2006 Annual Report
1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? Why does it matter?
The goal of this research is to elucidate the chemical mechanisms that govern insect behavior and the interactions of insects with other organisms in the environment so that new biologically rational, environmentally safe methods may be developed to manage insect pests. To bring together the many different factors that interact and affect insect behavior and to develop an understanding of the overall system, the research will focus on the following objectives:
1. Identification and evaluation of chemicals that regulate or influence behaviors, including foraging, mating and oviposition, of important pest insects.
1.1. Identify and evaluate semiochemicals that can be used in the management of the small hive beetle, an invasive pest of honeybee hives in the US.
1.2. Develop a semiochemical-based trapping system that can be used to monitor and control populations of the SHB.
1.3. Develop pest monitoring and control protocols based on semiochemicals and food attractants, with the focus on developing improved methods for monitoring pest insects.
2. Determination of physiological and biochemical mechanisms, elicitors, and regulators involved in the interactions of plants with insects and their natural enemies.
2.1. Isolate and identify insect herbivore derived elicitors of induced plant volatile emission which enable efficient host and prey searching by natural enemies.
2.2. Elucidate the phytohoromone signaling interactions that mediate insect elicitor induced volatile emission.
2.3. Identify the primary roles of elicitors in insect pests.
3. Determine endogenous and exogenous mechanisms that regulate development, reproductive competence and sexual signaling in insects.
3.1. The efficacy of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) used to control tephritid fruit flies can be improved by incorporating horomone supplement therapy techniques, using juvenile horomone mimics, into mass rearing.
3.2. Development of analogs of insect neuropeptides that regulate sexual development and semiochemical communication for species specific methods for pest control.
3.3. Identify exogenous factors that regulate or contribute directly to the growth, development of insect and incorporate this information into the design of more effective methods for management of insect pests.
This project supports directly National Program 304, Crop Protection and Quarantine: To provide technology to manage pest populations below economic damage thresholds by the integration of environmentally compatible strategies that are based on increased understanding of the biology and ecology of insect, mite, and weed pests.
2.List by year the currently approved milestones (indicators of research progress)
1. Identify and test male and female pheromones
2. Identify fungi associated with the small hive beetle and selected nitidulids,
3. Develop fungal-based lures
4. Develop traps for flying beetles
5. Determine interactions between fungi and pollen, fungi and beetle, fungi and honeybee
6. Develop in small hive beetle hive trap
7. Conduct multi-state testing of in hive trap
8. Transfer technology
9. Develop theoretical models of exponential decay
10. Conduct laboratory studies on behavior in vicinity of traps
11. Conduct trapping studies for spatial analysis to optimize parameters for special analysis (screen house for shb; sheds for stored product insects)
12. Conduct experiments in commercial facilities, compare results to models
13. Compare results to models,
14. Revise models for individual pests when necessary
15. Develop recommendations for customers (bee keepers, warehouses, ect)
16. Identify and synthesize grasshopper elicitor
17. Isolate and identify FAW elicitor
18. Determine action of grasshopper elicitor on plant signaling pathways
19. Determine interactions of different FAW elicitors on plant signaling systems in corn and legume crops
20. Map tissue distribution of elicitor in grasshopper
21. Manipulate diet to explore synthesis and function of elicitor
22. Determine biological role of elicitor
23. Determine effective amount of JH analog for diet
24. Assess competetiveness of JH analog treated sterile males against wild males in flight tunnel, pheromone production and lab mating studies
25. Assess competetiveness of JH analog treated sterile males against wild males in field cages
26. Determine remating capacity of treated sterile males
27. Develop practical method of delivery of hormone based diet to mass rearing
28. Transfer technology to mass rearing facilities
29. Conduct studies on pyrokinins using pheromonotropic assay in Heliothis moths to determine novel attachments for blocking or otherwise affecting neuropeptide receprtors
30. Assess efficacy of allatotropins in inducing JH production in Caribbean fruit fly
31. Determine active core of allatotropins
32. Assess efficacy of amphyphilic analogs of allatotropins for longevity and bioactivity by topical application
33. Conduct feeding studies using amphyphilic analogs of allatotropins to document efficacy
34. Conduct large scale feeding trials with sterile fruit flies and determine cost benefit for incorporation into SIT programs
35. Transfer technology to mass rearing facilities
36. Identify plant sources attractive to Caribbean friuit flies
37. Determine if feeding or contact with active plant sources improves reproductive success of males
38. Isolate and identify plant produced attractants and reproductive stimulants
39. Incorporate reproductive stimulants into rearing systems and determine efficacy for sterile flies
40. Conduct large scale feeding studies using stimulants and determine cost benefit for incorporation into SIT programs
41. Transfer technology
4a.List the single most significant research accomplishment during FY 2006.
The first peptidic elicitor of plant defensive volatile chemicals produced by an insect was identified. This pioneering work is important because it demonstrates that partial digestion by caterpillars of the critical plant protein, ATP synthase, results in production of a peptide responsible for plant perception and induction of attack response when present at fempto-mol amounts on single leaves. The parent protein, ATP synthase, is a highly conserved, ancient enzyme essential for life on this planet. The illustration that plants recognize insects by monitoring inappropriate digestive fragments of their own proteome is totally unexpected and thus opens an entirely new field of research on crop-pest interactions.
4b.List other significant research accomplishment(s), if any.
A new technique was developed to deliver methoprene to sterilized Mediterranean fruit flies released in Sterile Insect Technique programs and found to reduce the time it takes for males to become sexually mature by 50%. This protocol is significantly less expensive in terms of time, cost and waste disposal than previously developed technology and is thus more cost effective that other methods of hormone therapy delivery.
5.Describe the major accomplishments to date and their predicted or actual impact.
This is the first year of the project.
7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below).
Teal, P.E. Participated in the second Research Coordination Meeting entitled Improving Sterile Male Performance In Fruit Fly SIT Programmes by FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project, September 3-9, 2006, Salvador, Brazil.
Teal P.E. Presented invited lecture on control of small hive beetle to American Bee Federation, Louisville KY, January 2006.
Baiting the Trap: New Lures Ensnare Damaging Hive Beetle. SARE 2006/07 - pratical new ideas in agriculture, p. 7.
Nachman, R.J., Teal, P.E.A., Garside, C.S., Tobe, S.S. U.S. Patent 7,078,384, entitled "Mimetic Insect Allatostatin Analogs for Insect Control." Issued 7/18/2006.
Walse, S.S., Alborn, H.T., Tumlinson, J.H. III, Teal, P.E.A. 2005. Abiotic environmental regulation of inter-organism chemical signaling: volatile pheromone release from male Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) oral secretions. Poster presentation at Pacifichem. December 2005. Honolulu, Hiawii.
Carroll, M. 2005. Olfactory orientation of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) to host plan volatiles. 2005 Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting, December 2005, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.
Schmelz, E.A., Carroll, M.J., Alborn, H.T., Teal, P.E.A. 2005. Perception of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) attack in the black-eyed pea (Vigna unguiculata), 2005 Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting, December 2005, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.
Torto, B., Teal, P.E.A. 2005. Research Update on the small hive beetle and Varroa Mite. Florida State Beekeepers Association (FSB 85th Annual Convention), November 10-12, 2005, Saint Augustine, Florida.
Torto, B., Teal, P.E.A. 2006. Small Hive beetle lures and traps. American Beekeeping Federation (ABF) 63rd Annual Convention, January 11-14, 2006, Louisville, Kentucky.
Schmelz, E.A. 2006. Phytohormone analysis and plant derived elicitors that mediate perception of insect attack. Invited presentation to the Division of Biology, Kansas State University, May 2006, Manhatten, Kansas.
Sethi, A., McAuslane, H.J., Alborn, H.T., Nagata, R.T., Nuessly, G.S. 2006. Extracts of romaine lettuce latex deter feeding of banded cucumber beetle (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae). Florida Entomological Society Annual Meeting, July 23-26, 2006, Jupiter, Florida.
Ajredini, R., Alborn, H., Bruschweiler, R., de Bono, M ., Dossey, A., Edison, A.S., Jorgensen, E., Kaplan, F., O'Brian, N., Rocca, J.R., Srinivasan, J., Stadler, M., Sternberg, P., Teal, P., Truong, L., White, J., Zhang, F. 2006. Program for the Isolation, Identification, and Characterization of Pheromones from C. elegans. USA Nematode Genetics Meeting, summer 2006, Paris, France.
Walse, S .S., Alborn, H.T., Teal, P .E.A. 2006. Natural abiotic release of volatile Caribbean Fruit Fly pheromones from carbohydrate –based humectant. Poster presentation at Gordon Conference on Environmental Science: Water. June 2006, Plymouth, New Hampshire.
Schmelz, E.A., Carroll, M.J. 2006. Indirect plant perception of insect attack mediated by proteolysis of ATP synthase. American Society of Plant Biologists, Plant Biology 2006 Annual Meeting, August 4-9, 2006. Boston, Massachusetts.
Burns, S., Vander Meer, R.K., Teal, P.E. 2005. The Effect of Age and Social Environment on Dealation in Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: formicidae) Female Alates. Florida Entomologist. 88(4): 452-457.
Torto, B., Suazo, A., Alborn, H., Tumlinson, J.H., Teal, P.E. 2005. Response of the small hive beetle (Athina tumida) to a blend of chemicals identified from honeybee (Apis mellifera) volatiles. Apidologie. 36:523-532.
Porch, T.G., Tseung, C., Schmelz, E.A., Settles, M. 2006. The maize Viviparous 10/Viviparous 13 locus encodes the Cnx1 gene required for molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis. The Plant Journal. 45(2):250-263.
Tieman, D., Zeigler, M., Schmelz, E.A., Taylor, M., Bliss, P., Kirst, M., Klee, H. 2006. Identification of loci affecting flavor volaltile emissions in tomato fruits. Journal of Experimental Botany. 57(4):887-896.
Suzuki, M., Settles, M.A., Tseung, C., Li, Q., Latshaw, S., Wu, S., Porch, T., Schmelz, E.A., James, M.G., McCarty, D.R. 2006. The Maize viviparous 15 locus encodes the molybdopterin synthase small subunit. The Plant Journal 44(2):264-274.
Pereira, R., Teal, P.E., Sivinski, J.M., Dueben, B.D. 2006. Influence of male presence on sexual maturation in female Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera:Tephritidae). Journal of Insect Behavior. 19(1):31-43.
Arbogast, R.T., Chini, S.R., Kendra, P.E. 2005. Infestation of stored saw palmetto berries by Cadra Cautella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and the host paradox in stored-product insects. Florida Entomologist. 88(3):314-320.
Schmelz, E.A., Carroll, M.J., LeClere, S.L., Phipps, S.M., Meredith, J.A., Chourey, P.S., Alborn, H.T., Teal, P.E. 2006. Fragments of ATP synthase mediate plant perception of insect attack. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103(23):8894-8899.