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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

2007 Annual Report

1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
1) Determine the factors that affect P chemistry and transport in soil, water and manure..
2)Determine the long-term impacts of manure management strategies at animal production operations, manure storage areas and pasture application sites on soil, water and air resources..
3)Develop and evaluate management practices and decision tools to limit nutrient (N and P), pathogen and pharmaceutically active compound pollution of surface waters. 3a) Determine the factors that influence surface runoff within watersheds..
4)Determine ammonia emission rates from manure at animal production operations, manure storage areas and pasture application sites; develop management practices and control technologies to reduce ammonia losses..
5)Determine the sources and occurrence of nutrients, organic wastewater compounds, pathogens and antibiotic residuals at the watershed scale.

1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Both long-term and short-term studies will be conducted. A long-term study (13 years) will be conducted on the impacts of various pasture management strategies (over grazing, rotational grazing, haying, etc.) on pasture hydrology and nutrient runoff. The results of this study will be utilized to revise the Arkansas Phosphorus (P) Index. Another long-term study (20 years) is being conducted on the effect of alum-treated poultry litter, normal poultry litter and ammonium nitrate on soil chemical characteristics, forage yields, P runoff and P leaching. Experiments will also be conducted on the effect of pasture renovation and litter incorporation on nutrient runoff and ammonia (NH3) emissions. Ammonia emission factors will also be measured from commercial broiler houses and on land following manure application. Research in streams and rivers will be conducted to determine how nutrient enrichment in the sediments effects P uptake and release from the water. Research will also be conducted on the amounts and sources of nutrients, organic wastewater compounds and antibiotic residuals in streams. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop cost-effective best management practices (BMPs) for poultry manure management which improve air and water quality.

Discovered phosphorus runoff from biosolids could be reduced using water treatment residuals: Phosphorus runoff from biosolids (sewage sludge) negatively impacts water quality. As a result, over half of the biosolids produced in the U.S. are burned or placed in landfills. Scientists from the Poultry Production and Product Safety Research Unit in Fayetteville, AR, developed and tested a new best management practice that helps eliminate this problem. Research demonstrates that when water treatment residuals (WTRs), such as alum sludge, are added to biosolids it results in significantly lower phosphorus runoff, creating an environmentally friendly fertilizer. Initial calculations indicate that there are enough WTRs to treat all of the biosolids produced in the U.S. Hence, this technology could change the way biosolids are handled in this country and could potential save taxpayers several hundred million dollars per year in landfill fees. (NP206; Nutrient management component, problem area 2 – Innovative technology for collection, storage and treatment).

6.Technology Transfer

Number of invention disclosures submitted2
Number of patent applications filed1
Number of U.S. patents granted1
Number of non-peer reviewed presentations and proceedings8
Number of newspaper articles and other presentations for non-science audiences7

Review Publications
Moore Jr, P.A., Edwards, D.R. 2007. Long-term effects of poultry litter, alum-treated litter and ammonium nitrate on phosphorus availability in soils. Journal of Environmental Quality. 36:163-174.

Vadas, P.A., Gburek, W., Sharpley, A.N., Kleinman, P.J., Moore Jr, P.A., Cabrera, M.L., Harmel, R.D. 2007. A model for phosphorus transformation and runoff loss for surface-applied manures. Journal of Environmental Quality. 36:324-332.

Osmond, D., Cabrera, M., Feagley, S., Hardee, G., Mitchell, C., Moore Jr, P.A., Mylavarapu, R., Oldham, J., Thom, W., Walker, F., Zhang, H. 2006. Comparing southern phosphorus indices. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation Society. 61:325-337.

Kleinman, P.J., Sullivan, D., Wolf, A., Brandt, R., Dou, Z., Elliott, H., Kovar, J.L., Leytem, A.B., Maguire, R., Moore Jr, P.A., Sharpley, A.N., Shober, A., Sims, T., Toth, J., Toor, G., Zhang, H., Zhang, T., Saporito, L.S. 2007. Selection of a Water-Extractable Phosphorus Test for Manures and Biosolids as an Indicator of Runoff Loss Potential. Journal of Environmental Quality. 36(5):1357-1367.

Baum, K., Pierzynski, G., Kleinman, P.J., Kovar, J.L., Maguire, R., Moore Jr, P.A., Zhang, T. 2006. Evaluating the influence of storage time, sample handling method, and filter paper on the measurement of water extractable phosphorus in animal manures. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 37:451-463.

Haggard, B.E., Galloway, J.M., Green, W.R., Meyer, M.T. 2006. Pharmaceuticals and other organic chemicals in selected North–Central and Northwestern Arkansas streams. Journal of Environmental Quality. 35:1078-1087.

Toor, G.S., Haggard, B.E., Reiter, M.S., Daniel, T.C., Donoghue, A.M. 2007. Phosphorus solubility in poultry litters and granulates: Influence of litter treatments and extraction ratios. Transactions of the ASABE. 50(2):533-542.

Smith, D.R., Warnemuende, E.A., Haggard, B.E., Huang, C. 2006. Dredging of drainage ditches increases short-term of soluble phosphorus. Journal of Environmental Quality. 35:611-616.

Harmel, R.D., King, K.W., Haggard, B.E., Wren, D.G., Sheridan, J.M. 2006. Practical guidance for discharge and water quality data collection on small watersheds. Transactions of the ASABE. 49(4):937-948.

Last Modified: 3/6/2015
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