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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: POSTHARVEST TREATMENT OF TROPICAL COMMODITIES FOR QUARANTINE SECURITY, QUALITY MAINTENANCE, AND VALUE ENHANCEMENT

Location: Tropical Crop and Commodity Protection Research

2006 Annual Report


1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? Why does it matter?
Following the decline of the sugarcane and pineapple industry, Hawaii's agricultural systems are changing from corporate agriculture to small family farms producing new and exotic tropical fruit, vegetable, and ornamental crops for local and export markets. However, Hawaii's crops cannot be exported to U.S. mainland or foreign markets without postharvest treatments to eliminate potential infestations of quarantine pests. Tephritid fruit flies (specifically Malaysian fruit fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, melon fly, and oriental fruit fly), scales, mealybugs, thrips, weevils, moths, mites, slugs, snails, and other pests of quarantine importance are major constraints to the export of agricultural commodities from Hawaii and the primary limiting factor to the expansion and diversification of agriculture in the state. Incursions of exotic fruit fly species into California and other mainland states continue to threaten U.S. agriculture and agricultural exports to foreign markets. Approved quarantine treatments do not exist for many of Hawaii's crops, and alternatives to methyl bromide fumigation are needed for others. In many cases, the crops are sensitive to quarantine treatments, and methods to maintain commodity quality must be developed to ameliorate the adverse effects caused by quarantine treatments

The project has three specific goals to resolve the problem:.
1)to develop postharvest treatment technologies (such as irradiation, cold, heat, modified atmospheres, ozone, or combinations thereof) for tropical crops to ensure quarantine security against insect pests that restrict exports;.
2)to develop new or improved postharvest treatments for fruit, vegetable, nut, and ornamental crops to enhance product quality, extend shelf life, reduce or eliminate postharvest decay, and/or add product value; and.
3)to identify, develop or improve preharvest methods for fruit, vegetable, and ornamental crops that enhance postharvest quality and reduce the incidence of quarantine pests that limit exports, including non-host protocols. The project supports ARS Strategic Plan 4.3.2.2, Quarantine Strategies, within NP-304, Crop Protection and Quarantine, Insects and Mites Component, Postharvest, Pest Exclusion, and Quarantine Treatment, primarily in the development of quarantine treatments against pests that limit exports, and contributes to NP-308, Methyl Bromide Alternatives, Postharvest Commodity Treatment Component, primarily in the area of developing heat, cold, irradiation, controlled atmosphere, and other quarantine treatment methods to replace methyl bromide fumigation.

U.S. agriculture, in general, and Hawaii agriculture, specifically, will benefit from the creation and maintenance of domestic and foreign markets, expansion and diversification of U.S. exports, protection from quarantine pest incursions, development of new products that increase farm gate value and marketability, and application of postharvest treatments that prevent losses from decay organisms, maintain product quality, and prolong shelf life.


2.List by year the currently approved milestones (indicators of research progress)
Milestones for Project Plan 5320-43000-014-00D certified 03/09/05 for the period FY 2005 through FY 2009.

FY 2005

Large-scale irradiation tests with sweetpotato weevils; dose-response tests with stages of sweetpotato vine borer, Fijian ginger weevil, coconut scale, and banana moth; confirm a sterilizing dose for green scale for sweetpotato and other export commodities.

Complete studies measuring characteristics of various emulsions of oils and limonene for controlling target quarantine pests on ornamentals for export.

Determine whether coffee berry borer (CBB) can survive in green coffee beans at 9-13% moisture content; continue O3 fumigations against CBB (continued from terminating Project Plan 5320-43000-013-00D).

Develop thermotolerance models for Mediterranean and oriental fruit fly eggs and larvae using heating block system (HBS) and document results.

Test efficacy of already approved heat and identify key parameters using a controlled-atmosphere temperature-treatment system (CATTS) treatments against fruit flies in persimmons and avocados.

Evaluate quality of persimmons and avocados following approved heat treatments; develop pretreatments with heat or 1-MCP to reduce possible fruit injury.

Continue on-going method development and conduct initial quality experiments for irradiated bananas.

Develop quality, microbial, and vitamin analyses methods for preparing fresh and frozen papaya cubes as value-added products.

Develop protocols for sampling, extraction and analyzing macadamia flavor profiles at different processing stages.

Conduct macadamia nut orchard surveys to establish correlation between husk dyeing and kernel damage; conduct study of seasonal pattern of stink bug feeding; conduct stink bug development studies.

Initiate first set of bioassays against Western flower thrips prior to implementation of area-wide plan for orchid production to identify insecticide resistance.

Initiate bioassays using chitosan and alginate polymers to develop water-resistant formulations of caffeine to control slugs and snails in ornamentals; develop CRADA with an agrochemical company (to be selected).

FY 2006

Continue large-scale irradiation tests with sweetpotato weevils; dose-response tests with stages of sweetpotato vine borer, Fijian ginger weevil, coconut scale, and banana moth; confirm a sterilizing dose for green scale for sweetpotato and other export commodities.

Complete studies measuring characteristics of various emulsions of oils and limonene for controlling target quarantine pests on ornamentals for export.

Continue coffee berry borer (CBB) survival tests in green coffee beans at 9-13% moisture content; continue O3 fumigations against CBB (continued from terminating Project Plan 5320-43000-013-00D).

Continue to develop thermotolerance models for Mediterranean and oriental fruit fly eggs and larvae using heating block system (HBS) and document results; install Strayfield RF treatment unit at ARS-Hilo and begin to develop thermotolerance models for tropical fruits.

Continue efficacy tests of heat treatments and identify key parameters using a controlled-atmosphere temperature-treatment system (CATTS) treatments against fruit flies in persimmons and avocados.

Continue to evaluate quality of persimmons and avocados following approved heat treatments; develop pretreatments with heat or 1-MCP to reduce possible fruit injury.

Complete method development and conduct initial quality experiments for irradiated bananas.

Continue to develop quality, microbial, and vitamin analyses methods for preparing fresh and frozen papaya cubes as value-added products.

Continue to develop protocols for sampling, extraction and analyzing macadamia flavor profiles at different processing stages.

Continue macadamia nut orchard surveys to establish correlation between husk dyeing and kernel damage; conduct study of seasonal pattern of stink bug feeding; conduct stink bug development studies.

Complete first set of bioassays against Western flower thrips prior to implementation of area-wide plan for orchid production to identify insecticide resistance.

Complete bioassays using chitosan and alginate polymers to develop water-resistant formulations of caffeine to control slugs and snails in ornamentals; develop CRADA with an agrochemical company (to be selected).

FY 2007

Document results of sweetpotato weevil irradiation dose-response tests and for green scale confirmatory tests; initiate confirmatory tests with most tolerant life stage of sweetpotato vine borer, Fijian ginger weevil, coconut scale, and banana moth.

Complete insect bioassays and phytotoxicity tests with ornamentals for selected oil and limonene combinations.

If CBB does not survive in green coffee, continue O3 fumigations to accumulate desired efficacy data. If CBB survives in green coffee beans, increase O3 fumigation parameters to obtain 100% mortality of eggs; initiate new coffee quality tests at ARS-Albany, CA.

Develop thermotolerance model for Malaysian fruit fly and melon fly eggs and larvae using HBS and document results; continue to develop thermotolerance models for tropical fruits.

Identify CATTS treatments for fruit flies in avocados and persimmons; test efficacy of already approved heat treatments against fruit flies in guava, longan, and passion fruit.

Evaluate quality of guava, longan and passion fruit following approved heat treatments; confirm quality of avocados and persimmons following large-scale confirmatory tests with best CATTS treatments.

Conduct experiments on the composition, ripening behavior, and quality of irradiated bananas and document results.

Refine methods for quality, nutritional, and microbial analyses of fresh and frozen papaya cubes. Begin quality and microbial analyses of fresh and frozen papaya cubes.

Collect composition data and determine food engineering properties for macadamia nuts. Identify compounds in macadamia flavor profiles and document results.

Conduct second year of orchard surveys to establish correlation between macadamia nut husk dyeing and kernel damage; conduct further studies of seasonal patterns of stink bug feeding; continue stink bug development and demography studies.

Complete second set of bioassays one-year after initiation of area-wide management plan for orchid production to identify pesticide resistance in thrips.

Test promising formulations of chitosan and alginate polymers to develop water-resistant formulations of caffeine to control slugs and snails in ornamentals in the field under normal commercial conditions.

FY 2008

Complete irradiation quarantine treatment confirmatory tests and document results for sweetpotato vine borer, Fijian ginger weevil, coconut scale, and banana moth; initiate dose-response studies with white peach scale and red wax scale for comparison to other scales of quarantine importance.

Analyze data and document results for insect bioassays and phytotoxicity tests with ornamentals for selected oil and limonene combinations.

If new O3 fumigation parameters do not adversely affect coffee, initiate O3 fumigations with CBB eggs until >10,000 are killed with no survival.

Complete development of thermotolerance models for tropical fruits and document results. Provide technical report to NPS on any efficacious RF quarantine treatments.

Large-scale of testing fruit flies with best CATTS treatments for all commodities that tolerate CATTS to develop quarantine security data.

Confirm quality of guava, longan and passion fruit following large-scale confirmatory tests with best CATTS treatments; document results of avocado and persimmon large-scale confirmatory tests.

Develop approaches to avoid or reduce irradiation injury to bananas if necessary and document results; initiate quality studies following irradiation for other tropical crops with export market potential.

Continue quality, nutritional, and microbial analyses of fresh and frozen papaya cubes and document results.

Develop food processing models; develop methods for antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and tocopherol analyses of macadamia oil.

Document results of dye technique, stink bug feeding patterns on macadamia nuts, and degree-day demography; explore using the dye to measure stink bug feeding under different weed control regimes.

Document results of tolerance levels of Western flower thrips to various pesticides and temporal changes; initiate bioassays against vanda thrips and melon thrips, two another orchid quarantine pests.

Complete phytotoxicity testing on a range of ornamental plants using chitosan and alginate polymers to develop water-resistant formulations of caffeine to control slugs and snails in ornamentals, and document results.

FY 2009

Complete irradiation dose response tests with white peach scale and red wax scale and document results.

Investigate registration issues and technology transfer opportunities for oil and limonene to control quarantine pests in export ornamentals.

Complete O3 fumigations against CBB eggs and document results of coffee quality, CBB survival on green coffee, and CBB fumigation data.

Complete large-scale tests with CATTS treatments and document results.

Document results for large-scale CATTS confirmatory tests for guava, longan and passion fruit.

Continue quality studies following irradiation for other tropical crops with export market potential.

Confirm processing models for macadamia nuts and document results. Begin experiments on oxidative stability and antioxidant compounds in macadamia kernels.

Complete bioassays against vanda thrips and melon thrips; document results of pesticide resistance studies before and during area wide control program for orchid production.


4a.List the single most significant research accomplishment during FY 2006.
Banana Quarantine Irradiation Treatment – The viability of irradiation technology in Hawaii depends on an ability to treat and export a diversity of tropical crops. However, markets cannot be developed until various commodities are tested for tolerance to the dose requirements for insect quarantine security. Our research established the limits of radiotolerance for high-value, specialty bananas. Banana quality, composition, and ripening behavior were not compromised by doses up to 600 Gy irradiation. This is important, because USDA-APHIS issued a final rule that requires a minimum dose of 400 Gy for surface disinfestation of bananas exported from Hawaii (Federal Register, January 27, 2006). Exporters can now confidently irradiate the fruit and develop markets for Hawaii’s specialty bananas. Development of quarantine treatments is an important function of Strategic Plan 4.3.2.2, Quarantine Strategies, within NP-304, Crop Protection and Quarantine, Insects and Mites Component, Postharvest, Pest Exclusion, and Quarantine Treatment.


4b.List other significant research accomplishment(s), if any.
Quarantine Treatment Against Scale Insects – First-ever quarantine irradiation treatments were developed for two diaspidid scale insects. Coconut scale and white peach scale are high-risk quarantine pests of banana and papaya respectively. Research showed that an irradiation dose of 150 Gy is sufficient to provide quarantine security for both pests. The research on white peach scale provides information to lower the papaya irradiation treatment from 400 Gy to 150 Gy which will significantly reduce treatment costs. Approximately 5 million lbs of papayas are currently exported from Hawaii to the U.S. mainland using irradiation. This research will be published in 2006 in the Journal of Economic Entomology. Development of quarantine treatments is an important function of Strategic Plan 4.3.2.2, Quarantine Strategies, within NP-304, Crop Protection and Quarantine, Insects and Mites Component, Postharvest, Pest Exclusion, and Quarantine Treatment.

Cause of Grey Kernel in Macadamia Nut – Grey kernel is an important disease of macadamia that affects the quality of kernels with grey discoloration and a permeating, foul odor that can render entire batches of nuts unmarketable. Our research proved that the bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae, is the causal agent of this disease. We developed inoculation procedures and identified optimal conditions (anaerobic, saturated atmosphere at 30°C) that consistently produced disease so that factors affecting grey kernel disease can be studied. Also, volatile profiles for grey kernels revealed odor compounds that can be used to identify contaminated batches in storage bins. Quality maintenance of export crops from Hawaii is an important function of Strategic Plan 4.3.2.2, Quarantine Strategies, within NP-304, Crop Protection and Quarantine, Insects and Mites Component, Postharvest, Pest Exclusion, and Quarantine Treatment.

Southern Green Stinkbug Surveillance Technique – N. viridula (southern green stink bug) feeding reduces the quality of macadamia nuts for export. A ruthenium red dye technique was developed to stain N. viridula feeding probes in both immature and mature nuts, thus allowing evaluation of N. viridula feeding activity throughout the year. Surveying orchards using the dye will help track changes in feeding activity and identify the specific location of outbreaks. The technique is simple, can be learned rapidly, and is easily utilized by growers. Current studies using the dye technique are focusing on off-season feeding activity of N. viridula on various cultivars in macadamia orchards. This research is funded by the Hawaii Macadamia Nut Association. The first of several papers documenting this research was published in 2006. Quality maintenance of export crops from Hawaii is an important function of Strategic Plan 4.3.2.2, Quarantine Strategies, within NP-304, Crop Protection and Quarantine, Insects and Mites Component, Postharvest, Pest Exclusion, and Quarantine Treatment.

Heat Treatments to Control Fruit Flies – A number of different quarantine heat treatments were developed to control fruit flies in selected tropical fruits. Fruit flies were controlled in passion fruit, guava, and longan by raising the temperature of the fruit at the seed surface or fruit core to 46oC or 47oC during 2 h, and holding the temperature for 30-45 min. The treatments had minimal effects on fruit quality. This research was supported by the California Department of Food and Agriculture. Manuscripts are in preparation. Development of quarantine treatments is an important function of Strategic Plan 4.3.2.2, Quarantine Strategies, within NP-304, Crop Protection and Quarantine, Insects and Mites Component, Postharvest, Pest Exclusion, and Quarantine Treatment.

Banana Moth Quarantine Irradiation Treatment – The banana moth, Opogona sacchari, is a significant quarantine pest of banana and is capable of infesting many other horticultural commodities. New regulations will allow banana exports to begin in 2006 using irradiation quarantine treatment. Under the current protocol, bananas can be exported from Hawaii to the U.S. after inspection for pupae and adult stages of Opogona and irradiation treatment with a dose of 400 Gy. Hence, the presence of Opogona can prevent export shipments. We determined that an irradiation dose of only 100 Gy was sufficient as a sterilizing dose for pupae (the most radiotolerant stage). These data will be submitted to APHIS to remove the inspection protocol for Opogona, which will prevent the possible interruption of exports. Obtaining valid data for this species was difficult, and required implementation of extraordinary measures to prevent contamination of containers holding treated insects by untreated insects. Development of quarantine treatments is an important function of Strategic Plan 4.3.2.2, Quarantine Strategies, within NP-304, Crop Protection and Quarantine, Insects and Mites Component, Postharvest, Pest Exclusion, and Quarantine Treatment.


4c.List significant activities that support special target populations.
None.


4d.Progress report.
See 3a, 4a, and 4b.


5.Describe the major accomplishments to date and their predicted or actual impact.
High-temperature methyl bromide fumigation provides a method to reduce fumigation time and concentration to achieve quarantine disinfestation, and to reduce the amount of methyl bromide released into the atmosphere during the aeration process. Demonstrated that ozone fumigation under vacuum, a potential alternative quarantine treatment to methyl bromide fumigation for green coffee berries, does not adversely affect the quality of brewed coffee, leading to additional research on the mortality effects of the ozone fumigation on the quarantine pests, coffee berry borer and coffee leaf rust. Demonstrated that the Enteric bacteria, Enterobacter cloacae, that causes internal yellowing disease in papaya is highly pathogenic to ‘Kapoho Solo’ papaya, mildly pathogenic to ‘Rainbow’ papaya, and non-pathogenic to ‘Sun-Up’ papaya, providing new information related to the areas of food quality and the need for breeding cultivars resistant to E. cloacae.

To facilitate sweetpotato exports from Hawaii and provide an alternative quarantine treatment to methyl bromide fumigation, the U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center (PBARC), Hilo, HI, in collaboration with Hawaii Pride, LLC (a local quarantine x-ray irradiation facility) developed dose/mortality data for West Indian sweetpotato weevil and sweetpotato vine borer, two major quarantine pests associated with sweetpotatoes in the islands. These data resulted in USDA-APHIS approval of a 400 Gy irradiation quarantine treatment for Hawaii-grown sweetpotatoes exported to U.S. mainland markets. Other studies carried out at PBARC showed that the irradiation treatment did not harm sweetpotato market quality. Sweetpotato exports using the new irradiation quarantine treatment, which began in July, 2003, help to increase agricultural diversity in Hawaii following the decline of its sugar and pineapple industries, and help to expand the state’s agricultural export markets.

To facilitate export of gardenia flowers from Hawaii to U.S. mainland markets, control measures against green scale, a major quarantine pest associated with gardenias in the islands, were developed by the U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center, Hilo, HI, in collaboration with the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The control measures, which included field sanitation and an insecticide application, provided quarantine security against the green scale. This research resulted in a USDA-APHIS approved quarantine protocol that allows export of gardenia flowers from Hawaii to the mainland for the first time in 55 years. Additionally, the change in the federal law regulating gardenia flower exports resulted in a policy change at the state level whereby potted gardenia plants also can be exported.

To facilitate export of tropical fruits from Hawaii, research at the U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center, Hilo, HI, demonstrated that 150 Gy was an effective irradiation quarantine treatment dose against Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly eggs and larvae. The tests were done using infested fruit to demonstrate efficacy under natural conditions. The research provides USDA-APHIS with a scientific basis for reducing the presently prescribed doses of 250, 225 and 210 Gy for oriental fruit fly, Mediterranean fruit fly and melon fly, respectively, to 150 Gy as a generic quarantine treatment against all three species for fruits and vegetables exported from Hawaii to the U.S. mainland. Lowering the irradiation dose to 150 Gy for all three fruit fly species reduces the cost of irradiation quarantine treatment, increases treatment facility capacity, and minimizes quality issues in radiation-sensitive fruit and vegetables.

Developed a method using ruthenium red dye to stain southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula) feeding probes and indirectly assess feeding activity in macadamia nuts. Using the staining method, feeding probes were easily detected on the husk, shell, and kernel. Husk probing was highly correlated with feeding and damage to the kernel. Failure rate to detect kernel damage from stained husk probes was generally < 6%. The staining method was equally effective for immature and mature nuts, and therefore, N. viridula feeding activity can be monitored throughout the season to evaluate pest management tactics and forecast outbreak populations.

Showed that MB emissions could be reduced by fumigating at higher-than-ambient temperatures. Phytosanitary MB fumigations are typically done at ambient (¿21ºC) temperature. Aeration after fumigation releases MB into the atmosphere. MB, a major stratospheric ozone depleter, is being phased out under the Montreal Protocol, except for phytosanitary uses. However, phytosanitary uses increased significantly over the past decade, resulting in review by the MB Technical Options Committee of the Montreal Protocol and may result in future reductions. Fumigation at 25°C was as effective as at 30°C and significantly reduced the MB concentration needed to obtain 100% mortality (and reduced MB released during aeration) in Mediterranean and oriental fruit fly eggs and larvae. Therefore, raising fumigation temperatures about 5°C above ambient would provide the benefit of reducing MB emissions. The research provides a potential solution if MBTOC seeks additional emissions reductions by limiting phytosanitary fumigations.

Also see 4a and 4b. These accomplishments support Strategic Plan 4.3.2.2, Quarantine Strategies, within NP-304, Crop Protection and Quarantine, Insects and Mites Component, Postharvest, Pest Exclusion, and Quarantine Treatment.


6.What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end-user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products?
Irradiation research has led to several significant developments in the field of quarantine entomology. A generic irradiation quarantine treatment of 150 Gy to control any tephritid fruit flies and 400 Gy to control all insects was published as a Final Rule in the Federal Register on January 27, 2006. This is the first published regulation for a generic quarantine treatment for broad groups of quarantine insects. Hawaii currently is using the 400 Gy generic treatment to export bananas, papayas, rambutan, and longan fruits, and sweet potato roots. Publication of the rule will expedite approvals of new trade in a variety of fresh commodities for Hawaii and foreign countries. Thailand should become the first country to use the 400 Gy generic treatment when it begins exporting 6 tropical fruits later this year or in early 2007.

A simple, inexpensive method for on-farm quality evaluation of macadamia nuts was developed. This technology transfer allows growers to assess the quality of their nuts before delivery to a processor, and therefore, to align quality expectations with processor price adjustments.


7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below).
Armstrong, J. W. 2005. Ozone vacuum fumigation as a methyl bromide alternative for green coffee. 2005 Methyl Bromide Alternatives Outreach Conference, San Diego, CA, October 31-November 3, 2005. (Invited talk)

Armstrong, J. W. 2006. Off-shore Quarantine Treatments Research Programs (or, "Why wait 'til they get here?!"). 90th Annual Meeting of the Pacific Branch, Entomological Society of America, Wailea, Maui, Hawaii, March 5-8, 2006. (Invited talk)

Armstrong, J. W. 2006. Postharvest research for tropical fruit in the U.S. Pacific Basin. T-STAR Tropical Fruit Production and Handling Workshop. (Invited talk. July 6, 2006, Miami, FL)

Armstrong, J. W., Jang, E. B., Wang, S., Tang, J. 2005. Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Thermotolerance and Quarantine Heat Treatments. 2005 Entomological Society of America Meeting, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, December 15-18, 2005. (Poster)

Follett, P. A. "Update on quarantine treatments for tropical fruits," 15th Annual International Tropical Fruit Conference, Hilo, Hawaii, 2005 (Invited talk).

Follett, P. A. "Irradiation as a postharvest treatment for quarantine insects," and "Practical application of irradiation as a quarantine treatment in Hawaii," for the Taiwan Entomological Society and Taiwan Bureau of Animal and Plant Inspection and Quarantine, Taipei, 2005 (Invited talks).

Follett, P. A."Postharvest quarantine treatments to prevent the spread of Hawaii's pests to the Pacific Rim," symposium on Mitigating Pacific Rim Invasions, Annual Meeting of the Pacific Branch of the ESA, Maui, Hawaii, 2006 (Invited talk).

Follett, P. A. "Irradiation facility requirements and record keeping," at an IAEA workshop on Certification of Irradiation as a Phytosanitary Treatment for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables, Bangkok, Thailand, 2006 (Invited talk).

Gentry, T., Wall, M. M., Nagao, M. 2005. Rapid method for on-farm quality evaluation of macadamia nuts. Univ. Hawaii CTAHR Coop. Ext. Guide F&N-11a, P.4.

Golden, M., Follett, P. A., Wright, M. G. 2005. Forecasting stink bug damage in macadamia nuts. P. 35-40. In Proceedings of the 45th Annual Conference of the Hawaii Macadamia Nut Association, Hilo, HI.

Follett, P. A. 2005. Update on quarantine treatments for exporting tropical fruits. P. 64-69, In Proc. 15th Annual International Tropical Fruit Conference, Hilo, Hawaii, 2005.

Hollingsworth, R. G. "Invasive Species in Hawaii: How bad is the problem, and what can be done?" Waiakea Lions Club, Hilo, Hawaii, 2005 (Invited talk).

Hollingsworth, R. G. "New toxicants for control of snails and slugs infesting potted orchids," 2005 Conference of the Hawaii Orchid Growers Association, Hilo, Hawaii, 2005 (Invited talk).

Hollingsworth, R. G. "Aqueous limonene solutions for the control of plant pests," symposium on Insecticides of Natural Origin, Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, 2005 (Invited talk).

Hollingsworth, R. G. "Citrus peel extract cuts the wax of scales and mealybugs," symposium on Recent Advances in the Biological and Chemical Control of Arthropods in Floriculture, Annual Meeting of the Pacific Branch of the ESA, Maui, Hawaii, 2006 (Invited talk).

Wall, M. M. 2005. Vitamin and mineral content of Hawaii's papaya cultivars. Hawaii Papaya Industry Annual Conf. October 2005, Hilo, HI (Invited talk).

Wall, M. M. 2006. Vitamin C and mineral content of longan, lychee, and rambutan cultivars. Proc. 15th Annual International Tropical Fruit Conf. November 2005, Hilo, HI. P. 30-35 (Invited talk).

Nishijima, K. A., Wall, M. M., Siderhurst, M. S. 2006. Update of gray kernel disease of macadamia. Hawaii Macadamia Nut Association 46th Annual Conf. June 2006, Kailua-Kona, HI (Invited talk).

Wall, M. M. 2006. Postharvest research for tropical fruit in the U.S. Pacific Basin. T-STAR Tropical Fruit Production and Handling Workshop July 2006, Miami, FL (Invited talk).

Wright, M. G., Diez, J., Follett, P. A. 2005. Dispersal and effectiveness of mass-released green stink bug egg parasitoids. P. 37-40. In Proceedings of the 44th Annual Conference of the Hawaii Macadamia Nut Association, Hilo, HI.


Review Publications
Follett, P.A., Neven, L.G. 2006. Current trends in quarantine entomology. Annual Review Of Entomology. 51: 359-385.

Follett, P.A. 2006. Irradiation as a methyl bromide alternative for postharvest control of Omphisa anastomosalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Euscepes postfasciatus and Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Coleoptera: Curcuionidae) in sweetpotatoes. Journal of Economic Entomology. 99(1): 32-37.

Follett, P.A., Griffin, R. 2006. Irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for fresh horticultural commodities: research and regulations. In C.H. Sommers, and X Fan eds., Food Irradiation and Research and Technology, Blackwell Publishing, Ames, Iowa. P. 143-168.

Golden, M., Follett, P.A., Wright, M. 2006. Assessing Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) feeding damage in macadamia nuts by using a biological stain. Journal of Economic Entomology. 99(3): 822-827.

Wall, M.M. 2006. Ascorbic acid, provitamin A, and mineral composition of banana (Musa sp.) and papaya (Carica papaya) cultivars grown in Hawaii. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 19:434-455.

Wall, M.M. 2006. Ascorbic acid and mineral composition of longan (Dimocarpus longan), lychee (Litchee chinensis), and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) cultivars grown in Hawaii. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 19:655-663.

Last Modified: 9/20/2014
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