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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

2007 Annual Report

1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
To develop and protect export markets for tropical fruit, vegetable, nut, and ornamental crops, with emphasis on expanding and diversifying agriculture and agricultural exports in Hawaii by providing environmentally sound, economically viable systems, treatments, or processes that control quarantine pests, ensure product quality and food safety, and increase product value. The three broad objectives to be addressed include (1)Develop new or improved postharvest treatments, including alternatives to methyl bromide fumigation, for fruit, vegetable, and ornamental crop imports and exports to ensure security against quarantine pests; (2) Develop new or improved postharvest treatments for fruit, vegetable, nut, and ornamental crops to improve product quality and shelf life, reduce or eliminate postharvest disorders or decay, and enhance product value; and (3) Identify, develop or improve preharvest methods for fruit, vegetable, nut, and ornamental crops that enhance postharvest quality and reduce the incidence of quarantine pests that limit exports.

1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Develop target quarantine pest and host commodity control efficacy and product quality data, respectively, using irradiation, controlled-atmosphere temperature treatment, limonene and oils, ozone fumigation, or radio frequency treatment with commodity quality, microbial, biochemical, physical property, or vitamin analyses to meet Objectives 1 and 2; and measure target pest feeding activity to forecast damage, determine insecticide resistance levels, or develop caffeine-based toxicants to meet Objective 3. Foremrly 5320-43000-009-00D (4/05).

Limonene for controlling mealybugs and scale insects in ornamental crops

Mealybugs and scale insects are field and quarantine pests of ornamental exports from Hawaii. ARS scientists at Hilo, Hawaii successfully used 1% formulations of limonene (citrus peel oil) as an all-natural contact insecticide to control these pests. The ARS patents committee approved the discovery for patent protection and a CRADA partner is being sought to commercialize this new control method that will directly benefit the ornamental export industries of Hawaii by reducing field losses and export shipment rejections caused by mealybug and scale insects.

(NP 304 Crop Protection and Quarantine Action Plan Component IV Postharvest, Pest Exclusion, and Quarantine Treatment. Problem being addressed: b) Exclusion of Exotic Insect Pests and Quarantine)

Heat treatment controls fruit flies in persimmons

Fruit flies are quarantine pests that impede Hawaii fruit exports. ARS scientists in Hilo, Hawaii found that an approved quarantine heat treatment approved by USDA-APHIS for papayas exported from Hawaii also killed fruit fly eggs and larvae in persimmons without affecting fruit quality. Persimmons are heated to 47.2°C in 4 hours followed by water cooling. Using an approved heat treatment expedites regulatory approval for exporting persimmons from Hawaii and helps to open a new market for Hawaii persimmon growers.

(NP 304 Crop Protection and Quarantine Action Plan Component IV Postharvest, Pest Exclusion, and Quarantine Treatment. Problem being addressed: b) Exclusion of Exotic Insect Pests and Quarantine)

Improved quality of fresh-cut and frozen papaya cubes

Marketing fresh-cut and frozen papaya cubes has been limited by coliform bacterial counts of Enterobacter cloacae, which causes papaya internal yellowing disease. ARS scientists in Hilo, Hawaii found that, by using only papaya cultivars that are resistant to internal yellowing disease, the quality of fresh-cut and frozen papaya cubes was improved in both nutritional and microbial quality. These findings will help diversify and expand the Hawaii papaya industry by improving the quality of value-added papaya products.

(NP-306 Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products Action Plan Component 1 Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement. Problem being addressed: 1d. Preservation and/or Enhancement of Quality and Marketability)

5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations

6.Technology Transfer

Number of active CRADAs and MTAs2
Number of invention disclosures submitted1
Number of non-peer reviewed presentations and proceedings8

Review Publications
Follett, P.A., Yang, M.M., Wei, D., Lu, K. 2007. Irradiation for postharvest control of quarantine insects. Formosan Entomologist 27: 1-15.

Follett, P.A., Calvert, F.W., Golden, M. 2007. Genetic studies using the orange body color type of nezara viridula (hemiptera:pentatomidae): inheritance, sperm precedence, and disassortative mating. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 100:433-438.

Follett, P.A., Hennessey, M.K. 2007. Confidence Limits and Sample Size for Determining Nonhost Status of Fruits and Vegetables to Tephritid Fruit Flies as a Quarantine Measure. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 100, No. 2, pp.251-257

Wall, M.M., Gentry, T.S. 2007. Carbohydrate composition and color development during drying and roasting of macadamia nuts (macadamia integrifolia). LWT-Food Science and Technology 40:587-593.

Wall, M.M. 2007. Postharvest quality and ripening of Dwarf Brazilian bananas (Musa sp.)after x-ray irradiation quarantine treatment. HortScience 42:130-134.

Follett, P.A., Griffin, R., Griffin, E. 2006. Irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for insects and mites on agricultural commodities. Research Signpost: Recent Rers. Devel. Entomol. 5:1-26.

Follett, P.A. 2006. Irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for Aspidiotus destructor (Homoptera: Diaspididae). J. Econ. Entomol. 99: 1138-1142.

Follett, P.A. 2006. Irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for white peach scale (Homoptera: Diaspididae). J. Econ. Entomol. 99: 1974-1978.

Golden M, P.A. Follett. 2006. First report of Nezara viridula f. aurantiaca (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Hawaii. Proc Hawaiian Entomol Soc 38:131–132.

Hollingsworth, R.G. and R.H. Cowie. 2006. Apple snails as disease vectors. In R. C. Joshi & L. S. Sebastian, Eds. Global Advances in Ecology and Management of Golden Apple Snails. Nueva Ecija: Philippine Rice Research Institute. pp 121-132.

Mcquate, G.T., Follett, P.A. 2006. Use of attractants to suppress oriental fruit fly and cryptophlebia spp. in litchi. Hawaiian Entomological Society Proceedings.38:27-40.

Qvarnstrom, Y., J.J. Sullivan, H.S. Bishop, R.G. Hollingsworth, A.J. da Silva. 2007. PCR-based detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in tissue and mucus secretions from molluscan hosts. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 73:1415-1419.

Armstrong, J.W., Mangan, R.L. 2007. Commercial quarantine heat treatments. In: Tang, J., Mitcham, E., Wang, S., Lurie, S., editors. Heat Treatments for Postharvest Pest Control: Theory and Practice. Wallingford, UK:CAB International, p. 311-340.

Armstrong, J.W., Follett, P.A. 2007. Hot Water Immersion Quarantine Treatment Against Mediterranean Fruit Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Eggs and Larvae in Litchi and Longan Fruits Exported from Hawaii. Journal of Economic Entomology. Volume 100, No. 4, pp 1091-1097.

Last Modified: 4/1/2015
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