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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Related Topics

Research Project: ECOLOGY, SAMPLING, AND MODELING OF INSECT PESTS OF STORED GRAIN, PROCESSING FACILITIES, AND WAREHOUSES

Location: Stored Product Insect Research Unit

2006 Annual Report


1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? Why does it matter?
Insects reduce the quality of stored grain and other stored products in the U.S. and in the world. Over 12 billion bushels of corn and wheat are grown in the U.S. each year, with a value of over 25 billion dollars. In addition, over a billion bushels of barley, oats, rice, rye, and sorghum are grown in the U.S. each year, with a value of over 3 billion dollars. It is estimated that postharvest losses to raw grains due to insects are 5 to 10%, or about 1.4 to 2.8 billion dollars. Losses to processed commodities are difficult to quantify, but probably greatly exceed the losses to raw commodities. Many of the insecticides used by the cereal foods industry are being lost due to insecticide resistance or regulatory changes. Thus, alternative, economically viable methods for controlling these insects and reducing losses to raw and processed commodities are required. Our goal is to improve integrated pest management (IPM) of stored-product insects through development of better monitoring methods and use of computer models to optimize control strategies.

The proposed research falls under National Program 304, Crop Protection and Quarantine, and also is relevant to National Program 308, Methyl Bromide Alternatives [Component, Postharvest Commodity Treatment (Including Structural)]. Relevant components and goals from National Program 304 are:

Component 4: Postharvest, Pest Exclusion, and Quarantine Treatment (Stored Product Insects): 4E. Biology and Ecology of Stored-Product Insect Pests. Improve understanding of the abiotic factors that govern stored-product insect population dynamics. Determine pest status of insect species, particularly emerging pests. Determine how nutritional factors and commodity quality can affect stored product pest population dynamics and pest management decisions. 4F. Detection and Monitoring of Stored-Product Insect Pests. Develop improved sampling methods for insects in static and moving bulk commodities. Improve and optimize pheromone/food traps for monitoring stored product pest insect populations. Improve methods for interpreting trap catches to aid in making stored product pest management decisions. 4H. Development of Integrated Pest Management Programs for Stored Products. Determine sampling-based action thresholds for stored-product insect pests. Determine interaction of control technologies and optimize their combined use. Develop user-friendly tools to aid storage managers in making pest control decisions.

Attaining these objectives will provide benefits to managers of grain storage and grain processing facilities, food warehouses, and retail stores and to consumers by optimizing monitoring and management strategies for stored-product insect pests. Pest resurgence after control treatments is a major problem for the grain processing industries, and this research will improve our understanding of that problem. The research will determine the importance of emerging pests, such as psocids which are small, soft-bodied insects, sometimes called booklice.

Anticipated products are improved insect monitoring and sampling technologies, improved interpretation methods for sampling and monitoring systems, new computer simulation models that can be used to optimize monitoring and management strategies in grain storage and processing facilities, strategies for avoiding pest resurgence after control treatments are applied, and new information regarding the prevalence and environmental conditions that cause outbreaks of emerging pests, such as psocids.

Potential users of the knowledge developed during this project will be farmers; managers of grain storage and grain processing facilities, warehouses, and retail stores; pest control operators; manufacturers of storage-monitoring equipment; consumers; extension agents; and scientists. Input from these customers will be made through participation in a variety of technical and non-technical meetings. Unit members meet regularly with the Food Protection Committee of the Association of Operative Millers to transfer research results and determine research needs; this committee consists of about 25 members who are responsible for pest and quality control for most of the major U.S. milling companies.


2.List by year the currently approved milestones (indicators of research progress)
Year 2 (FY 2006) Analyze data from study to determine the relationship between grain infestation level and flour fragment counts.

Evaluate digital X-ray analysis equipment for detecting internal-feeding insects in grain.

Analyze red flour beetle tracking data to improve pheromone trap monitoring programs.

Continue red flour beetle behavior in spillage patches experiments to improve pheromone trap monitoring programs.

Conduct red flour beetle response to traps in experimental boxes to improve pheromone trap monitoring programs.

Analyze pilot-scale warehouse data for red flour beetle to optimize the accuracy of pheromone traps to locate infestations.

Continue red flour beetle collection, DNA extraction, PCR with microsatellite primers, for study on insect population genetics.

Continue monitoring studies at food facilities to determine how spatial distributions of insect pests change before, during, and after control treatments.

Conduct mark-recapture studies to assess insect dispersal.

Continue monitoring pest population levels and environmental conditions in food facilities to determine how long-term population dynamics of stored product insects influences pest resurgence following treatment.

Continue measuring emigration and spatial variation in treatment efficacy in food facilities to evaluate the potential for insect pests to survive in food residues and to avoid treated areas.

Validate simulation model for the red flour beetle.

Validate model for Indianmeal moth.

Continue to sample farm bins and processing facilities in Kansas and Oklahoma for psocids to investigate the ecology and potential impact of emerging pest species.

Analyze data on optimal methods to sample psocids.

Conduct lab studies on mite or psocid ecology, if needed.

Year 3 (FY 2007) Write paper on results of digital X-ray detection of internal-feeding insects in grain samples.

Analyze red flour beetle behavior in spillage data to improve pheromone trap monitoring programs and write paper on results.

Conduct warehouse beetle tracking experiments to improve pheromone trap monitoring programs.

Analyze red flour beetle response to traps in experimental boxes to improve pheromone trap monitoring programs.

Complete DNA extraction, PCR with microsatellite primers, and analyze data for population genetics study.

Continue monitoring studies at food facilities and initiate analysis of data to determine how spatial distributions of insect pests change before, during, and after control treatments.

Conduct mark-recapture studies to assess insect dispersal.

Initiate DNA extraction and PCR with microsatellite primers on additional red flour beetles collected for study on insect population genetics.

Continue monitoring pest population levels and environmental conditions in food facilities to determine how long-term population dynamics of stored product insects influences pest resurgence following treatment.

Continue measuring emigration and spatial variation in treatment efficacy in food facilities to evaluate the potential for pests to survive in food residues and avoid treated areas.

Conduct experiments on the influence of perimeter treatments on red flour beetle immigration and emigration to determine how long-term population dynamics of stored product insects influences pest resurgence following treatment.

Develop simulation model for warehouse beetle.

Refine how the models simulate the movement of insects within and outside of flour mills, and the effects of control treatments on movement and mortality.

Conduct simulation studies with the models to determine optimal management strategies.

Continue to sample farm bins and processing facilities in Kansas and Oklahoma for mites and psocids to investigate the ecology and potential impact of emerging pest species.

Investigate the relationship between psocid density in grain and subsequent fragment counts in flour.

Year 4 (FY 2008) Write paper on prediction of insect fragments in flour using digital X-ray detection.

Analyze warehouse beetle tracking data and prepare paper to improve pheromone trap monitoring programs.

Conduct warehouse beetle response to traps in experimental boxes to improve pheromone trap monitoring programs.

Prepare recommendations on red flour beetle pheromone trapping and interpretation and report to industry.

Prepare papers on results of population genetics studies of the red flour beetle.

Conduct source identification experiments with red flour beetle to optimize the accuracy of pheromone traps to locate infestations.

Conclude monitoring studies in food facilities to determine how spatial distributions of insect pests change before, during, and after control treatments.

Conclude mark-recapture studies to assess insect dispersal to determine how spatial distributions of insect pests change before, during, and after control treatments.

Complete DNA extraction and PCR with microsatellite primers and analyze data for population genetics study.

Analyze data and write paper on monitoring pest population levels and environmental conditions in food facilities to determine how long-term population dynamics of stored product insects influences pest resurgence following treatment.

Continue measuring emigration and spatial variation in treatment efficacy in food facilities to evaluate the potential for pests to survive in food residues and avoid treated areas.

Analyze data and write paper on the influence of perimeter treatments on red flour beetle immigration and emigration experiments to determine how long-term population dynamics of stored product insects influences pest resurgence following treatment.

Validate the warehouse beetle model.

Collect data to refine the warehouse beetle model.

Continue to refine the models to include other factors.

Adapt the models for warehouse environments.

Conduct simulation studies with the models to determine optimal management strategies.

Analyze data on the relationship between psocid density in grain and subsequent fragment counts in flour.

Write paper on prevalence of psocids in stored wheat and processing facilities, and the conditions favoring their growth to investigate the ecology and potential impact of emerging pest species.

Year 5 (FY 2009) Analyze warehouse beetle response to traps in experimental boxes to improve pheromone trap monitoring programs and prepare paper.

Prepare recommendations on warehouse beetle pheromone trapping and interpretation and report results to industry.

Analyze data from red flour beetle source identification experiments and write manuscript.

Analyze data from monitoring studies in food facilities to determine how spatial distributions of insect pests change before, during, and after control treatments and write paper.

Analyze data and write paper on DNA extraction and PCR with microsatellite primers for population genetics study.

Write manuscript on measuring emigration and spatial variation in treatment efficacy in food facilities to determine how long-term population dynamics of stored product insects influences pest resurgence following treatment.

Collect data to refine the warehouse beetle model.

Continue to refine the models to include other factors.

Write manuscripts on red flour beetle, Indianmeal moth, and warehouse beetle model simulation studies.

Write manuscript on economic impact of psocids in stored wheat and processing facilities.


4a.List the single most significant research accomplishment during FY 2006.
Long-Term Population Trends of Stored-Product Insects at Flour Mills. This accomplishment addresses Component IV "Postharvest, Pest Exclusion, and Quarantine Treatment" of National Program 304 "Crop Protection and Quarantine", and specifically addresses the action plan problem statement "Improve understanding of the abiotic factors that govern stored product insect population dynamics" of subcomponent E "Biology and Ecology of Stored-Product Insect Pests". There is limited data available on the long-term population trends of stored-product insects in food processing facilities or the impact of pest management tactics on pests in the field, but this information is critical for the development of integrated pest management programs. Scientists in the Biological Research Unit monitored several commercial sites, including flour mills, warehouses, and feed mills to evaluate seasonal trends in pest populations inside and outside facilities, pest species diversity, and the impact of treatments such as fumigation with methyl bromide or sulfuryl fluoride, aerosol fogging, or chemical pesticide sprays on population dynamics. This information will be used to help in the development of population models of pests in the field and to evaluate the efficacy of different management tools and ultimately to develop integrated pest management programs for the food industry.


4b.List other significant research accomplishment(s), if any.
Dispersal Ability of the Lesser Grain Borer. This accomplishment addresses Component IV "Postharvest, Pest Exclusion, and Quarantine Treatment" of National Program 304 "Crop Protection and Quarantine", and specifically addresses the action plan problem statement "Improve methods for interpreting trap catches to aid in making stored product pest management decisions" of subcomponent F "Detection and Monitoring of Stored-Product Insect Pests". The lesser grain borer, is one of the most damaging insects pests of stored wheat in the U.S. High immigration rates of this pest in farm bins in Kansas suggests that this movement is important in establishing pest populations in bins. The dispersal ability of these beetles and the potential sources are unknown. Scientists in the Biological Research Unit in collaboration with scientists at Kansas State University studied the dispersal ability of this species in the field using mark-release-recapture. Beetles dispersed an average distance of 380 meters, with a range from 50 meters to 3.6 kilometers, the distance of the furthest traps. Understanding the dispersal distances of a pest can help in the identification of important sources of these important pests and open new targets for pest management. Myosin ELISA Test May Underestimate Levels of Insect Infestation in Grain. This accomplishment addresses Component IV "Postharvest, Pest Exclusion, and Quarantine Treatment" of National Program 304 "Crop Protection and Quarantine", and specifically addresses the action plan problem statement "Develop improved sampling methods for insects in static and moving bulk commodities" of subcomponent F "Detection and Monitoring of Stored-Product Insect Pests". The insect fragment count has been used as a standard procedure in food analysis for many years; however, it requires technical training and is time consuming and relatively expensive. An alternative to the insect fragment count is a commercial immunoassay (ELISA) method that detects the insect muscle protein, myosin; however, there are concerns that myosin may break down over time. Scientists in the Biological Research Unit conducted studies using the ELISA test. Hard Red Winter wheat was infested with larvae of the lesser grain borer and then fumigated to kill the larvae inside the kernels. Infected kernels were then "aged" at 90°F for 0, 14, 28, or 56 days after fumigation. Myosin degradation was most rapid in the first two weeks after the larvae were killed, decreasing 58%. There were no significant differences in myosin levels between samples that were 14, 28, and 56 days old. These results indicate that the myosin ELISA test may underestimate the amount of insect contamination in grain that has been previously fumigated.

Beneficial Insects Control Indianmeal Moth. This accomplishment addresses Component IV "Postharvest, Pest Exclusion, and Quarantine Treatment" of National Program 304 "Crop Protection and Quarantine", and specifically addresses the action plan problem statement "Determine interaction of control technologies and optimize their combined use" of subcomponent H "Development of Integrated Pest Management Programs for Stored Products". The Indianmeal moth is a serious pest of raw and finished stored products and attacks both packaged and bulk commodities as well as spillage. Scientists in the Biological Research Unit in collaboration with scientists at Kansas State University showed that a harmless parasitoid wasp, Trichogramma deion, was very effective in finding and killing Indianmeal moth eggs on shelves in a simulated retail store environment. Trichogramma deion killed more Indianmeal moth eggs on open-type shelving than on gondola-type shelving. The presence of packages on the shelves did not interfere with the wasp locating and killing the Indianmeal moth eggs. Trichogramma goes after the moth eggs before they can develop into adult moths. This could provide a new tool for the retail organic food industry to manage insect pests.

Combination of Two Parasitoid Insects Works Best to Suppress Indianmeal Moth. This accomplishment addresses Component IV "Postharvest, Pest Exclusion, and Quarantine Treatment" of National Program 304 "Crop Protection and Quarantine", and specifically addresses the action plan problem statement "Determine interaction of control technologies and optimize their combined use" of subcomponent H "Development of Integrated Pest Management Programs for Stored Products". The Indianmeal moth is a serious pest of raw and finished stored products and attacks both packaged and bulk commodities as well as spillage. Scientists in the Biological Research Unit in collaboration with scientists at Kansas State University showed that a combination of packaging and two species of parasitic wasps, Trichogramma deion and Habrobracon hebetor, provided good moth suppression. Trichogramma goes after the moth eggs before they can develop into damaging larvae, and Habrobracon finishes the job by killing any larvae that develop from eggs that Trichogramma may have missed. This could provide a new tool for the retail organic food industry to manage insect pests.

Seasonal Distribution of Psocids in Stored Wheat. This accomplishment addresses Component IV "Postharvest, Pest Exclusion, and Quarantine Treatment" of National Program 304 "Crop Protection and Quarantine", and specifically addresses the action plan problem statement "Determine pest status of insect species, particularly emerging pests" of subcomponent E "Biology and Ecology of Stored-Product Insect Pests". Psocids are an emerging problem in grain stored in the U.S. and in grain processing facilities. Scientists in the Biological Research Unit conducted preliminary studies to determine which species of psocids were present in a feed mill, a grain elevator, and in wheat stored in steel bins. We then conducted a more extensive study in steel bins containing wheat to determine temporal and spatial distribution of psocids in the wheat. We also compared several sampling methods for the psocids – cardboard refuges, grain trier samples, and automated sampling using the StorMax Insector system. The predominant psocid species found in all locations was Liposcelis entomophila. In the study on temperospatial distribution, infestation levels before the bins were filled with wheat were low, but some psocids were present in the empty bins. Number of psocids in cardboard refuges on the wheat surface were low immediately after bins were filled in July, peaked in late September, dropped to almost zero in December as temperatures dropped during winter, and then remained at low levels until the study was ended in April. Number of psocids in cardboard refuges was indicative of number of psocids in grain samples. The results indicate that cardboard refuges may provide an efficient method for sampling psocids in bins of wheat, and that psocid populations can increase quickly to high levels during storage even though they are low early in the storage period.

Effects of Environmental Conditions on Development of the Psocid Lepinotus reticulatus. This accomplishment addresses Component IV "Postharvest, Pest Exclusion, and Quarantine Treatment" of National Program 304 "Crop Protection and Quarantine", and specifically addresses the action plan problem statement "Improve understanding of the abiotic factors that govern stored product insect population dynamics" of subcomponent E "Biology and Ecology of Stored-Product Insect Pests". Psocids are an emerging problem in grain stored in the U.S. and in grain processing facilities and environmental conditions play a major role in determining how quickly their populations develop. Scientists in the Biological Research Unit showed that L. reticulatus could not live and reproduce when relative humidity was less than 75%. At 75% relative humidity, population growth was greatest at 30 degrees C., and dropped to almost zero at 35 degrees C. These results indicate that it should be possible to effectively manage L. reticulatus populations using heat disinfestations with temperatures slightly above 35°C.


4c.List significant activities that support special target populations.
None.


4d.Progress report.
None.


5.Describe the major accomplishments to date and their predicted or actual impact.
These accomplishments address National Program 304, Crop Protection and Quarantine, and also is relevant to National Program 308, Methyl Bromide Alternatives [Component, Postharvest Commodity Treatment (Including Structural)]. Relevant components and goals from National Program 304 are: Component 4: Postharvest, Pest Exclusion, and Quarantine Treatment (Stored Product Insects): 4E. Biology and Ecology of Stored-Product Insect Pests. Improve understanding of the abiotic factors that govern stored-product insect population dynamics. Determine pest status of insect species, particularly emerging pests. Determine how nutritional factors and commodity quality can affect stored product pest population dynamics and pest management decisions. 4F. Detection and Monitoring of Stored-Product Insect Pests. Develop improved sampling methods for insects in static and moving bulk commodities. Improve and optimize pheromone/food traps for monitoring stored product pest insect populations. Improve methods for interpreting trap catches to aid in making stored product pest management decisions. 4H. Development of Integrated Pest Management Programs for Stored Products. Determine sampling-based action thresholds for stored-product insect pests. Determine interaction of control technologies and optimize their combined use. Develop user-friendly tools to aid storage managers in making pest control decisions.

The project has developed practical tools for making stored-product insect pest management decisions that allow cost-effective, integrated pest management with reduced dependence upon insecticides. These decision tools include insect monitoring programs, action thresholds, predictive insect population growth models, and new methods to interpret insect trap catch results for the grain and mill manager. We also investigated the threat of emerging insect pests, such as psocids, in stored grain and food processing facilities.

We showed that near-infrared spectroscopy could be used to detect insect fragments in flour. We determined that wheat infested with a single adult lesser grain borer contributed 28 times and 10 times as many fragments as wheat infested with a single larva or pupa, respectively. Using regression models that we developed from these data, we predicted that 1-kg samples of wheat with more than 20 kernels infested with adult borers would be above the FDA defect action level for insect fragments; similarly, it would take an infestation level of 300-500 kernels (in a 1-kg sample) containing larvae or pupae to exceed the defect action level. We also determined the accuracy and sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for detecting insect fragments in flour. NIRS was less precise than the standard flotation method, but it has the advantages that it is rapid, non-destructive, does not require extensive sample preparation, and can be automated for a more sophisticated sampling protocol for flour.

We conducted studies with beneficial insects to control Indianmeal moth. Three species of parasitoid wasps that attack the eggs of the Indianmeal moth were evaluated for their potential to serve as biological control agents in retail stores. The presence of the packages on the shelves did not affect the foraging activities of two of the three species tested. The most effective wasp species was Trichogramma deion. This species caused approximately 70% mortality to Indianmeal moth eggs. Since these parasitoid wasps are so small that they are barely visible, they may serve as an effective method for controlling levels of the Indianmeal moth in retail stores.

We demonstrated that a combination treatment of avidin corn powder and beneficial insects controls insect pests in stored corn. The protein avidin (found in chicken eggs) is toxic to many of the insect pests that attack our grain supply. This transgenic corn was ground into a powder and tested to see if this formulation alone or in combination with parasitoid wasps was effective at controlling insect pests that feed on stored grain. The combination treatment of parasitoid wasps and avidin corn powder was more effective than either treatment alone at suppressing populations of all three insect pests. This combination treatment provides managers with an important tool for controlling both internal and external feeding stored-grain insect pests.

We studied the effectiveness of perimeter insecticide treatments against red flour beetles in hidden refugia. We showed that there were significantly more dead adults and lower trap captures in warehouses treated with cyfluthrin than with (S)-hydroprene or water (control treatment). However, food patch samples showed no detectable differences in number of insects among any treatments. Perimeter treatments had minimal impact on the pest populations in hidden refugia, but could cause significant mortality to dispersing adults and reduce pheromone trap captures. These are important findings for both the application of surface treatments and the interpretation of monitoring programs by pest management professionals in food facilities such as retail stores.

We identified routes of immigration for stored-product insects at foundation seed warehouses. The number of lesser grain borer beetles captured outside facilities was correlated with the number captured near doors. Beetles captured at doorways were always at or near ground level. This study showed that targeting pest management efforts, such as residual spray applications, at ground level outdoors will be more effective, and that outdoor pheromone traps provide a good indicator of infestation potential.

We evaluated computed tomography as a new method for detecting internal-feeding insects in samples of stored wheat. Computed tomography and an automated detection program was used to scan and process 300 g samples of wheat in less than two minutes. The average detection accuracy in samples containing 5 infested kernels per 100 g of wheat was 94%. These results are the first step toward developing next-generation computerized equipment to rapidly detect insects in many types of cereal grains and beans.

We showed that door gaskets can reduce beetle immigration into warehouses. Using unbaited sticky traps positioned inside the doors, we demonstrated that the number of beetles entering the facilities decreased by a factor of three when gaskets were installed. Gaskets forced the insects to enter at predictable locations that could be targeted for additional pest management. These results will help warehouse managers and pest management professionals to develop more effective insect management plans.

We evaluated the effectiveness of entomopathogenic nematodes for control of stored-product insects. We compared the three most pathogenic nematode species against a wide range of stored-product pest species. The nematode, Steinernema riobrave reduced red flour beetle and Indianmeal moth populations under simulated field conditions. These biological control agents could be developed into a new management tool for use in targeted situations.

We evaluated long-term population trends of stored-product insects at flour mills. At two flour mills, insects were monitored to evaluate seasonal trends in pest populations inside and outside facilities, pest species diversity, impact of treatments such as fumigation with methyl bromide or sulfuryl fluoride, aerosol fogging, and chemical pesticide sprays on population dynamics. This information will be used to help in the development of population models of pests in the field and to evaluate the efficacy of different management tools and to develop integrated pest management programs for the food industry.


6.What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end-user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products?
The SGA Pro software and grain sampling methodology is currently being used by a consulting company in Kansas to make management recommendations for their clients. There are no known constraints to the use of this software or the grain sampling methodology that was developed during this project.

A representative from the unit meet three times a year with a national millers organization to assess their research needs, to advise them on recent research accomplishments, and to provide technical information to answer their questions. Members of this committee are responsible for pest control for many of the major food processing companies in the United States.


7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below).
Campbell, J. F., and M. D. Toews 2005. Identify the source. QA: Quality Assurance and Food Safety 2: 12-13.

Presentations to organizations

Campbell, J.F. 2006. How important is stored-product insect invasion from outside. International Association of Operative Millers Conference and Expo: Austin, TX. Campbell, J. F. 2006. Perimeter treatment for stored-product pest immigration. American Institute of Baking Pest Management for Food Plants: Manhattan, KS.

Campbell, J.F. 2006. Effective use of pheromones. Storage and Management of Peanuts Training Session: Blakely, GA, and Suffolk, VA.

Campbell, J.F. 2006. Monitoring for pest activity. Industrial Fumigants Company Technical Conference: Overland Park, KS.

Campbell, J.F. 2006. Update on stored-product insect pheromones and their application. Nebraska Urban Pest Management Conference: Lincoln, NE.

Campbell, J.F. 2005. Detecting and tracking pest activity. Pest Prevention and Elimination in Food Plants: Kansas City, MO.

Campbell, J.F. 2005. Interpreting pheromone trap data for interior and exterior insect pest populations. AIB Pest Management for Food Plants Seminar: Manhattan KS

Campbell, J.F. 2005. Detecting and tracking pest activity. Industrial Fumigant Company Technical Training Conference: Overland Park KS. IFC

Flinn, P., Reed, C., Hagstrum, D., Phillips, T. 2006. Seasonal and Spatial Changes in Insect Density in Commercial Elevator Bins: Implications for Phosphine Fumigation. International Association of Operative Millers Conference and Expo: Austin, TX.

Articles written about your work Lupo, L. 2005. Professor Pest. Quality Assurance and Food Safety Quarterly. Winter Issue: 43-54.


Review Publications
Campbell, J.F. 2005. Fitness consequences of multiple mating on female Sitophilus oryzae (L.)(Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Environmental Entomology 34: 833-843.

Campbell, J.F. Stored product insect behavior. In: J.W. Heaps, Editor, Insect Management for Food Storage and Processing. St. Paul, MN. AACC International. p. 39-51.

Flinn, P.W., Kramer, K.J., Throne, J.E., Morgan, T.D. 2005. Protection of stored maize from insect pests using a two-component biological control method consisting of a hymenopteran parasitoid, Theocolax elegans, and transgenic avidin maize powder. Journal of Stored Products Research 42: 218-225.

Perez-Mendoza, J., Throne, J.E., Maghirang, E.B., Dowell, F.E., Baker, J.E. 2005. Insect fragments in flour: relationship to lesser grain borer (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) infestation level in wheat and rapid detection using near-infrared spectroscopy. Journal of Economic Entomology 98: 2282-2291.

Ramos-Rodriguez, O., Campbell, J.F., Ramaswamy, S. 2006. Pathogenicity of three entomopathogenic nematode species to some major stored product insect pests. Journal of Stored Products Research 42: 241-252.

Scholler, M., Flinn, P.W., Grieshop, M., Zdarkova, E. 2006. Biological Control of Stored Product Pests. In: J.W. Heaps, Editor, Insect Management for Food Storage and Processing. St. Paul, MN. AACC International. p. 67-87.

Campbell, J.F. 2006. Assessing the fitness consequences of parasite infection decisions [abstract]. Society of Nematologists Proceedings, Kauai, Hawaii, June 18-21, 2006.

Flinn, P.W. 2006. Areawide IPM for insects in commercial grain elevators [abstract]. Meeting Abstract. 5th International IPM Symposium, St. Louis, MO, April 4-6, 2006.

Qureshi, J.A., Buschman, L.L., Throne, J.E., Ramaswamy, S.B. 2006. Dispersal of adult Diatraea grandiosella (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and its implications for corn borer resistance management in Bacillus thuringiensis maize. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 99: 279-291.

Lewis, E., Campbell, J.F., Griffin, C., Kaya, H., Peters, A. 2006. Behavorial ecology of entomopathogenic nematodes. Journal of Biological Control 38: 66-79.

Campbell, J.F., Ramos-Rodriguez, O., Ramaswamy, S. 2005. Do entomopathogenic nematodes have potential as biological control agents of stored product insects? [abstract]. Society for Invertebrate Pathology Meeting, Anchorage, Alaska, August 7-11, 2005.

Flinn, P.W. 2005. Recent technological advances for managing insect pests of stored-grain. Meeting Proceedings of the V Brazilian Congress of Agroinformatics, Londrina, Brazil [CD-ROM].

Last Modified: 7/28/2014
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