2008 Annual Report
USDA-APHIS has recently issued a final rule for irradiated dragon fruit shipment from Hawaii, but until now, fruit tolerance of the quarantine treatment was unknown. Dragon fruit is a high-value, exotic tropical fruit grown for local consumption in Hawaii, but has potential to supply U.S. mainland markets. Dragon fruit is a host for fruit flies, and therefore subject to quarantine restrictions. ARS scientists in Hilo, Hawaii established that irradiation treatment of dragon fruit at doses < 800 Gy would ensure visual and compositional quality while providing quarantine security. This research will support rapid adoption of the APHIS rule, and expand specialty fruit exports from Hawaii.
(NP 304 Crop Protection and Quarantine Action Plan Component IV Postharvest, Pest Exclusion, and Quarantine Treatment. Problem being addressed: b) Exclusion of Exotic Insect Pests and Quarantine)2. Survey fails to find ginger weevil in sweet potatoes
Fijian ginger weevil is a quarantine pest of sweet potatoes exported from Hawaii to the U.S. Mainland. Regulations require a 2% inspection for ginger weevil and radiation treatment at 400 Gy if this weevil is present. Otherwise sweet potatoes can be irradiated at 150 Gy for the other quarantine pests at a significant cost savings. A 2-year survey for ginger weevil in left-over sweet potato culls from rotated fields and from commercial shipments found no ginger weevils, suggesting this weevil is absent or extremely rare in areas where sweet potato is produced. As a result of the survey by ARS scientists in the Post-Harvest Tropical Commodities Research Unit in Hilo, HI, APHIS approved a reduced inspection requirement for ginger weevil in export shipments and sweet potatoes are routinely irradiated at 150 Gy.
(NP 304 Crop Protection and Quarantine Action Plan, Component IV Postharvest, Pest Exclusion and Quarantine Treatment. Problem being addressed: b) Exclusion of Exotic Insect Pests and Quarantine)3. Identified a new pathogen on papaya fruit
Marketing fresh-cut and frozen papaya cubes has been limited by coliform bacterial counts of Enterobacter cloacae, which causes papaya internal yellowing disease. ARS scientists in Hilo, Hawaii identified and submitted a first report of a new pathogen on papaya (Enterobacter sakazakii) that causes abnormal internal yellowing symptoms. E. sakazakii is a cross-domain pathogen (plant and human pathogen), and therefore has the potential to affect the quality and food safety of papaya products.
(NP-306 Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products Action Plan Component 1 Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement. Problem being addressed: 1d. Preservation and/or Enhancement of Quality and Marketability)4. Native strains on Beauvaria identified
Beauveria bassiana is a fungal pathogen of insects which is commercially produced and used as a biopesticide for control of thrips, aphids, and whiteflies in greenhouses. Commercial strains of the fungus cannot be used in Hawaii because of quarantine restrictions. These restrictions are based on a concern that commercial strains of the fungus may threaten native insect populations. A study carried out in 2007 by ARS scientists in the Post-Harvest Tropical Commodities Research Unit in Hilo, HI demonstrates the genetic diversity of Beauveria bassiana strains already attacking insects in Hawaiian forests. Laboratory bioassays indicated that the virulence of strains already present in Hawaii was similar to the virulence of a strain found in a commercial Beauveria product. The results may lead to the deregulation of this fungus and the use of the commercial product as an ecologically friendly alternative to conventional insecticides for control of thrips, aphids, and whiteflies.
(NP 304 Crop Protection and Quarantine Action Plan, Component V: Sustainable pest control technologies)5. First irradiation quarantine treatment study with an ant
Ants are common hitchhiker pests on tropical fruits exported from Hawaii. Irradiation is a commonly used quarantine treatment approved for exporting tropical fruits but no information was available on ant radiotolerance. ARS scientists in the Post-Harvest Tropical Commodities Research Unit in Hilo, HI demonstrated that the big-headed ant could be sterilized with an irradiation dose of 90 Gy. This was the first study suggesting an effective quarantine treatment for an ant.
(NP 304 Crop Protection and Quarantine Action Plan, Component IV Postharvest, Pest Exclusion and Quarantine Treatment. Problem being addressed: b) Exclusion of Exotic Insect Pests and Quarantine)6. Limonene for controlling mealybugs and scale insects in ornamental crops
Mealybugs and scale insects are field and quarantine pests of ornamental exports from Hawaii. ARS scientists at Hilo, Hawaii successfully used 1% formulations of limonene (citrus peel oil) as an all-natural contact insecticide to control these pests. The ARS patents committee approved the discovery for patent protection and a CRADA partner is being sought to commercialize this new control method that will directly benefit the ornamental export industries of Hawaii by reducing field losses and export shipment rejections caused by mealybug and scale insects.
(NP 304 Crop Protection and Quarantine Action Plan Component IV Postharvest, Pest Exclusion, and Quarantine Treatment. Problem being addressed: b) Exclusion of Exotic Insect Pests and Quarantine)
5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
Follett, P.A. 2007. Postharvest phytosanitary radiation treatments: less-than-probit 9, generic dose, and high dose applications. In: M.J.B Vreysen, A.S. Robinson and J. Hendrichs (eds.), Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests: From Research to Field Implementation. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. p. 425-434.
Follett, P.A., R. Tom, D. Alontaga, E.D. Weinert, D.M. Tsuda, K.M. Kinney. 2007. Absence of the quarantine pest Elytroteinus subtruncatus in east Hawaii sweet potato fields. Proc. Hawaiian Entomol. Soc. 39: 33-38.
Follett, P.A., G. Taniguchi. 2007. Effect of irradiation on longevity and reproduction of Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) queens. Proc. Hawaiian Entomol. Soc. 39: 43-47.
Follett, P.A. 2008. Effect of irradiation on Mexican leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) development and reproduction. J. Econ. Entomol. 101: 710-715.
Neven, L.G., Follett, P.A., Raghubeer, E. 2007. Potential for High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing to Control Quarantine Insects in Fruit. Journal of Economic Entomology. 100(5):1499-1503.
Wright, M., Follett, P.A., Golden, M. 2007. Long-term patterns and feeding sites of southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Hawaii macadamia orchards, and sampling for management decisions. Bull. Entomol. Res. 97:569-575.
Neumann, G., R.G. Hollingsworth, P.A. Follett. 2007. First Record of the Hawaiian endemic scale, Colobopyga pritchardiae (Hemiptera: Halimococcidae), on the Big Island. Proc. Hawaiian Entomol. Soc. 39: 39-41.
Hollingsworth, R.G., Follett, P.A. 2007. Ionizing radiation for Quarantine Control of Opogona Sacchari (Lepidoptera: Tineidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 100:1519-1524.
Hollingsworth, R.G., L.L. Loope. 2007. Learning from quarantine successes. Proc. Hawaiian Entomol. Soc. 39: 57-61.
Wall, M.M. 2008. Quality of postharvest horticultural crops after irradiation treatment. Stewart Postharvest Review (online) 2:1. Available from: http://www.stewartpostharvest.com/Vol4_2008/April_2008/Wall.htm
Nishijima, K.A., Wall, M.M., Siderhurst, M.S. 2007. Demonstrating pathogenicity of Enterobacter cloacae on macadamia and identifying associated volatiles of gray kernel of macadamia in Hawaii. Plant Dis. 91:1221-1228.
Kleitz, K.K., M.M. Wall, C.L. Falk, C.A. Martin, M.D. Remmenga, S.J. Guldan, 2008. Stand establishment and yield potential of organically grown seeded and transplanted medicinal herbs. HortTechnology. 18:116-121.
Kartika, H., Q.X. Li, M.M. Wall, S.T. Nakamoto, and W.T. Iwaoka. 2007. Major phenolic acids and total antioxidant activity in mamaki leaves, Pipturus albidus. Journal Food Science 72:S696-S701.
Keith, R.C., K.A. Nishijima, L.M. Keith, M.M. Fitch, W.T. Nishijima, M.M. Wall. 2008. Atypical internal yellowing of papaya fruit in Hawaii caused by Enterobacter sakazakii. Plant Disease. 92:487.
Souza, E., Follett, P.A., Price, D., Stacy, E. 2008. Field Control of the Invasive Ant Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a Tropical Fruit Orchard in Hawaii. J. Econ. Entomol. 101:1068-1074.