Start Date: Aug 01, 2005
End Date: Jul 31, 2010
Calves will be selected based on an assigned temperament score measured at weaning. Temperament score will be calculated based upon an average of exit velocity (EV) and pen score (PS). Exit velocity is an objective measurement that records the rate (m/s) at which cattle exit a working chute. Pen score is a subjective measurement based upon an animal's reactivity to a human entering the pen. Following temperament classification, calves will be subjected to various management practices such as transportation, vaccination, and weaning, which are known to cause stress in livestock and have negative impacts on health, productivity, and well-being. Animal health and productivity will be monitored prior to and following these management practices to determine if an animal's temperament is associated with or predictive to how that animal copes with and recovers from the particular stress. Small-scale studies will be conducted utilizing various stress and immune challenge models in controlled environments and in transportation studies to mimic common production practices.