2009 Annual Report
To address our goal of characterizing natural enemies which function as biological controls of pests, we have: (1) demonstrated how laboratory studies on predator digestive rate can be used to correctly determine the relative role of different predators in controlling a pest based on analysis of prey molecular marker remains in their stomachs; (2) documented pest and natural enemy response to cover crop treatments, as well as intraguild predation (consumption of predators by other predators), and (3) used discoveries of plant defense mechanisms to devise methods of transforming plants with inducible plant defenses, which are activated only when attacked by pests. Scientists determined important factors affecting measurement of predation by quantitative PCR for the key predator Coleomegilla maculata, and are expanding this work to include other foods such as pollen, aphids, and yeast, to gain insight into omnivory, which is often important for generalist predators. Molecular methods for identifying predators and quantifying predation have been improved greatly by IIBBL contributions. Regarding crop hosts and resistance, researchers at IIBBL have cloned the regulatory region of an infestation-induced gene from poplar and transformed Arabidopsis with this transgene, with the result that the marker gene was expressed upon infestation.
Harwood, J.D., Desneux, N., Yoo, H.S., Rowley, D.L., Greenstone, M.H., Obrycki, J.J., O'Neil, R.J. 2007. Tracking the role of alternative prey in soybean aphid predation by prius insidiosus: a molecular approach. Molecular Ecology. 16:4390-4400.
Harwood, J.D., Yoo, H., Greenstone, M.H., Rowley, D.L., O'Neil, R.J. 2008. Differential impact of adults and nymphs of a generalist predator on an exotic invasive pest demonstrated by molecular gut-content analysis. Biological Invasions. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10530-008-9302-6.
Lawrence, S.D., Novak, N.G., Ju, C., Cooke, J. 2008. Examining the molecular interaction between potato (solanum tuberosum) and colorado potato beetle leptinotarsa decemlineata. Botany. 86:1080-1091. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/B08-074.
Lawrence, S., Novak, N., Ju, C., Cooke, J. 2008. Potato, Solanum Tuberosum, defense against Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say): Microarray gene expression profiling of potato by Colorado potato beetle regurgitant treatment of wounded leaves. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 34(8)1013-1025. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10886-008-9507-2.
Weber, D.C., Chaboo, C.S., Saska, P. 2008. Carabid beetles as parasitoids. Encyclopedia of Entomology. 2:35-37.
Weber, D.C. 2008. Colorado potato beetle. Encyclopedia of Entomology. 2:324-328.
Chauhan, K.R., Weber, D.C. 2008. Lady beetle (coleoptera: coccinellidae) tracks deter oviposition by the goldeneyed lacewing, chrysopa oculata. Biocontrol Science and Technology. 18(7):727-731
Toepfer, S., Haye, T., Erlandson, M., Goettel, M., Lundgren, J.G., Kleespis, R.G., Weber, D.C., Cabrera-Walsh, G., Jackson, J.J., Peters, A., Vidal, S., Strasser, H., Ehlers, R.V., Moore, D., Keller, S., Kuhlmann, V. 2009. A Review of the Natural Enemies of Beetles in the Subtribe Diabroticina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): Implications for Sustainable Pest Management. Biocontrol Science and Technology. 19(1): 1-65.
Szendrei, Z., Weber, D. 2009. Response of predators to habitat manipulation in potato fields. Biological Control. 50(2):123-128. Available www.sciencedirect.com/science?.
Weber, D., and Lundgren, J. 2009. Assessing the trophic ecology of the coccinellidae: their roles as predators and as prey. Biological Control. 51: 199-214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2009.05.013.
Biddinger, D.J., Weber, D.C. Weber, and Hull, L.A. 2009. Coccinellidae as predators of mites: Stethorini in biological control. Biological Control. 51: 268-283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2009.05.014.
Harwood, J.D., Greenstone, M.H. 2008. Molecular diagnosis of natural enemy-host interactions. In: Lie, I.N., editor. Recent Advances in Insect Physiology, Toxicology and Molecular Biology. Kerala, India. Research Signpost. p. 41-57.
Weber,D.C., and Lundgren, J.G., 2009. Detection of predation using qPCR: effect of prey quantity, elapsed time, chaser diet, and sample preservation on detectable quantity of prey DNA. Journal of Insect Science. 9(41). Available http://www.insectscience.org/9.41.