2006 Annual Report
1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? Why does it matter?
Modern swine management practices have undergone extensive changes during the last three decades resulting in larger numbers of swine produced on increasingly smaller areas of land. This has led to increased awareness by the general public and regulatory agencies of issues concerning soil and water pollution (nitrogen and phosphorus) and aerial emissions (H2S, NH3, volatile organic compounds, and particulates) released from swine production facilities. The lack of information linking nutrition, microbiology, physiology, and air quality assessment has limited the ability of the swine industry to successfully reduce environmental concerns associated with swine production.
Four complimentary approaches will be pursued to address these concerns. First, factors improving nutrient utilization will be evaluated on their ability to improve nutrient retention in the animal and reduce the loss of nutrients into environment; second, a baseline knowledge of cultured and uncultured microorganisms that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and swine manure storage facilities will be assessed followed by subsequent modification to reduce the production of malodorous compounds; third, the impact of altering dietary regimens on nutrient metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract and the whole animal will be assessed on its impact on overall animal productivity; and fourth, methodology correlating odor perception to chemical compounds will be developed.
This program is part of National Program 206, Manure and Byproduct Utilization, Atmospheric Emissions (Problem Area 1, Understanding the Biological, Chemical, and Physical Mechanisms Affecting Emissions) and Nutrient Management (Problem Area 1. Animal Feeding and Management) and National Program 101, Food Animal Production (Problem Area 8. Nutrient Intake and Utilization).
The consuming public will benefit from the reduced impact of swine production on the environment. The swine industry will benefit from improved technology for sustainable swine production. The scientific community will benefit from fundamental knowledge that will lead to future production technologies and products.
2.List by year the currently approved milestones (indicators of research progress)
Year 1 (FY 2006)
Design and complete swine experimentation dealing with amino acid absorption. Design and complete cellulose x crude protein trials in finishing pigs. Analyze common feedstuffs for total sulfur content.
Isolation of cellulose and xylan degrading bacteria from pig feces. Design and complete cellulose x crude protein trial in finishing pigs.
Design and complete animal trial evaluating the effects of dietary crude protein on gene expression, including evaluation of serum biomarkers and RNA isolation. Conduct dietary fiber study in nursery pigs. Develop cell culture methodology to evaluate VFA effects on pig growth.
Develop and validate GC method for analysis of malodorous compounds.
Year 2 (FY 2007)
Analyze swine plasma samples for amino acid concentrations. Design experimentation dealing with amino acid utilization in poultry. Analyze fecal and manure odorants from cellulose x crude protein trial. Initiate hemicellulose feeding trial in growing and finishing pigs. Publish ingredient analysis from sulfur ingredient survey. Design experimentation utilizing analyzed sulfur content in nursery and finishing pigs.
Identification of cellulose and xylan degrading bacteria using molecular and biochemical methods. Design of group specific DGGE methods focusing on groupings of Clostridia and Prevotella species obtained from finishing pigs fed different cellulose x crude protein levels. Sample collection from total GIT fed control and high DGGS diets.
Conduct microarray analysis on pigs fed different levels of crude protein. Collect tissues from finishing pigs fed different levels of dietary fiber. Develop methods for RNA and protein analysis from nursery pigs fed different fibers. Design assays for RNA and protein evaluation to evaluate the effects of VFAs on pig growth.
Develop thermal desorption and silicone coated mini-canister methods for analysis of ambient air in swine facilities.
Year 3 (FY 2008)
Publish manure quality manuscript. Conduct experimentation with amino acids in poultry. Publish manure quality manuscript from cellulose x protein study in finishing pigs. Analyze fecal and manure odorants from hemicellulose trial. Analyze fecal and manure odorants from sulfur trial.
Assessment of efficiency of fiber utilization cellulose and xylan degrading bacteria previously isolated from pig feces. Isolation of pectin degrading bacteria from pig feces. Complete DGGE analysis from samples of pigs fed different cellulose x crude protein levels. DNA isolation (quantitative), DGGE analysis of samples, and classification of groups by sequence analysis of DGGE bands from GIT samples obtained from pigs fed control and high DGGS diets.
Publish performance and body composition data from pigs fed different levels of crude protein. Conduct RNA and protein expression work on nursery and finisher pigs fed different levels of dietary fiber. Conduct macrophage experiments on VFA experiment.
Publish papers on GC method development for manure and feces exacts and ambient air analysis using TDS and canisters. Evaluate various air sampling methods (SPME, TDS, canisters) for analysis of malodor compounds in ambient air. Develop method to analyze feces and manure for determining dominate malodor compounds. Develop method to analyze particulate matter (PM) for malodor compounds using TDS or canisters.
Year 4 (FY 2009)
Analyze plasma samples from poultry amino acid trials. Publish microbial ecology data from cellulose x crude protein trials. Publish manure quality data from hemicellulose trials. Publish odorant data from sulfur trials.
Complete assessment of cellulose and xylan degrading bacteria from pig feces. Identification of pectin degrading bacteria using molecular and biochemical methods. DGGE analysis of specific groups, classification of dominant group members by sequence analysis of DGGE bands from GIT samples from pigs fed control and high DGGS diets.
Publish genomics data from pigs fed different levels of crude protein. Publish data from finishing pigs fed different levels of dietary fiber. Relate RNA and protein data to growth in nursery pigs fed different levels of dietary fiber. Publish in vivo data on VFA experiment.
Publish evaluation of air sampling methods manuscript. Publish dominate malodors from feces and manure, and from particulate matter analysis.
Year 5 (FY 2010)
Publish manuscript from poultry amino acid trials. Publish microbial data from hemicellulose trials. Publish microbial data from sulfur trials.
Comparison of pectin degrading isolates to those that degrade cellulose and xylan. Complete sequence analysis on GIT samples from pigs fed control and high DGGS diets.
Publish data from nursery pigs fed different levels of dietary fiber. Publish in vitro data from pigs fed butyrate (VFA project).
Publish microbial ecology data from dominant odor active compounds and particulate matter projects.
4a.List the single most significant research accomplishment during FY 2006.
This contributes NP 206, Manure and Byproduct Utilization, Atmospheric Emissions (Problem Area 1, Understanding the Biological, Chemical, and Physical Mechanisms Affecting Emissions) and Nutrient Management (Problem Area 1. Animal Feeding and Management) and National Program 101, Food Animal Production (Problem Area 8. Nutrient Intake and Utilization).
The Unit completed an inclusive research trial in FY2006 evaluating the interactive effects of dietary crude protein with dietary fiber. This experiment involved all scientists of the Unit (nutrition, microbiology, and manure/air quality) to bring a more comprehensive understanding between animal production practices (i.e., nutrition) and nutrient excretion and manure composition. This research has been published as a peer-reviewed manuscript (Manure Composition of Swine as Affected by Dietary Protein and Cellulose Concentrations), and will assist scientists and producers in determining the impact that dietary manipulation (dietary protein and fiber) has on manure composition, with improvement on effectively using manure as a crop nutrient source.
4b.List other significant research accomplishment(s), if any.
4c.List significant activities that support special target populations.
5.Describe the major accomplishments to date and their predicted or actual impact.
In 2004, acquisition of space located in the Swine Nutrition Farm at Iowa State University allowed for the design and building of a swine feeding and manure collection and storage facility. This allowed for the Unit to initiate research evaluating different feeding regimens on animal nutrient utilization, on subsequent manure composition, and on odors generated from manure collection containers. Development of this facility is vital infrastructure of the Unit research allowing pilot-scale research among all Unit scientists.
In 2005, the Unit completed an inclusive research trial thereby developing a comprehensive understanding of nutrition on nutrient excretion and odor emission. Data from this will be utilized by the livestock industry to correctly measure the impact of dietary modifications on manure nutrient excretion and odor emissions. In addition, several research trials with collaborators were completed and are in the process of being summarized and written for publication. Much of this research is important in the field of monogastric nutrition where there is an effort to reduce dietary crude protein levels with the use of crystalline amino acids to lower the losses of nitrogen into the environment. The Unit is also addressing the effects of dietary manipulation on manure composition and odor emission.
In 2006, the Unit fully implemented its research into National Program 206, Manure and Byproduct Utilization, Atmospheric Emissions (Problem Area 1, Understanding the Biological, Chemical, and Physical Mechanisms Affecting Emissions) and Nutrient Management (Problem Area 1. Animal Feeding and Management) and National Program 101, Food Animal Production (Problem Area 8. Nutrient Intake and Utilization), with all scientists becoming actively involved in Unit and Objective research. The Unit recently completed an inclusive research trial thereby developing a comprehensive understanding of the ageing of manure on manure composition, microbial ecology, and odor emission. Data from this will be utilized by the scientists and the livestock industry to determine the length of time that dietary strategies take to impact manure composition. Scientists in the Unit are also redefining sampling methodology that will have a tremendous impact on the correct ways to sample and analyze air samples for odor analysis.
6.What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end-user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products?
Published research on all research has been made available to nutritionists at various livestock locations in an effort to improve nutrient utilization, decrease nutrient excretion, and to reduce diet costs while still maintaining animal productivity. The main constraint to adoption of this technology is the cost of feed ingredients and regulatory pressures placed on producers to reduce the impact of animal production on the environment.
7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below).
Kerr, B. J. 2006. Opportunities for using crystalline amino acids in swine. In: Proceedings of the Degussa European Pig Symposium, May 29, 2006, Hanau, Germany. pp 1-7.
Kerr, B. J. 2006. Opportunities for using crystalline amino acids in swine. In: Proceedings of the Banff Pork Conference, January 18, 2006, Banff, Canada. 17: 245-254.
McConnell, L. L., and Trabue, S. L. 2006. Analytical challenges in measuring odorant emissions from animal operations. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Agricultural Air Quality: State of the Science. June 5-8, 2006, Potomac, MD. pp. 153-157.
Trabue, S. L., Scoggin, K. D. 2006. Measurement of volatile sulfur compounds associated with animal feeding operations. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Agricultural Air Quality: State of the Science. June 5-8, 2006, Potomac, MD. pp. 227-232.
Corzo, A., Kidd, M.T., Thaxton, J.P., Kerr, B.J. 2005. Effect of dietary tryptophan on growth and stress responses of male broiler chicks. British Poultry Science. 46:478-484.
Kidd, M.T., Corzo, A., Hoehler, D., Kerr, B.J., Barber, S.J., Branton, S.L. 2004. Threonine needs for broiler chickens with different growth rates. Poultry Science. 83: 1368-1375.
Dean, D.W., Southern, L.L., Kerr, B.J., Bidner, T.D. 2005. Isoleucine requirement of 80- to 120-kilogram barrows. Journal of Animal Science. 83:2543-2553.
Guzik, A.C., Matthews, J.O., Kerr, B.J., Bidner, T.D., Southern, L.L. Dietary tryptophan effects on plasma and salivary cortisol and meat quality in pigs. Journal of Animal Science.84:2251-2259.
Koopmans, S.J., Guzik, A.C., Van Der Meulen, J., Dekker, R., Kogut, J., Kerr, B.J., Southern, L.L. 2006. Supplemental l-tryptophan effects on serotonin, cortisol, intestinal integrity, and behaviour in weanling piglets. Journal of Animal Science. 84:963-971.
Li, Y.Z., Kerr, B.J., Kidd, M.T., Gonyou, H.W. 2005. Use of supplementary tryptophan to modify the behavior of pigs. Journal of Animal Science. 84:212-220.
Panetta, D.M., Powers, W.J., Xin, H., Kerr, B.J., Stalder, K.J. 2006. Nitrogen excretion and ammonia emissions from pigs fed reduced crude protein diets or yucca extract. Journal of Environmental Quality. 35:1297-1308.
Kerr, B.J., Ziemer, C.J., Trabue, S.L., Crouse, J.D., Parkin, T.B. 2006. Manure composition of swine as affected by dietary protein and cellulose concentration. Journal of Animal Science. 84:1584-1592.