2, Enhance the Competitiveness and Sustainability of Rural and Farm Economics, being part of the NP 206, Objective 2, Performance Measure 2.2.


6.Technology Transfer

Number of Invention Disclosures Submitted2
Number of Non-Peer Reviewed Presentations and Proceedings2

Review Publications
Weber, T.E., Kerr, B.J. 2008. Effect of sodium butyrate on growth performance and response to lipopolysaccharide in weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science. 86:442-450.

Kendall, D.C., Gaines, A.M., Kerr, B.J., Allee, G.L. 2007. True ileal digestible trypotophan to lysine ratios in 90 to 125 kg barrows. Journal of Animal Science. 85:3004-3012.

Weber, T.E., Ziemer, C.J., Kerr, B.J. 2008. Effects of adding fibrous feedstuffs to the diet of young pigs on growth performance, intestinal cytokines, and circulating acute phase proteins. Journal of Animal Science. 86:871-881.

Bregendahl, K., Roberts, S.A., Kerr, B.J., Hoehler, D. 2008. Ideal ratios of isoleucine, methionine, methionine plus cystine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine relative to lysine for white leghorn-type laying hens of twenty-eight to thirty-four weeks of age. Poultry Science. 87:744-758.

Corzo, A., Kidd, M.T., Burnham, D., Kerr, B.J. 2004. Dietary glycine needs of broiler chicks. Poultry Science. 83:1382-1384.

Guzk, A.C., Shelton, J.L., Southern, L.L., Kerr, B.J., Bidner, T.D. 2005. The tryptophan requirement of growing and finishing barrows. Journal of Animal Science. 83:1303-1311.

Patton, B.S., Huff-Lonergan, E., Honeyman, M.S., Kerr, B.J., Lonergan, S.M. 2008. Effects of space allocation within a deep bedded finishing system on swine growth performance, fatty acid composition and pork quality. Animal. 2:471-478.

Patton, B.S., Huff-Lonergan, E., Honeyman, M.S., Crouse, J.D., Kerr, B.J., Lonergan, S.M. 2008. Effects of deep bedded finishing system on market swine performance, composition and pork quality. Animal. 2:459-470.

Trabue, S.L., Scoggin, K.D., Tjandrakusma, S., Rasmussen, M.A., Reilly, P.J. 2007. Ruminal fermentation of propylene glycol and glycerol. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 55:7043-7051.

Trabue, S.L., Scoggin, K.D., Mitloehner, F., Li, H., Burns, R., Xin, H. 2008. Field sampling method for quantifying volatile sulfur compounds from animal feeding operations. Atmospheric Environment. 42:3332-3341.

Trabue, S.L., Scoggin, K.D., Li, H., Burns, R., Xin, H. 2008. Field sampling method for quantifying odorants in humid environments. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 42:3754-3750.

Dean, D.W., Southern, L.L., Kerr, B.J., Bidner, T.D. 2007. The Lysine and Total Sulfur Amino Acid Requirements of Six- to Twelve-kilogram Pigs. The Professional Animal Scientist. 23(2007):527-535.

Powers, W.J., Zamzow, S.B., Kerr, B.J. 2007. Reduced Crude Protein Effects on Aerial Emissions from Swine. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 23(4):539-546.

Sun, H., Trabue, S.L., Jackson, W., Scoggin, K.D., Pan, Y., Zhao, Y., Mitloeher, F. 2008. Alcohol, volatile fatty acid, phenol, and methane emissions from dairy cows and fresh manure. Journal of Environmental Quality. 37:615-622.

Last Modified: 8/1/2014
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