ASSESSING NUTRIENT LOSSES, EMISSIONS, AND PATHOGEN TRANSPORT FROM MANURE APPLICATION AND ANIMAL PRODUCTION SITES IN THE WESTERN U.S.
Location: Northwest Irrigation and Soils Research
Project Number: 5368-12630-002-00
Start Date: Jun 03, 2005
End Date: Jun 02, 2010
1. Evaluate open-path Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy for identifying and quantifying ammonia, nitrous oxide, and methane emissions from animal waste application sites.
2. Determine the influence of manure characteristics on nutrient cycling and potential off-site losses.
3. Characterize soil physical property alterations and microbial community shifts in soils receiving manure treatments using molecular techniques to detect the presence of pathogens on or in soil, soil water, runoff, and vegetables.
Objective 1: Open path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) will be used to determine concentrations of ammonia, methane and nitrous oxide gaseous emissions during and following manure applications at several locations throughout Southern Idaho. Air speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, barometric pressure, and soil temperature will be measured via a portable weather station. Air particulates, PM2.5 and PM10, will be sampled up-stream and down-stream at each land application site. Average gas emission concentrations as affected by material and application method will be compared.
Objective 2. Methods will be developed for extraction and characterization of phosphorus in animal manures using phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We will characterize manures from swine, poultry, and trout fed varying low phytate grain diets aimed at increasing utilization of feed nutrients. This characterization will identify the quantity and composition of nutrients in the manures and how they are affected by altering animal diets, primarily focusing on phosphorus. Manure from a variety of sources will be collected and characterized and then utilized in incubation and growth chamber studies to determine the manure characteristics having the greatest influence on plant phosphorus availability and phosphorus solubility in soils.
Nutrient concentrations in percolation water collected from field plots treated with nitrogen fertilizer, manure, and no fertilizer or manure will be compared to samples of shallow groundwater underlying the local irrigation district. Nitrate-N, ammonium-N, Cl, dissolved P, Total-P, and dissolved organic carbon will be analyzed. The nitrate nitrogen-15 and Oxygen-18 fractionation will be obtained for a subset of water samples using the microbial denitrifier method. This data will be used to determine the impact of using manure and fertilizer on nutrient losses from furrow irrigated fields.
Objective 3: We will characterize soil physical property alterations and microbial community shifts in soils receiving manure treatments using molecular techniques to detect the presence of pathogens on or in soil, soil water, runoff and vegetables. Treatments will be: 1) solid dairy waste incorporated into soil, 2) composted solid dairy waste incorporated into soil, 3) inorganic fertilizer and 4) control (no amendment). Active bacterial biomass, microbial diversity and Escherichia coli and Enterococcus sp in soils and water in each treatment will be determined at 0-30 cm soil and in 100 cm deep soil water at -1, 1, 7, 14, 28, 174 and 216 days after application of waste. Soil and water samples will be split into four separate parts and samples for the three above mentioned bacteria. The fourth sample will be frozen at -80 degrees C until DNA can be extracted and soil microbial communities and the presence of specific pathogens be determined using molecular methods. This work will contribute towards developing a set of validated methods for determining soil microbial communities in relation to pathogen survival. (Replacing 5368-12630-001-00D, 5/05.)