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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: INNOVATIVE ANIMAL MANURE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENHANCED ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

Location: Coastal Plain Soil, Water and Plant Conservation Research

2006 Annual Report


1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? Why does it matter?
This project is part of the National Program (NP) 206, Manure and ByProduct Utilization. It primarily contributes to the Nutrients Component (Focus Area.
2)of the NP 206 Action Plan. In addition, this project complements the Atmospheric Emissions Component by reducing emissions (Focus Area 2: Control Technologies and Strategies for Emissions); the pathogens component by developing integrated technologies (Focus Area 3: Holistic Treatment Technologies for Nutrients, Pathogens, Pharmaceutically Active Compounds, and Hormones); and the byproducts component by developing value added products (Focus Area 4: Byproduct Utilization Technologies).

Minimizing the impact of manure on the environment is one of the major challenges for U.S. agriculture. These challenges include atmospheric emissions, excessive nutrients, pathogens, odors, and affordability of treatment. This research will take a synergistic approach towards developing more effective animal waste treatment practices and holistic systems to solve these problems. Four complementary approaches will be pursued. First, environmentally superior technologies and combination of technologies will be developed and evaluated to prevent off-farm release of nutrients and to reduce pathogens, odors, and ammonia emissions. These technologies include improved solid-liquid separation, phosphorus (P) extraction, enhanced biological nitrogen (N) treatment, anaerobic ammonia oxidation, litter wash, material science and green oxidant application development, and their integration into systems of treatment technologies. Second, investigations will be conducted to further our limited knowledge on biology of anaerobic lagoons and develop technologies that can be used to retrofit existing manure treatment systems. To accomplish this, we will use state-of-the-art tools such as non-invasive estimation of oxygen absorption, enzyme activities, emission quantification with open-path laser ammonia detector, and we will develop an improved bio-filtration method to clean barn air. Third, research will be conducted to enhance constructed natural treatment technologies such as constructed wetlands, floating wetlands and riparian zones to more effectively manage nutrients using passive systems. Fourth, we will develop guidelines, protocols, and standards for the beneficial use of manure byproducts. These include improved methods to recycle and recover nutrients from anaerobic lagoon sludge and to produce hydrogen from swine manure. Results from this project will advance the state of science for more effective animal waste treatment and implementation of environmentally safe alternatives to traditional land application.

This work is relevant for the state of North Carolina since it has been involved with the assessment of ARS manure treatment technology and will remain involved with its development and implementation. The swine, poultry, and dairy industry, in general, and Smithfield Foods and Premium Standard Farms in particular, will also be involved. End users of the research include: livestock producers, NRCS, EPA, State and Federal Regulators, the general public, consulting engineering companies, and researchers.

Potential impact of the work includes improved biological, physical, chemical, and mechanical manure treatment technologies and optimized holistic treatment systems that will improve environmental quality in animal production. Enhanced treatment technologies for anaerobic lagoon sludge will reduce the environmental and economic burden currently associated with anaerobic lagoon closures.


2.List by year the currently approved milestones (indicators of research progress)
Year 1. 1) Improve affordability of ARS-patented wastewater treatment system (Obj. 1a): Design and permitting of a full-scale second generation system. 2) Development of improved methods for manure solid-liquid separation (Obj. 1b): Develop protocol to optimize the dewatering contrasting sludges using the same equipment; and set up vacuum and rotating press dewatering technologies for performance verification. 3) Optimization of ARS-patented wastewater treatment system to dairy manure (Obj 1c): Development of prototype system without lagoon: Solid-liquid separation with polymers. 4) Develop technology to extract nutrients from solid manure (Obj. 1d): Complete pilot research and summarize information to file a patent on method to extract phosphorus from solid manure. 5) Improve treatment of manure using immobilized and attached growth processes (Obj. 1e): Complete cold weather nitrification study, and start experiments to test synthetic fibers for improved bio-treatment of manure using attached growth. 6) Development of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) technology for animal waste (Obj. 1f): Anammox culture isolation from manure; and develop approaches for nitrite producing reactor. 7) Destroy/reduce PACS and EDs with green oxidant (Obj. 1g): Obtain Material Transfer Agreement between Carnegie Mellon University and USDA-ARS for obtaining the proprietary green oxidant TAML; establish analytical protocols; and design experiments to demonstrate destruction/reduction of 17 beta-estradiol. 8) Enhance removal of ammonia and odor from the air of animal houses (Obj.2a): Set up bench-scale biofiltration system; and conduct 1st phase bench-scale biofiltration experiment. 9) Develop non-invasive methods to estimate the oxygen adsorption into treatment lagoons (Obj. 2b): Set up reactor systems; and establish analytical protocols to measure SF6. 10) Quantify NH3 emissions from livestock treatment systems (Obj. 2c): Acquisition of tunable diode lasers, radial plume mapping software, and an automatic positioning device for the open-path spectroscopic ammonia emission measuring method. 11) Quantify denitrification enzyme activity in lagoons (Obj. 2d): Identify the lagoons and establish the protocol for access. 12) Determine factors that promote completeness of denitrification in riparian buffers (Obj. 3a): Identify the riparian zones and establish the protocol for access. 13) Evaluate abiotic and biotic denitrification in swine waste treatment (Obj. 3b): Evaluate sterilization and redox establishment methods. 14) Evaluate wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands (Obj. 3c): Evaluate protocol for creating and maintaining floating wetlands in the pond section. 15) Develop improved systems to recycle or recover nutrients from lagoon sludge (Obj. 4a): Flocculant test for sludge dewatering. 16) Assessment of byproduct utilization (Obj. 4b): Collection and chemical characterization of byproducts. 17) Assessment of hydrogen production using variedly treated livestock wastes (Obj. 4c): Set up laboratory reactor system.

Year 2. 1) Improve affordability of ARS-patented wastewater treatment system (Obj. 1a): Construction and start up of a full-scale second generation system. 2) Development of improved methods for manure solid-liquid separation (Obj. 1b): Develop protocol to optimize poly-aluminum chloride treatment; conduct on-farm experiments using rotating press dewatering technologies and optimize treatment; conduct experiments on method to optimize PAM dosage; and conduct bench testing of natural flocculants. 3) Optimization of ARS-patented wastewater treatment system to dairy manure (Obj 1c): Continue development of prototype system without lagoon. 4) Develop technology to extract nutrients from solid manure (Obj. 1d): Filing a patent on method to extract phosphorus from solid manure and write publication. 5) Improve treatment of manure using immobilized and attached growth processes (Obj. 1e): Continue reactor experiments for improved bio-treatment of manure using attached growth processes. 6) Development of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) technology for animal waste (Obj. 1f): File patent on anammox; if successful, submit invention disclosure on nitrite producing system. 7) Destroy/reduce PACS and EDs with green oxidant (Obj. 1g): Conduct experiments to show the effectiveness of TAML oxidant on 17 beta-estradiol reduction in D.I. water; and design experiments with treated wastewater matrices. 8) Enhance removal of ammonia and odor from the air of animal houses (Obj. 2a): Conduct 1st phase bench-scale biofiltration experiment. 9) Develop non-invasive methods to estimate the oxygen adsorption into treatment lagoons (Obj. 2b): Conduct series of wind-driven oxygen transfer tests. 10) Quantify NH3 emissions from livestock treatment systems (Obj. 2c): Design experimental methods to estimate ammonia emission rates from naturally ventilated animal house with SF6 tracer; locate a naturally ventilated animal house in which we can inject SF6 tracer, and conduct preliminary open-path spectroscopic experiments. 11) Quantify denitrification enzyme activity in lagoons (Obj. 2d): Take Lagoon samples, conduct DEA measurements. 12) Determine factors that promote completeness of denitrification in riparian buffers (Obj. 3a): Take soil and air samples, and conduct DEA and headspace nitrogen analysis. 13) Evaluate abiotic and biotic denitrification in swine waste treatment (Obj. 3b): Continue evaluation of sterilization and redox establishment methods. 14) Evaluate wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands (Obj. 3c): Evaluate variable aeration, nitrification, denitrification, ammonia volatilization, and nitrogen balance. Evaluate phosphorus removal techniques. 15) Develop improved systems to recycle or recover nutrients from lagoon sludge (Obj. 4a): Bench reactor test for sludge degradation in-situ. 16) Assessment of byproduct utilization (Obj. 4b): Continuation of collection and chemical characterization of byproducts. 17) Assessment of hydrogen production using variedly treated livestock wastes (Obj. 4c): Screen potential wastes for biological hydrogen production.

Year 3. 1) Improve affordability of ARS-patented wastewater treatment system (Obj. 1a): Full-scale second generation system demonstration and performance verification. 2) Development of improved methods for manure solid-liquid separation (Obj. 1b): Report on on-farm performance of vacuum and rotating press dewatering technologies; continue research on new method to optimize PAM dosage; and continue bench testing of natural flocculants. 3) Optimization of ARS-patented wastewater treatment system to dairy manure (Obj. 1c): Complete development of prototype system without lagoon; and start development of system to retrofit lagoons. 4) Develop technology to extract nutrients from solid manure (Obj. 1d): Conduct experiments on characteristics of extracted phosphorus product and process optimization. 5) Improve treatment of manure using immobilized and attached growth processes (Obj. 1e): Continue reactor experiments for improved bio-treatment of manure using attached growth processes. 6) Development of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) technology for animal waste (Obj. 1f): Test anammox system bench prototype coupled with nitrite generation reactor. 7) Destroy/reduce PACS and EDs with green oxidant (Obj. 1g): Conduct experiments to show the effectiveness of TAML oxidant on 17 beta-estradiol reduction in treated wastewater matrices. 8) Enhance removal of ammonia and odor from the air of animal houses (Obj.2a): Complete the 1st phase bench-scale biofiltration experiment; design prototypes; and identify potential study sites. 9) Develop non-invasive methods to estimate the oxygen adsorption into treatment lagoons (Obj. 2b): Complete the wind-driven oxygen transfer tests. 10) Quantify NH3 emissions from livestock treatment systems (Obj. 2c): Measure ammonia emission from naturally ventilated animal house with SF6 tracer; and measure ammonia emission from lagoons using the open-path spectroscopic methods. 11) Quantify denitrification enzyme activity in lagoons (Obj. 2d): Continue taking lagoon samples, and conducting DEA measurements. 12) Determine factors that promote completeness of denitrification in riparian buffers (Obj. 3a): Continue taking soil and air samples; and conducting DEA and headspace nitrogen analysis. 13) Evaluate abiotic and biotic denitrification in swine waste treatment (Obj. 3b): Continue with sterilization and redox establishment methods; start assessing headspace nitrogen gas evolution; and analyzing data. 14) Evaluate wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands (Obj. 3c): Continue evaluation of variable aeration, nitrification, denitrification, ammonia volatilization, and nitrogen balance. Continue evaluation of phosphorus removal techniques. 15) Develop improved systems to recycle or recover nutrients from lagoon sludge (Obj. 4a): Continuation of bench reaction tests for sludge degradation in-situ. 16) Assessment of byproduct utilization (Obj. 4b): Continue collection and chemical characterization of byproducts. 17) Assessment of hydrogen production using variedly treated livestock wastes (Obj. 4c): Conduct laboratory test for biological hydrogen production using animal wastes as feeds.

Year 4. 1) Improve affordability of ARS-patented wastewater treatment system (Obj. 1a): Report on performance of full-scale second generation system and lessons learned. 2) Development of improved methods for manure solid-liquid separation (Obj. 1b): Complete development of new method to optimize PAM dosage; and complete research with natural flocculants. 3) Optimization of ARS-patented wastewater treatment system to dairy manure (Obj 1c): Continue research on development of system to retrofit lagoons. 4) Develop technology to extract nutrients from solid manure (Obj. 1d): Continue experiments on characteristics of extracted phosphorus product and process optimization. 5) Improve treatment of manure using immobilized and attached growth processes (Obj. 1e): Complete reactor experiments for improved bio-treatment of manure using attached growth processes. 6) Development of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) technology for animal waste (Obj. 1f): Optimize anammox process through pilot testing. 7) Destroy/reduce PACS and EDs with green oxidant (Obj. 1g): Continue conducting experiments to show the effectiveness of TAML oxidant on 17 beta-estradiol reduction in treated waste water matrices. 8) Enhance removal of ammonia and odor from the air of animal houses (Obj.2a): Fabricate and install prototype. 9) Quantify NH3 emissions from livestock treatment systems (Obj. 2c): Complete ammonia emission measurements with SF6 tracer and open-path spectroscopic methods. 10) Quantify denitrification enzyme activity in lagoons (Obj. 2d): Continue taking lagoon samples, conducting DEA measurements, and start data analysis. 11) Determine factors that promote completeness of denitrification in riparian buffers (Obj. 3a): Continue taking soil and air samples, and conducting DEA and headspace nitrogen analysis. 12) Evaluate abiotic and biotic denitrification in swine waste treatment (Obj. 3b): Continue assessing headspace nitrogen gas evolution and data analysis. 13) Evaluate wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands (Obj. 3c): Continue evaluation of variable aeration, nitrification, denitrification, ammonia volatilization, and nitrogen balance. Continue evaluation of phosphorus removal techniques. 14) Develop improved systems to recycle or recover nutrients from lagoon sludge (Obj. 4a): Conduct field prototype tests. 15) Assessment of byproduct utilization (Obj. 4b): Trace element assessment of byproducts. 16) Assessment of hydrogen production using variedly treated livestock wastes (Obj. 4c): Continue conducting laboratory tests for biological hydrogen production using different animal wastes as feeds.

Year 5. 1) Optimization of ARS-patented wastewater treatment system to dairy manure (Obj 1c): Complete development of system to retrofit lagoons. 2) Develop technology to extract nutrients from solid manure (Obj. 1d): Complete development of technology to extract nutrients from solid manures. 3) Development of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) technology for animal waste (Obj. 1f): Complete development of anammox process for animal wastewater. 4) Destroy/reduce PACS and EDs with green oxidant (Obj. 1g) : Complete the development of green oxidation process to control PACs and EDs. 5) Enhance removal of ammonia and odor from the air of animal houses (Obj.2a): Evaluate the performance of the prototype; and complete development of the biofiltration technology. 6) Quantify denitrification enzyme activity in lagoons (Obj. 2d): Complete data analysis. 7) Determine factors that promote completeness of denitrification in riparian buffers (Obj. 3a): Complete data analysis. 8) Evaluate abiotic and biotic denitrification in swine waste treatment (Obj. 3b): Complete assessing headspace nitrogen gas evolution and data analysis. 9) Evaluate wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands (Obj. 3c): Complete evaluation of variable aeration, nitrification, denitrification, ammonia volatilization, and nitrogen balance. Complete evaluation of phosphorus removal techniques. 10) Develop improved systems to recycle or recover nutrients from lagoon sludge (Obj. 4a): Complete field prototype test. 11) Assessment of byproduct utilization (Obj. 4b): Assessment of bio-availability of from byproducts. 12) Assessment of hydrogen production using variedly treated livestock wastes (Obj. 4c): Complete the assessments of biological hydrogen production using different animal wastes as feeds.


4a.List the single most significant research accomplishment during FY 2006.
New Aerobic Hog Waste Treatment System Also Cuts Greenhouse Gas Emissions. This accomplishment aligns with NP 206, Problem Area 2 (Nutrient management), Innovative Technology for Collection, Storage, and Treatment. It also aligns with Objective 1a of the Project Plan, Improve Affordability of ARS-patented Wastewater Treatment System.

Substantial greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions in confined swine operations can result when anaerobic swine lagoons are replaced with advanced technologies that use aerobic treatment. Such is the case of the recently approved Environmentally Superior Technology (EST) developed by ARS and industry cooperators to replace anaerobic swine lagoons in North Carolina. In addition to the strict environmental standards with which ESTs need to comply (i.e., the elimination of pathogens, ammonia emissions, odor, heavy metals, phosphorus, discharge to surface and ground water, etc.), they are also very effective in reducing GHG emissions (both methane and N2O), even more than anaerobic digesters. For example, replacement of the lagoon technology with the cleaner aerobic technology in a 4,360-head swine operation reduced GHG emissions by 99.0%, from 4,972 tons of carbon dioxide equivalents per year to 50 tons. This translates into a direct economic benefit to the producer of about $4.50 per pig in the farm at current Chicago Climate Exchange trading values of $4/Ton CO2. Thus, GHG emission reductions and carbon credits can help compensate for the higher installation cost of cleaner aerobic systems and facilitate producer adoption of environmentally superior technologies to replace current anaerobic lagoons in the USA.


4b.List other significant research accomplishment(s), if any.
1) New Anammox Bacteria Discovered. This accomplishment aligns with NP 206, Problem Area 2 (Nutrient management), Innovative Technology for Collection, Storage, and Treatment. It also aligns with Objective 1f of the Project Plan, Development of Anaerobic Ammonia Oxidation (Anammox) Applications for Animal Waste.

Scientists at the ARS Florence Center discovered in animal manure new anammox bacteria that can remove high quantities of nitrogen in wastewater. Short for anaerobic ammonium oxidation, the process is more energy-efficient than traditional biological nitrogen-removal systems. They have highlighted commercial potential of anammox by removing nitrogen from wastewater at industrial rates. This finding can be of significant importance to farming systems because excess ammonia in modern, industrial type livestock production is a global problem, and the use of conventional biological nitrogen removal methods is usually hindered by operational cost, which can be lowered with the anammox process. Corresponding invention disclosure (U 0103.06) was approved by ARS patent committee.

2) New Environmentally Superior Technology Exempt from Swine Moratorium. This accomplishment aligns with NP 206, Problem Area 2 (Nutrient management), Innovative Technology for Collection, Storage, and Treatment. It also aligns with Objective 1a of the Project Plan, Improve Affordability of ARS-patented Wastewater Treatment System.

A new system developed and patented by ARS scientists and implemented by private collaborators for treating wastewater from commercial swine-production facilities was determined as unconditional Environmentally Superior Technology for new farms that are permitted and constructed for the first time after March 2005, and for expansion of existing swine farms. It is the only on-farm technology exempt from the current moratorium on construction of new swine confined operations imposed by the State of North Carolina since 2000. A bill (HB 2784) has been introduced into the NC Legislature to appropriate $10 million to assist producers in the implementation of the technology on about 100 farms.

3) Second Generation System Design Being Implemented at Full-Scale. This accomplishment aligns with NP 206, Problem Area 2 (Nutrient management), Innovative Technology for Collection, Storage, and Treatment. It also aligns with Objectives 1a and 1b of the Project Plan, Improve Affordability of ARS-patented Wastewater Treatment System and Develop Improved Methods for Manure Solid-Liquid Separation.

Scientists at ARS Florence Center and industry cooperators completed design of a second generation treatment system for swine waste that can achieve high treatment performance of an Environmentally Superior Technology, yet it is much more economical than earlier versions. The system combines solid-liquid separation, biological ammonia treatment, and phosphorus removal and not only produces a deodorized and disinfected liquid effluent, but also turns hog waste into materials for soil amendments, fertilizers and energy production. The second generation system is being retrofitted at full-scale into a 6,000-head finishing swine operation in Sampson County, NC, to replace the existing anaerobic lagoons. This project is consistent with recommendations provided in the Final Report of the Agreement between Attorney General of NC and swine producers Smithfield Foods and Premium Standard Farms. Funding for construction and demonstration of the second generation system was provided by NC Department of Justice through the Smithfield Foods Environmental Enhancement Fund Grant Agreement and collaboration of North Carolina State University. The technology evaluation team includes scientists from ARS laboratories in Florence, SC, Beltsville, MD, and Bowling Green, KY. An ARS invention disclosure (Docket No 124.06) on innovations of the second generation system was submitted to Patent Committee.

4) Reduction of Ammonia Emissions from Swine Lagoons Using Advanced Treatment Technologies. This accomplishment aligns with NP 206, Problem Area 2 (Nutrient management), Innovative Technology for Collection, Storage and Treatment and complements Emissions Problem Area 3, Control Technologies and Strategies. It also aligns with Objective 1b of the Project Plan, Develop Improved Methods for Manure Solid-Liquid Separation.

Substantial reduction of ammonia emissions from confined swine operations can result when swine lagoons are retrofitted or replaced with advanced technologies. Such is the case of retrofitting anaerobic lagoons with solid-liquid separation or replacing the lagoon using the recently approved environmentally superior technology (EST), both developed by ARS and industry cooperators. Ammonia emissions were simultaneously determined at full-scale with passive flux samplers in three contiguous swine production units with similar animal production management and lagoons with similar surface area, but their waste management was substantially different (traditional anaerobic lagoon, solid-liquid separation prior lagoon storage, and replacement of lagoon using EST). In the lagoon with prior solid-liquid separation, total annual NH3 emissions were reduced by 73% with respect to those of the traditional anaerobic lagoon. In the replaced lagoon, remarkable water quality improvements such as lower N concentrations substantially reduced annual NH3 emissions by 90% with respect to those found in the traditional anaerobic lagoon. These results overall demonstrate that alternative new wastewater technologies can substantially reduce ammonia emissions from confined swine production.

5) Destruction of Hormones Using a Green Oxidant. This accomplishment aligns with NP 206, Pathogens and Pharmaceutically Active Compounds (PACs) Problem Area 4, Holistic Treatment Technologies for Nutrients, Pathogens and PACS. It also aligns with Objective 1g of the Project Plan, Destroy/Reduce PACs and EDs with Green Oxidant.

Hormones in wastewater effluent are an emerging problem for both agriculture and municipalities. We investigate the possibility of destroying these hormones with new green catalyst TAML Activators. TAML is short for iron tetra-amido macrocyclic ligand. The TAML activators were invented by a Carnegie Mellon University scientist. We have evaluated their usefulness under a Materials Transfer Agreement. The initial destruction analyses were conducted by USDA-ARS, Fargo, ND. The TAML activators were very affective in destroying hormones. The research has been reported at the American Chemical Society. The second phase is to test the effectiveness of TAML in various wastewater matrices.

6) Wind-driven Surficial Oxygen Transfer. This accomplishment aligns with NP 206, Problem Area 2 (Nutrient Management), Innovative Technology for Collection, Storage, and Treatment. It also aligns with Objective 2b of the Project Plan, Develop Non-invasive Methods to Estimate the Oxygen Absorption into Treatment Lagoons.

Based on research data published for the last 50 years, scientists developed a new unified equation in order to predict the amount of atmospheric oxygen that could be absorbed into animal waste treatment lagoons. This information is critical in determining the fate of nitrogen in these lagoons.

7) Dinitrogen Gas Emission from Treatment Lagoons. This accomplishment aligns with NP 206, Problem Area 1 (Atmospheric Emissions Component), Understanding the Biological, Chemical, and Physical Mechanisms Affecting Emissions, and Problem Area 2 (Nutrient Management), Innovative Technology for Collection, Storage, and Treatment. It also aligns with Objective 2c of the Project Plan, Quantify NH3 Emissions from Livestock Treatment Systems.

Based on known biological pathways and the newly developed equation for wind-driven oxygen transfer, scientists were able to show that the amount of atmospheric oxygen that could be absorbed into the treatment lagoons could support biological transformation of nitrogen species. This finding explained the mysterious dinitrogen gas emission data observed from animal waste treatment lagoons, normally not expected to generate dinitrogen gas due to perceived oxygen unavailability in these lagoons.

8) Riparian Buffers Promote Complete Denitrification. This accomplishment aligns with NP 206, Emissions Problem Area 1, Understanding the Biological, Chemical, and Physical Mechanisms Affecting Emissions, and Area 3, Control Technologies and Strategies. It also aligns with Objective 3a of the Project Plan, Determine Factors that Promote Completeness of Denitrification in Riparian Buffers.

Riparian wetland buffers are one of the most common and important natural resources conservation practices used in the USA and worldwide. They are particularly effective in reducing non-point source nitrogen pollution by denitrification. The denitrification levels were measured in different landscape position of a livestock-manure-impacted watershed. Measurements were made of the potential nitrogen removal along with the potential nitrous oxide (a greenhouse gas) production during denitrification. Most of the sites had very little or no production of nitrous oxide, but some hot spots existed. The nitrous oxide highly related to the soil carbon to nitrogen ratio. If the C/N ratio was greater than 25, nitrous oxide production was essentially zero.

9) Characterizing Wind Speed Distributions and Vertical Profiles. This accomplishment aligns with NP 206, Problem Area 1 (Atmospheric Emissions Component), Understanding the Biological, Chemical, and Physical Mechanisms Affecting Emissions, and Problem Area 2 (Nutrient Management), Innovative Technology for Collection, Storage, and Treatment. It also aligns with Objectives 2b and 2c of the Project Plan, Develop Non-invasive Methods to Estimate the Oxygen Adsorption into Treatment Lagoons and Quantify NH3 Emissions from Livestock Treatment Systems.

Based on a large number of wind speed datasets, scientists were able to demonstrate robustness of a wind speed distribution function and validate the use of a simple logarithmic wind speed profile to relate wind speeds at different heights even under atmospheric conditions that are not theoretically valid.

10) Real-time Ammonia Measurements Using Open-path Spectroscopic Method. This accomplishment aligns with NP 206, Problem Area 1 (Atmospheric Emissions Component), Understanding the Biological, Chemical, and Physical Mechanisms Affecting Emissions, Problem Area 2 (Nutrient Management), Innovative Technology for Collection, Storage, and Treatment, and NP 204 National Global Climate Program Objectives 1 and 2. It also aligns with Objective 2c of the Project Plan, Quantify NH3 Emissions from Livestock Treatment Systems.

This method uses a tunable diode laser mounted on an automatic positioning device controlled by radial plume mapping software to assess emissions and spatial distributions of methane and ammonia from livestock and tillage operations. Scientists are developing a new method that can measure real-time ammonia emissions with simultaneous generation of surface contour diagrams of gas emissions resulting from agricultural operations (e.g., livestock production, tillage or manure land applications).

11) Water Treatment Residuals May Help Reduce Off-site Phosphorus Movement. This accomplishment aligns with NP 206 Byproducts Problem Area 1, Phytoavailability and Bioavailability of Nutrients, Trace Elements and Xenobiotics in Byproducts Considered for Beneficial Use and Problem Area 2, Develop Protocols and Methodology Standards for Byproduct Application to Land. It also aligns with Objective 4b of the Project Plan, Assessment of Byproduct Utilization.

A water treatment residual obtained from a water treatment facility in North Carolina was found to be able to bind almost 2% of its weight in phosphorus (P). After mixing into soils, it was found that this WTR greatly increased the soil P binding capacity. It was shown that WTR application to soil reduced the plant and water extractable P concentrations from three soils containing very high water extractable P concentrations. These results imply that if WTRs are added to a soil with excess soil P concentrations, off-site P movement could be reduced because the soil retains more P.

12) Recovery and Reuse of Phosphorus Materials. This accomplishment aligns with NP 206, Byproducts Problem Area 3, Byproduct Utilization Technologies. It also aligns with Objective 4b, Assessment of Byproduct Utilization.

Recycling and reuse of phosphorus (P) is becoming important for the fertilizer industry and farmers because world phosphorus reserves are limited. Phosphorus materials were recovered from the full-scale treatment plant using the recently approved environmentally superior technology (EST). Soil fertility tests using ryegrass showed that the recovered P material applied in two particle sizes (0.5-1.0 mm and 2.0-4.0 mm) was an excellent slow release phosphorus source. Ryegrass dry matter yields obtained using recovered P were similar to commercial triple superphosphate. The recovery of P from liquid pig manure is useful for solving distribution problems of excess manure P in soils, and it allows significant amounts of this nutrient to be transported off the farm in concentrated form and recycled as plant fertilizer.


4c.List significant activities that support special target populations.
None


4d.Progress report.
In house project:

Objective 1c (Apply ARS-patented wastewater treatment system to dairy manure). An experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of polymers to enhance liquid-solids separation in liquid dairy manure. We used liquid dairy manure from Lemaster facility at Clemson University, and a bench setup with Phipps & Bird mixers. Treatments included two polymers at various dosages; we tested a synthetic polymer (PAM) and a natural polymer (Chitosan) extracted from seashells. Results showed that both polymers were equally effective for solid-liquid separation of dairy liquid manure.

Objective 1d (Develop technology to extract P from solid manure). A patent is being prepared by ARS-OTT for filing at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Objective 1e (Improve treatment of manure using immobilized and attached growth processes). Cold weather nitrification is an important consideration for stabilized performance of biological treatment processes applied to continuous animal production. A winter simulation experiment was conducted to evaluate adaptation of immobilized nitrifying bacteria to cold temperatures using bench scale refrigerated reactors. We found that nitrifiers were able to adapt to low water temperature of 3 degree C with proper acclimation. Nitrification rate of adapted bacteria decreased less than 30% for each 10 degree C cooling. These results indicate that sizing of reactors can be decreased from previous estimates without performance loss under winter conditions. We also evaluated the use of two biomass carriers in reactors seeded with novel anammox bacteria: a polyester non-woven material coated with pyridinium type polymer (pilot reactor) or a net type acryl-resin fiber material (bench reactors); the new bacteria successfully formed active biofilms in both materials.

Objective 2a (Enhance removal of ammonia and odor from the air of animal house). We fabricated a continuous-flow bench-scale bio-filtration system with 6 reactors. We also fabricated several small-scale batch reactors for short-term experiments. We had monitored ammonia, H2S, CO2, and other odorous compounds from swine manure head-space gas and effluents from the system.

Objective 2b (Develop non-invasive methods to estimate oxygen absorption into treatment lagoons). We had set up a 1.2-m shallow pan and a 10-m weather station in a grass plain. We conducted a series of non-steady state oxygen transfer tests to evaluate wind-driven oxygen transfer efficiency. These data were compared with our newly developed empirical surficial oxygen transfer equation. We will simultaneously monitor oxygen and spiked SF6 in order to relate these two gases via their diffusivities.

Objective 2c (Quantify NH3 emissions from livestock treatment systems). Working with ARCADIS, Inc., we installed the radial plume mapping software which could control an automatic positioning device and calculate real-time ammonia emissions based on wind speed, wind direction, and line-path concentration of ammonia measured with a tunable diode laser. We will find a collaborator who can let us inject SF6 tracer into a naturally-ventilated animal house.

Subordinate projects: 1) Evaluation of Environmental Superior Technology Contingent Determination-Second Generation. This report serves to document research conducted under a Reimbursable Cooperative Agreement between ARS and North Carolina State University. The sponsor is NC Department of Justice through the Smithfield Foods Environmental Enhancement Fund Grant Agreement.

This project will research, evaluate and demonstrate the viability of a second generation manure treatment technology developed by ARS as an alternative to the lagoon/spray field system typically used to treat the wastewater generated by swine farms in North Carolina. The system will separate solids and liquids with polymer technology, remove the ammonia nitrogen with acclimated bacteria, remove soluble phosphorus and substantially eliminate release of pathogens, odors and ammonia into the environment. The second generation system is designed to substantially reduce cost and meet economical feasibility in addition to technical and operational feasibility standards of the system previously evaluated consistent with recommendations provided in the Phase I Technology Determination Report to evaluate a lower cost version of the system. Performance verification will be done on the installed system at full-scale and steady-state operational conditions. In addition, we will obtain process information to provide support and improve operational considerations of the full-scale system.

Performance of the technology will be monitored in a finishing operation in Sampson County, NC. Water quality analyses before and after each process step in the system will evaluate treatment effectiveness. Flows will be measured with electronic flow-meters. Odor analyses will be done using analyses of liquid, and pathogen indicators will be evaluated using standard methods.

Design and permitting of the new system was completed. The new system is being retrofit into a 6,000-head finishing swine operation in Sampson County, NC, that uses lagoon-spray field technology. Construction and installation of the new system was started during the reporting period and is scheduled to be operational in September 2006. In order to be able to evaluate the system, we requested a no-cost extension for one additional year until September 30, 2007.

An office trailer was installed at the facility to help with evaluation. Instrumentation (doppler and magnetic flowmeters) have been ordered. We sampled the operation monthly starting March 2006 to collect background environmental information of the traditional facility before conversion to the new system. This work included water quality analyses of flush and lagoon wastewater, pathogens, odor, and ammonia in the air.

An ARS invention disclosure (Docket No 124.06) on innovations of the second generation system was prepared based on this research and scheduled for Committee review on August 16, 2006.

2) Development of New Generation Low-cost Treatment of Ammonia to Benefit the Environment and Promote Sustainable Livestock Production.

This report serves to document research conducted under a Reimbursable Cooperative Agreement between ARS and the USDA-Foreign Agricultural Service. This is a three-year project done cooperatively with Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), government agency in Brazil devoted to agricultural research, to develop new-generation, low-cost, anammox-based treatment of animal wastewater, which supports the objective 1F of the parent project To Develop Anaerobic Ammonia Oxidation (Anammox) Applications for Animal Waste.

The isolation of anammox adapted to animal wastewater environments can be of significant importance to farming systems because excess ammonia in modern, industrial-type livestock production is a global problem, and the use of conventional biological N removal methods is usually hindered by cost; thus, we think that the more economical anammox-based treatment can greatly facilitate adoption of advanced wastewater treatment technologies by farmers.

We completed phases one and two of the research proposed. This includes development of active cultures of anammox, immobilization into various synthetic carriers (PVA, non-woven fibers, and woven fibers) using continuous-flow reactors, characterization using molecular techniques (FISH and DNA sequencing), and successful development of a nitrite generation reactor.

During year two of the project, Dr. Airton Kunz of EMBRAPA’s Swine and Poultry visited the ARS-Florence laboratory in February 2006, as scheduled. He was also successful in developing anammox cultures in Brazil using local animal waste sludges and the isolation protocol we developed at Florence. Dr. Maria Cruz Garcia from the Spanish Agricultural Technology Institute is scheduled for a 1-month visit (August-Sept 2006) to work on anammox characterization using FISH techniques and a new Nikon Eclipse 50i microscope purchased this year.

An ARS invention disclosure (Docket No 103.06, M.B. Vanotti and A.A. Szogi, Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation for High-Ammonia Wastewater, was prepared based on this research and subsequently approved by ARS Patent Committee on May 22, 2006. The invention is about a new anammox bacteria isolated from livestock waste that can remove high quantities of nitrogen in wastewater.

3) Alternate Flooding and Draining to Enhance Nitrification and P Removal in Marsh-Pond-Marsh Constructed Wetlands to Treat Swine Wastewater

This report serves to document research conducted under a specific cooperative agreement between ARS and North Carolina A&T State University.

While constructed wetlands can be very effective in the removal of nitrogen from swine wastewater, the removal is generally limited by the availability of oxygen to convert ammonia to nitrate. Efforts to improve the effectiveness of marsh-pond-marsh by alternating wetting and drying cycles were only partially successful. Thus, two types of aeration retrofit (covered and non-covered) were investigated to determine both the improved ammonia conversion to nitrate and the amount of ammonia lost via volatilization. Neither method dramatically improved nitrogen treatment, but the covered greatly reduced ammonia volatilization. Both type of wetlands were effective in eliminating natural hormone especially estrogen in the wastewater.

4) Technology Transfer for Animal Waste Treatment Improvements

This report serves to document research conducted under a specific cooperative agreement between ARS and North Carolina State University.

The project leader Dr. Humenik died this year. His associate Mr. Mark Rice was designated the project leader. We continue interacting with customers and stakeholders especially on the possibilities for producing energy from components of our livestock waste treatment systems.


5.Describe the major accomplishments to date and their predicted or actual impact.
1) New Aerobic Hog Waste Treatment System Also Cuts Greenhouse Gas Emissions. This accomplishment aligns with NP 206, Problem Area 2 (Nutrient management), Innovative Technology for Collection, Storage, and Treatment. It also aligns with Objective 1a of the Project Plan, Improve Affordability of ARS-Patented Wastewater Treatment System.

Substantial greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions in confined swine operations can result when anaerobic swine lagoons are replaced with advanced technologies that use aerobic treatment. Such is the case of the recently approved environmentally superior technology (EST) developed by ARS and industry cooperators to replace anaerobic swine lagoons in North Carolina. In addition to the strict environmental standards with which ESTs need to comply (i.e., the elimination of pathogens, ammonia emissions, odor, heavy metals, phosphorus, discharge to surface and ground water, etc.), they are also very effective in reducing GHG emissions (both methane and N2O), even more than anaerobic digesters. For example, replacement of the lagoon technology with the cleaner aerobic technology in a 4,360-head swine operation reduced GHG emissions by 99.0%, from 4,972 tons of carbon dioxide equivalents per year to 50 tons. This translates into a direct economic benefit to the producer of about $4.50 per pig in the farm at current Chicago Climate Exchange trading values of $4/Ton CO2. Thus, GHG emission reductions and carbon credits can help compensate for the higher installation cost of cleaner aerobic systems and facilitate producer adoption of environmentally superior technologies to replace current anaerobic lagoons in the USA.

2) Score One for Anammox. This accomplishment aligns with NP 206, Problem Area 2 (Nutrient management), Innovative Technology for Collection, Storage, and Treatment. It also aligns with Objective 1f of the Project Plan, Development of Anaerobic Ammonia Oxidation (Anammox) Applications for Animal Waste.

Scientists at the ARS Florence Center discovered in animal manure new anammox bacteria that can remove high quantities of nitrogen in wastewater. Short for anaerobic ammonium oxidation, the process is more energy-efficient than traditional biological nitrogen-removal systems. Commercial potential of anammox is highlighted by removing nitrogen from wastewater at industrial rates. This finding can be of significant importance to farming systems because excess ammonia in modern, industrial type livestock production is a global problem, and the use of conventional biological nitrogen removal methods is usually hindered by operational cost, which can be lowered with the anammox process. Corresponding invention disclosure (U 0103.06) was approved by ARS patent committee.

3) New Environmentally Superior Technology Exempt from Swine Moratorium. This accomplishment aligns with NP 206, Problem Area 2 (Nutrient management), Innovative Technology for Collection, Storage, and Treatment. It also aligns with Objective 1a of the Project Plan, Improve Affordability of ARS-Patented Wastewater Treatment System.

A new system developed and patented by ARS scientists and implemented by private collaborators for treating wastewater from commercial swine-production facilities was determined as unconditional Environmental Superior Technology for new farms which are permitted and constructed for the first time after March 2005, and for expansion of existing swine farms. It is the only on-farm technology exempt from the current moratorium on construction of new swine confined operations imposed by the State of North Carolina since 2000. A bill (HB 2784) has been introduced into the NC Legislature to appropriate $10 million to assist producers in the implementation of the technology on about 100 farms.

4) Second Generation System Design Being Implemented at Full-Scale. This accomplishment aligns with NP 206, Problem Area 2 (Nutrient management), Innovative Technology for Collection, Storage, and Treatment. It also aligns with Objectives 1a and 1b of the Project Plan, Improve Affordability of ARS-Patented Wastewater Treatment System and Develop Improved Methods for Manure Solid-Liquid Separation.

Scientists at ARS Florence Center and industry cooperators completed design of a second generation treatment system for swine waste that can achieve high treatment performance of an Environmentally Superior Technology, yet it is much more economical than earlier versions. The system combines solid-liquid separation, biological ammonia treatment and phosphorus removal and not only produces a deodorized and disinfected liquid effluent, but also turns hog waste into materials for soil amendments, fertilizers and energy production. The second generation system is being retrofitted at full-scale into a 6,000-head finishing swine operation in Sampson County, NC, to replace the existing anaerobic lagoons. This project is consistent with recommendations provided in the Final Report of the Agreement between Attorney General of NC and swine producers Smithfield Foods and Premium Standard Farms. Funding for construction and demonstration of the second generation system was provided by NC Department of Justice through the Smithfield Foods Environmental Enhancement Fund Grant Agreement and collaboration of North Carolina State University. The technology evaluation team includes scientists from ARS laboratories in Florence, SC, Beltsville, MD, and Bowling Green, KY. An ARS invention disclosure (Docket No 124.06) on innovations of the second generation system was submitted to Patent Committee.

5) Reduction of Ammonia Emissions from Swine Lagoons Using Advanced Treatment Technologies. This accomplishment aligns with NP206, Problem Area 2 (Nutrient management), Innovative Technology for Collection, Storage and Treatment and complements Emissions Problem Area 3, Control Technologies and Strategies. It also aligns with Objective 1b, Develop Improved Methods for Manure Solid-Liquid Separation.

Substantial reduction of ammonia emissions from confined swine operations can result when swine lagoons are retrofitted or replaced with advanced technologies. Such is the case of retrofitting anaerobic lagoons with solid-liquid separation or replacing the lagoon using the recently approved environmentally superior technology (EST), both developed by ARS and industry cooperators. Ammonia emissions results indicated that in a lagoon with prior solid-liquid separation, total annual ammonia emissions were reduced by 73% with respect to those of the traditional anaerobic lagoon. In the replaced lagoon with EST, the remarkable water quality improvements such as lower N concentrations substantially reduced annual ammonia emissions by 90% with respect to those found in the traditional anaerobic lagoon. These results overall demonstrate that alternative new wastewater technologies can substantially reduce ammonia emissions from confined swine production.

6) Destruction of Hormones Using a Green Oxidant. This accomplishment aligns with NP206, Pathogens and Pharmaceutically Active Compounds (PACs) Problem Area 4, Holistic Treatment Technologies for Nutrients, Pathogens and PACS. It also aligns with Objective 1g, Destroy/Reduce PACs and EDs with green oxidant.

Hormones in wastewater effluent are an emerging problem for both agriculture and municipalities. The destruction of hormones in wastewater was investigated using new green catalyst TAML Activators. TAML is short for iron tetra-amido macrocyclic ligand invented by a Carnegie Mellon University scientist. The destruction analyses conducted in cooperation with USDA-ARS, Fargo, ND, indicated that TAML activators were very affective in destroying hormones.

7) Riparian Buffers with High C/N Ratio Promote Complete Denitrification. This accomplishment aligns with NP206, Emissions Problem Area 1, Understanding the Biological, Chemical, and Physical Mechanisms Affecting Emissions, and Area 3, Control Technologies and Strategies. It also aligns with Objective 3a, Determine Factors that Promote Completeness of Denitrification in Riparian Buffers.

Riparian wetland buffers are one of the most common and important natural resources conservation practices used in the USA and worldwide. They are particularly effective in reducing non-point source nitrogen pollution by denitrification. The denitrification levels were measured in different landscape position of a livestock-manure-impacted watershed. Measurements were made of the potential nitrogen removal along with the potential nitrous oxide (a greenhouse gas) production during denitrification. Most of the sites had very little or no production of nitrous oxide. The nitrous oxide highly related to the soil carbon to nitrogen ratio. If the C/N ratio was greater than 25, nitrous oxide production was essentially zero. This research demonstrates the valuable contribution of wetland buffers to recycling of excess N from manure land application without generating green house gas emissions.

8) Water Treatment Residuals May Help Reduce Off-site Phosphorus Movement. This accomplishment aligns with NP206 Byproduct Problem Area 1, Phytoavailability and Bioavailability of Nutrients, Trace Elements and Xenobiotics in Byproducts Considered for Beneficial Use, and Problem Area 2, Develop Protocols and Methodology Standards for Byproduct Application to Land.

Each year in the US, millions of tons of agricultural and municipal byproducts are generated that frequently are disposed of in land fills. Due to limited landfill space and increasing disposal fees, alternative uses for byproducts are needed to promote both sustainable agriculture and municipal treatment of drinking water. The purpose of the research is to developing procedures and methodology standards for the effective use of water treatment residuals (WTR) as soil amendments. This research demonstrated that WTR amendments were very effective at reducing soil phosphorus concentrations as well as increasing the P sorption capacity of sandy soils that were overloaded with manure phosphorus. Additionally, research using standard EPA methods showed that WTRs did not contain trace metal contaminant levels toxic for the environment. Therefore, land application of WTRs has the potential of being used as a chemical-based best management practice to reduce the environmental impact of excess phosphorus due to long-term application of manure.


6.What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end-user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products?
Submitted complete documentation to ARS-OTT for patent filing of invention of Process for Removing Phosphorus from Animal Waste, Docket No. 0015.03.

Submitted invention disclosure Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation for High-Ammonia Wastewater Treatment to ARS-OTT, Docket No.: U 0103.06.

Submitted invention disclosure Wastewater Treatment System with Simultaneous Separation of Phosphorus and Manure Solids (2nd generation) to ARS-OTT, Docket No.: U 0124.06.

Cooperated with Super Soil Systems USA and Prestage Farms with design, implementation, and demonstration of a second generation manure treatment system.

Cooperated with Carlos A. Vives of AgroSuper, largest swine producer in Chile, on GHG emission reduction methodology for manure treatment systems that use aerobic processes.

Cooperated with Dr. Airton Kunz, scientist from EMBRAPA Swine and Poultry, Brazil, on development of advanced treatment technologies and its carbon credit implementation. Prepared script for a Virtual Tour on New Treatment Technology. A video was produced by Waste Management Programs, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, NC State University and shown at Animal Waste Management Symposium Oct. 5-7, 2005, Raleigh, NC.

Toured field treatment research with Chilean delegation from government and industry interested in cleaner treatment systems, Nov. 5, 2006.

ARS Florence hosted its annual Customer/Partner Dialogue Workshop on Nov. 16, 2005. Research results on manure management and byproduct utilization program were discussed with producers, extension education practitioners, industry and action agency representatives, and scientists.

Development of Environmentally Superior Technologies-Phase 3 Report for Technology Determinations per Agreements between NC Attorney & Smithfield Foods, Premium Standard Farms, and Frontline Farmers, March 8, 2006. The system developed and patented by ARS scientists and implemented by private collaborators for treating wastewater from commercial swine-production facilities was determined as unconditional Environmental Superior Technology for new farms that are permitted and constructed for the first time after the date of this report. It is the only on-farm technology exempt from the current moratorium on construction of new swine confined operations imposed by the State of North Carolina. http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/waste_mgt/smithfield_projects/phase3report06/pdfs/report%20summary.pdf

Discussed future bioenergy research and development with Smithfield Foods representatives (Doug Anderson, VP-Rendering) and Dr. Prince Dugba (Senior Environmental Engineer), Mar. 28, 2006.

At the request of Ryke Longest, Assistant Attorney General Environmental Division, NC Department of Justice, we sent scientific comments to the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) Staff Working Group to consider expanding the type of technologies that can qualify for the award of CO2 emissions offset allowances, under Section XX-10.5 CO2 Emissions Offset Project standards, Subdivision (e) Avoided methane emissions from agricultural manure management operations of the Public Review Model Rule Draft 03.23/06 (http://www.rggi.org/) so as to include projects that reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions using aerobic treatment systems.

Discussed greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon credits program from implementation of ARS developed manure treatment system in swine farms with Dr. Tim Profeta, Director and Associate Dean of Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, Duke University, Durham, NC, and drafter of The Climate Stewardship and Innovation Act (S. 1151) co-sponsored by Senators Lieberman-McCain, May 24, 2006.

As a result of Phase 3 Report Technology Determination, Representative Carolyn Justice, Pender Co., NC, sponsored House Bill 2784-General Assembly of North Carolina Session 2005 (May 30, 2006) to appropriate state funds ($10 million) for a cost-share program to implement ARS-developed animal waste management system that replaces systems that employ anaerobic lagoons.

Discussed with Dr. Joe Rudek, Senior Scientist, Environmental Defense, on voluntary farmer adoption programs of Envionmentally Superior Technologies and implementation of cap-and-trade program in NC to help with the adoption process, June 7, 2006.

Discussed development of Environmental Superior Technology with Mr. Bill Hall, Product Steward Specialist, Mosaic Fertilizer LLC, June 28, 2006.

Assisted Super Soil Systems USA with presentation delivered to the North Carolina House Committee on Agriculture about advantages of using ARS treatment system in North Carolina, June 28, 2006.

In addition to these listings, research information on manure management and byproduct utilization program at ARS-Florence was made available to the general public on the new Research Center home page at http://www.florence.ars.usda.gov.


7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below).
1) A Divider, Not a Uniter: Scientists Find a Slick Way to Separate Solids in Swine Effluent, Leading to Economical Treatment at Large Farms, article in Onsite Water Treatment magazine, October 2005.

2) Con i lagoni blu i reflui si gesticono meglio, Italian article in Suinocoltura magazine (Italy), November 2005.

3) Score One for Anammox, article in Science Update-ARS Agricultural Research magazine, February 2006.

4) Waste Treatment Plant Reduces Malodors from Hog Farm, article in CSA News, March 2006.

5) Unity Prevails Against Lagoons-Up to 100 Hog Farms May Test Systems, article in The Fayetteville Observer, March 9, 2006.

6) Pits Stopped, article in The News & Observer, Raleigh, NC, March 13, 2006.

7) Hog Waste Trials Funded, article in The News & Observer, June 29, 2006.

8) "Green Catalyst Takes on Hormones in Wastewater, news release by ARS Information Staff, June 29, 2006. http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2006/060629.htm.

9) This Little Piggy Went to Market: NC Eyes Hog Waste as Commodity, article by the Associated Press on StarNewsOnline.com, Wilmington, NC, July 7, 2006.

10) Clean Waters and Agriculture. We Can Have it Both Ways!, ARS Agricultural Research magazine, August 2006.

Presentations to organizations:

Presentations (3) at the Animal Waste Management Symposium, Oct. 5-7, Raleigh, NC.

Presentation at the Water Environment Federation Annual Technical Exhibit and Conference, Oct. 29-Nov. 2, 2005, Washington, DC.

Presentation at the American Institute of Chemical Engineers Annual Meeting., Oct. 30-Nov. 4, 2005, Cincinnati, OH.

Presentation at the American Society of Agronomy Annual Meeting, Nov. 6-10, Salt Lake City, UT.

Poster display at the Annual Soil and Water Conservation Districts Association Meetings of North and South Carolina, Jan. 2006.

Presentation at Multistate Manure Research Project S-1000 Meeting, Beltsville, MD. Feb. 28-Mar.2, 2006.

Presentation at ARS International Foreign Agricultural Seminar, Beltsville, MD, Mar. 6, 2006.

Presentations (2) at the ESA Workshop on Agricultural Air Quality: State of the Science, Potomac, MD, June 5-8,.

Presentation at the OECD International Workshop on Soils and Waste Management: A Challenge to Climate Change, Gorizia, Italy, June 15-17, 2006.

Presentations (2) at the ASABE Annual Meeting, Portland, Oregon. July 9-12, 2006.

Poster presentation at the 18th World Congress of Soil Science International Meeting, Philadelphia, PA. July 9-15, 2006.

Energy from Livestock Waste presentation at Soil and Water Conservation Society Meeting, Keystone, CO, July 23, 2006.

Presentations (3) at the FAO-RAMIRAN Meeting, Aarhus, Denmark, Sept. 11-13, 2006.


Review Publications
Hunt, P.G., Poach, M.E., Matheny, T.A., Reddy, G.B., Stone, K.C. 2006. Denitrification in marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater at different loading rates. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 70:487-493.

Loughrin, J.H., Szogi, A.A. Free fatty acids and sterols in swine manure. Journal of Environmental Science and Health part B, 41:31-42, 2006

Loughrin, J.H., Szogi, A.A., Vanotti, M.B. Reduction of malodorous compounds from a treated swine anaerobic lagoon. Journal of Environmental Quality. 35:194-199.

Novak, J.M., Watts, D.W. 2005. An alum-based water treatment residual can reduce extractable phosphorus concentrations in three phosphorus-enriched Coastal Plain soils. Journal of Environmental Quality. 34:1820-1827.

Novak, J.M., Watts, D.W. 2005. Water treatment residuals aggregate size influences phosphorus sorption kinetics and Pmax values. Soil Science. 170(6):425-432.

Sistani, K.R., Novak, J.M. 2006. Trace metal accumulation, movement, and remmediation in soils receiving animal manure. Book Chapter. Trace Elements in the Environment (Biogeochemistry, Biotechnology, and Bioremdiation) 33:689-706

Szogi, A.A., Vanotti, M.B., Hunt, P.G. 2005. Dewatering of phosphorus extracted from liquid swine waste. Bioresource Technology 97:183-190.

Szogi, A.A., Vanotti, M.B., Stansbery, A.E. 2006. Reduction of ammonia emissions from treated anaerobic swine lagoons. Transactions of the ASABE. 49(1):217-225.

Chaney, R.L., Sikora, L.J., Davis, A.P., Kim, H., Codling, E.E., Novak, J.M., Tyler, R. 2005. Making composts with lower water-soluble p and higher nutrient density. Proceedings of the US Composting Council Annual Meeting. p. 1-15.

Loughrin, J.H., Szogi, A.A., Vanotti, M.B. Evaluation of an advanced waste treatment system for reduction of malodorous compounds from swine waste . Mississippi Water Resources Research Conference Proceedings. 4/26-4/27/2005

Millner, P.D., Vanotti, M.B., Ingram, D.T., Ellison, A.Q., Hunt, S.W., Szogi, A.A. 2005. Microbial disinfection during multistage treatment of swine manure. American Society for Microbiology Meeting, June 5-9, 2005, Atlanta, GA.

Ro, K.S., Hunt, P.G., Poach, M.E. 2005. Wind-driven surficial oxygen transfer into lagoons and implications on dinitrogen emission. Proceedings of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Annual Meeting, October 30-November 4, 2005, Cincinnati, Ohio. 5 p. CDROM.

Ro, K.S., Hunt, P.G., Poach, M.E. 2005. Surficial oxygen transfer into treatment lagoons and potential N pathways resulting in dinitrogen gas emission. International Conference on Greenhouse Gasses and Animal Agriculture, September 20-24, 2005, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 282-285.

Szogi, A.A., Vanotti, M.B. 2005. Removal of phosphorus from animal manures experiences of the USDA - Agricultural Research Service. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Technologies to Remove Nutrients from Animal Waste, August 25, 2005, Florianopolis - Santa Catarina, Brazil. p. 26-33.

Szogi, A.A., Vanotti, M.B. 2006. Reduction of ammonia emissions from swine lagoons using alternative wastewater treatment technologies. In: Workshop on Agricultural Air Quality Proceedings, June 5-8, 2006, Washington, DC. p. 1155-1160.

Szogi, A.A., Vanotti, M.B., Stansbery, A.E. 2005. Reduction of ammonia emissions from treated anaerobic swine lagoons. Animal Waste Management Symmposium, October 5-7, Raleigh, North Carolina. p. 210-218. CDROM

Vanotti, M.B., Fetterman, L., Szogi, A.A., Hunt, P.G., Ellison, A.Q., Millner, P.D., Humenik, F. 2005. Supersoil System: Environmentally friendly use of hog waste (virtual tour). Virtual Tour from Animal Waste Management Symposium, October 5-7, 2005, Raleigh, North Carolina. CDROM

Vanotti, M.B., Szogi, A.A. 2005. Advanced technologies for removal of nitrogen from animal manure - Experiences of the USDA Agricultural Research Service. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Technologies to Remove Nutrients from Animal Waste, August 25, 2005, Florianopolis-Santa Catarina, Brazil. p. 17-25.

Vanotti, M.B., Szogi, A.A., Hunt, P.G., Ellison, A.Q., Millner, P.D., Humenik, F.J. 2005. Development of an environmentally superior treatment system for replacing anaerobic swine waste lagoons. In: Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC), October 29 - November 2, 2005, Washington, DC. p. 4073-4092. CDROM.

Vanotti, M.B., Szogi, A.A., Hunt, P.G., Millner, P.D., Humenik, F., Ellison, A.Q. 2005. The Super Soil Project: Lessons learned. Animal Waste Management Symposium, October 5-7, Raleigh, North Carolina. p. 103-114. CDROM.

Vanotti, M.B., Szogi, A.A., Vives, C.A. 2006. Greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon credits from implementation of aerobic manure treatment systems in swine farms. Proceedings of the Workshop on Agricultural Air Quality: State of the Science, June 5-8, 2006, Washington, DC. p. 1178-1185.

Ro, K.S., Hunt, P.G., Poach, M.E. 2005. Wind-driven surficial oxygen transfer into lagoons and implications on dinitrogen emission [abstract]. American Institute of Chemical Engineers Annual Meeting. CDROM

Szogi, A.A., Hunt, P.G. 2005. Soluble phosphorus distribution in the water-soil interface of a constructed wetland treating livestock lagoon wastewater. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting Abstracts [abstract]. CDROM.

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