2008 Annual Report
The seasonal population dynamics of the invasive cactus moth (Cactoblastis cactorum) were further charterized. Populations of this insect were monitored weekly at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, FL, and adult flight was monitored along a latitudinal gradient from South Florida to southern coastal South Carolina. Eggs and larvae were monitored by inspection of native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta), and adult males were monitored with synthetic pheromone-baited traps. Results indicate that the cactus moth undergoes 3 distinct generations per year throughout its adventive range in the southeastern U.S. In the north Florida area, a spring-summer generation starts with adult flight in late March and larval pupation in June; a fall generation occurs from July through September; and a winter generation occurs from October into March. To determine if insect development and size varies by generation, cactus moth eggs were placed on cactus pads in field cages. The summer and fall generations developed at similar rates, but the winter generation developed more slowly. However, adult sizes in all generations were similar. Knowledge of cactus moth seasonality will help target management efforts against this pest. This research supports National Program 304 Crop Protection and Quarantine, Component III Plant, Pest, and Natural Enemy Interactions and Ecology, Problem Statement B Population Studies/Ecology.
5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
Cooperative research with the Florida A&M University Center for Biological Control (an 1890 land grant school) has provided training opportunities for six minority undergraduate and two minority graduate students in the past year.
Legaspi, J.C., Legaspi, B.C. 2007. Bioclimatic model of the spined soldier bug (Heteroptera:Pentatomidae) using CLIMEX: testing model predictions at two spatial scales. Journal of Entomological Science. 42:(4):533-547.
Legaspi, J.C., Legaspi,Jr, B.C. 2008. Ovigeny in selected generalist predators. Florida Entomologist. 91(1):133-135.
Mclean, S.C., Bloem, K.A., Bloem, S., Hight, S.D., Carpenter, J.E. 2007. Mating frequency of the male cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae), under laboratory conditions. Florida Entomologist. 90(4):751-752.
Paini, D.R., Funderburk, J.E., Reitz, S.R. 2008. Competitive exclusion of a worldwide invasive pest by a native. Quantifying competition between two phytophagous insects on two host plant species. Journal of Animal Ecology. 77:184-190. DOI: 10.1111/J.1365-2656.2007.01324X.
Reitz, S.R. 2008. Comparative bionomics of Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella tritici. Florida Entomologist. 91:474-476
Sarvary, M.A., Bloem, K.A., Bloem, S., Carpenter, J.E., Hight, S.D., Dorn, S. 2008. Diet flight pattern and flight performance of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptea: Pyralidae) measured on a flight mill: Influence of age, gender, mating status, and body size. J. Econ. Entomol. 101(2):314-324.
Simmons, A.M., Legaspi, J.C., Legaspi, B. C. 2008. Responses of Delphastus catalinae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a Predator of Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), to Relative Humidity: Oviposition, Hatch and Immature Survival. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 101:378-383.
Simmons, A.M., Legaspi, J.C. 2007. Ability of Delphastus Catalinae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a Predator of Whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), to Survive Mild Winters. Journal of Entomological Science. 42:163-173.
Legaspi, J.C., Legaspi,Jr, B.C., Simmons, A.M. 2008. Life table analysis for immatures and female adults of the predatory beetle,Delphastus catalinae,feeding on whiteflies under three constant temperatures. Journal of Insect Science. 8(7). Available online:insectscience.org.
Paini, D.R., Funderburk, J.E., Jackson, C.T., Reitz, S.R. 2008. Reproduction of four thrips species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on uncultivated hosts. Journal of Entomological Science. 42:610:615.
Reitz, S.R., Maiorino, G., Olson, S., Sprenkel, R., Crescenzi, A., Momol, M. 2008. Integrating plant essential oils and kaolin for the sustainable management of thrips and tomato spotted wilt on tomato. Plant Disease. 92:878-886.
Reitz, S.R. 2007. Invasion of the Whiteflies. Science. 318:1733-1734.
Northfield, T.D., Paini, D.R., Funderburk, J.E., Reitz, S.R. 2008. Annual cycles of Frankliniella spp. thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) abundance on North Florida uncultivated reproductive hosts: Predicting possible sources of pest outbreaks. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 101:769-778.
Bloem, K., Bloem, S., Carpenter, J., Hight, S., Floyd, J., Zimmerman, H. 2007. Don't let cacto blast us: Development of a bi-national plan to stop the spread of the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum in North America. In: Vreysen, M.J.B., Robinson, A.S., Hendrichs. J., editors. Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests from Research to Field Implementation. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. p. 337-344.