2007 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
The overall goal of this research is to develop practical pig production technologies resulting in increased nutrient utilization and gastrointestinal and manure microbial ecology modification leading to a reduction of the impact of swine production on the environment.
1) Manipulate dietary ingredients to improve nutrient utilization and reduce nutrient excretion and the production of volatile organic compounds.
2) Identify microbial populations and modify in situ microflora in the pig gastrointestinal tract to reduce the formation of volatile organic compounds.
3) Quantify the impact of dietary regimen on nutrient metabolism of the gastrointestinal tract and the whole animal.
4) Characterize and quantify the production of impact odorants in vapor phase and on particulates from production facilities, and determine how the manure matrix influences emissions of odorants in the solution phase.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
First, dietary ingredients (corn, soybean meal, distiller dried grains, soybean meal, beet pulp, crystalline amino acids, etc.) will be manipulated to improve nutrient utilization in the animal; and reduce nutrient excretion and the emission of volatile organic compounds into the environment; second, gastrointestinal microbial populations will be identified and subsequently modified to reduce the formation of volatile organic compounds; third, the impact of dietary regimen on nutrient metabolism of the gastrointestinal tract and the whole animal will be quantified; and fourth, the production of impact odorants in vapor phase and on particulates from production facilities will be characterized and quantified, and determine how the manure matrix influences emissions of odorants in the solution phase.
Isolation of fiber degrading bacteria: Availability of high-starch feedstuff has declined due to use in the biofuels industry. Consequently, livestock producers are faced with higher feedstuff costs and greater availability of high-fiber feedsuff at a lower cost. Bacteria, not previously held in culture, were isolated from pigs fed high dietary fiber diets. Feeding fiber degrading bacteria may improve fiber digestion. This research demonstrated isolation of bacteria from digestive contents and may ultimately lead to improved fiber utilization. This research supports ARS Strategic Plan Goal #2, Enhance the Competitiveness and Sustainability of Rural and Farm Economics, being part of the National Program 206, Manure and Byproduct Utilization, specifically addressing the Nutrient Management component.
Utilization of co-products from the biofuels industry: Co-products from the biofuels industry are increasing in availability due to the rapid expansion in alternative fuels. A major drawback to the utilization of these feedstuffs in swine is their increased concentration of fiber relative to corn. Experiments were conducted demonstrating the ability of nursery and finishing swine to use varying amounts of distillers dried grains with solubles or corn germ meal, without an impact on animal performance. Additional research evaluated the value of crude glycerol, a co-product from the biodiesel industry, demonstrating that crude glycerol is a readily available energy source for nursery and finishing pigs, and contains a metabolizable energy level similar to whole corn. This research supports ARS Strategic Plan Goal #2, Enhance the Competitiveness and Sustainability of Rural and Farm Economics, being part of the National Program 206, Manure and Byproduct Utilization, specifically addressing the Nutrient Management component.
Development of methods to analyze volatile organic compounds and hydrogen sulfide: Analysis of emissions obtained near animal production facilities has been plagued by problems associated with collection and analytical methodology. This research identified appropriate methods to collect and identify highly volatile organic compounds and reactive hydrogen compounds commonly associated with odors generated from livestock production facilities. This research demonstrated that under well defined and controlled situations, that compounds can be collected and analyzed to assist future research evaluating odor abatement methods. This research supports ARS Strategic Plan Goal #2, Enhance the Competitiveness and Sustainability of Rural and Farm Economics, being part of the National Program 206, Manure and Byproduct Utilization, specifically addressing the Atmospheric Emissions component.
5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
|Number of non-peer reviewed presentations and proceedings||21|
Roberts, S.A., Xin, H., Kerr, B.J., Russell, J.R., Bregendahl, K. 2007. Effects of dietary fiber and low crude protein on ammonia emission from laying-hen manure. Poultry Science. 86:1625-1632.
Laspius, J.P., Farmer, C., Ku, P.K., Zanella, A., Kerr, B.J., Trottier, N.L. 2006. Insulin, glucose, cortisol, growth hormone and prolactin responses to oral l-arginine supplementation to lactating sows under heat stress. Journal of Animal Science. 86:373-377.
Weber, T.E., Kerr, B.J. 2006. Butyrate differentially regulates cytokines and proliferation in porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. p. 139-147.
Roberts, S.A., Xin, H., Kerr, B.J., Russell, J.R., Bregendahl, K. 2007. Effects of Dietary Fiber and Reduced Crude Protein on Nitrogen Balance and Egg Production in Laying Hens. Poultry Science. 86:1716-1725.
Weber, T.E., Richert, B., Belury, M., Gu, Y., Enright, K., Schinckel, A. 2006. Evaluation of the effects of dietary fat, conjugated linoleic acid, and ractopamine on growth performance, pork quality, and fatty acid profiles in genetically lean gilts. Journal of Animal Science. 84:720-732.
Trabue, S.L., Anhalt, J., Zahn, J.A. 2006. Bias of tedlar bags in the measurement of agricultural odorants. Journal of Environmental Quality. 35:1668-1667.
Trabue, S.L., Palmquist, D.E., Lydick, T., Koch-Singles, S. Effects of soil storage on the microbial community and degradation of metsulfuron-methyl. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 54(1):142-151.