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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Related Topics


Location: Tropical Crop and Commodity Protection Research

2010 Annual Report

1. Guidelines for Exporting ‘Sharwil’ Avocados. Avocados cannot be exported from Hawaii to the continental U.S. without a quarantine treatment to prevent the spread of fruit flies. ARS scientists in Hilo, HI, conducted research on the maturity and infestation potential of ‘Sharwil’ avocados to assist in development of a multi-component systems approach for quarantine security based on poor host status, limited distribution, low prevalence, and postharvest safe-guards. The poor host status of hard, mature green fruit was confirmed, and a maturity index was proposed for ‘Sharwil’ avocados based on 29% dry matter content at harvest. The systems approach for Sharwil will allow Hawaii avocado growers to export fruit to the U.S. continent.

2. Effective Postharvest Dips for Control of Asian Citrus Psyllid. Exports of curry and lime leaves from Hawaii and California were interrupted because the efficacy of various postharvest dip procedures used to remove insects from these commodities had not been verified. ARS scientists at Hilo, HI tested various insecticides and fruit wash products and incorporated these in procedures that provided effective control of the Asian Citrus Psyllid. The information is being used by USDA-APHIS for implementation of procedures which will facilitate the export of these commodities.

3. Evaluating Papaya for Resistance to Internal Yellowing Disease. Bacterial contamination by naturally-occurring Enterobacter cloacae poses a food safety risk and presents an obstacle to the marketing of fresh-cut or frozen papaya products. ARS scientists at Hilo, HI developed an objective method for evaluating papaya germplasm for resistance to E. cloacae, the causal agent of internal yellowing disease. An optimal inoculum concentration differentiated resistant and susceptible papaya germplasm, and a colorimeter distinguished infected from non-infected tissue in yellow- or red-fleshed fruit. The screening method can be used for breeding new resistant papaya cultivars, thus reducing the risk of bacterial contamination and ensuring compliance with food safety standards. Also, the colorimeter technology could be applied commercially to identify and discard processed papaya products infected with E. cloacae.

Review Publications
Wall, M.M., K.A. Nishijima, M.M. Fitch, and W.T. Nishijima. 2010. Physicochemical, nutritional and microbial quality of fresh-cut and frozen papaya prepared from cultivars with varying resistance to internal yellowing disease. Journal Food Quality. 33: 131-149.

Chen, N.J., Wall, M.M., Roboert, P.E., Follett, P.A. 2009. Variation in Sharwil avocado maturity during the harvest season and resistance to fruit fly infestation. HortScience. 44(6):1655-1661.

Follett, P.A., Armstrong, J.W., Zee, F.T. 2009. Host Status of Blueberry to Invasive Tephritid Fruit Flies in Hawaii. Journal of Economic Entomology. 102(5):1859-1863.

Wall, M.M. 2010. Functional lipid characteristics, oxidative stability, and antioxidant activity of macadamia nut (Macadamia integrifolia) cultivars. Food Chemistry. 121:1103-1108.

Green, S.R., Picchioni, G.A., Murray, L.W., Wall, M.M. 2010. Yield and quality of field-grown Celosia and Gomphrena everlasting cut flowers at four planting densities. HortTechnology. 20(3): 612-619.

Hollingsworth, R.G. 2009. METHODS FOR EXCLUDING SLUGS AND SNAILS ON EXPORTED HORTICULTURAL COMMODITIES. Postharvest Technologies for Horticultural Crops. Vol. 2: 93-119.

Last Modified: 8/30/2014
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