2007 Annual Report
Phylogeny of the Q biotype of Bemisia tabaci. Results of the analysis of the movement of the Q biotype into the U.S. using sensitive genetic markers, we have shown that it has entered the U.S. several times as distinct populations and the populations that exist in the U.S. have much greater genetic diversity than that observed for the established B biotype. Through extensive surveys from samples throughout the U.S., the Q biotype has not established in field populations and has only spread through greenhouse plant propagation systems. This data has been used in worldwide trade negotiations conducted to settle trade restriction issues being imposed to prevent the spread of B. tabaci and the plant diseases it vectors. NP 304, Component II – Biology of Pests and Natural Enemies, Problem Area II (A) – Basic Biology.
Attractants for Diaprepes root weevil. Olfactory responses of the Diaprepes root weevil to plant and conspecific odors using a gas chromatograph-coupled electroantennogram (GC/EAG) were studied. Plant volatiles were identified that elicit antennal responses, and at least two EAG-active volatile compounds produced by the weevil have been discovered and are now being tested in bioassays and wind tunnels studies. The objective of this work is to develop a chemical attractant for use in detection, monitoring, and control. An invention disclosure was submitted and approved describing the first chemical attractant for Diaprepes. NP 304, Component VI – Integrated Pest Management Systems and Areawide Suppression, Problem Area VI (A) – Sampling Methods, Detection and Monitoring.
Monitoring Asian citrus psyllid. Studies were conducted to compare yellow sticky card traps, blue sticky card traps, and various different traps for monitoring adult Asian citrus psyllid in citrus. A stem tapping method was also investigated. Yellow sticky traps captured significantly more adults than blue sticky traps in one study but not in another. Each of these traps captured significantly greater numbers of adults than any of the other traps studied, the latter of which appeared to have no value for monitoring the psyllid. Yellow and blue sticky traps were equally effective in detecting the presence of adults in trees. Tap sampling was easy to conduct and provided relatively good detection of trees infested by adults. An advantage to stem tap sampling over sticky trap sampling is that tap sampling provides information on the presence and relative abundance of adults during a single visit to a block of trees while sticky trap sampling requires two visits. NP 304, Component VI – Integrated Pest Management Systems and Areawide Suppression, Problem Area VI (A) – Sampling Methods, Detection and Monitoring.
Chemical control of the Asian citrus psyllid. The effects of a kaolin-based hydrophilic particle film, Surround WP, on the biology and behavior of the Asian citrus psyllid were studied, and population densities of the psyllid in citrus subjected to monthly applications of Surround WP were assessed. Surround WP in water applied directly was not acutely toxic to eggs, older nymphs or adults. However, presence of the dried particle film on leaves interfered with the ability of adults to grasp, walk and lay eggs on citrus leaves. In field studies, cumulative reductions of 60 to 78% in adult numbers were observed in treated trees compared to untreated trees. Numbers of eggs and nymphs were reduced by 85 and 78%, respectively, in trees treated with particle film. The suppressive effects of a Surround treatment against adult psyllids were degraded by rain. NP 304, Component V – Pest Control Strategies, Problem Area V (D) – Chemical Control.
Population ecology of the pink hibiscus mealybug. Studies on the seasonal ecology of the mealybug based on adult males captured in pheromone traps indicated that the pink hibiscus mealybug was consistently most abundant during late summer and early fall with peak populations occurring anytime during late August through early October. Populations of the mealybug were consistently low during winter and spring from January through mid April. The best time to initiate an applied management program for the mealybug may therefore be during the summer. NP 304, Component III – Plant, Pest and Natural Enemy Interactions and Ecology, Problem Area III (B) – Population Studies/Ecology.
Hall, D.G., Childers, C.C., Eger, J.E. 2007. Binomial sampling to estimate citrus rust mite (acari: eriophyidae) densities on orange fruit. Journal of Economic Entomology. 100: 233-240.
Lapointe, S.L., Borchert, D.M., Hall, D.G. 2007. Effect of low temperatures on mortality and oviposition in conjunction with climate mapping to predict spread of the root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus and introduced natural enemies. Environmental Entomology. 36(1):73-82.
Schuster, David, Howard Frank, Joe Funderburk, Phil Stansly, Cindy McKenzie, Jane Polston, Phylis Gilreath, and Amanda Hodges. 2006. Pest Managment pp. 41-90. In: J.L. Gillett, H.N. HansPetersen, N.C. Leppla, and D.D. Thomas (eds.). Grower's IPM Guide for Florida tomato and pepper production. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (Book Chapter) pp 259
Shatters, R.G., Boykin, L.M., Lapointe, S.L., Hunter, W.B., Weathersbee III, A.A. 2006. Phylogenetic and structural relationships of PR-5 gene family reveals an ancient multigene family conserved in plants and select animal taxa. Journal of Molecular Evolution. 63(1):12-29.
Sinisterra, X.H., Shatters, R.G. Jr, Hunter, W.B., Powell, C.A., McKenzie, C.L. 2006. Longevity of ingested mRNA transcripts in the gut of a homopteran (Bemisia tabaci): avoiding experimental artifacts. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 121(3): 5pp.
Hall, D.G., Lapointe, S.L., Wenninger, E. 2007. Effects of a particle film on biology and behavior of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its infestations in citrus. Journal of Economic Entomology. 100:847-854.
Weathersbee III, A.A., Lapointe, S.L., Shatters, R.G. 2006. Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis isolates against the root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Florida Entomologist 89:441-448.
Hall, D.G., Albrigo, L.G. 2007. Estimating the relative abundance of flush shoots in citrus, with implications on monitoring insects associated with flush. HortScience. 42:364-368.
Hall, D.G., Hentz, M.G., Ciomperlik, M.A. 2007. A comparison of traps and stem tap sampling for monitoring adult Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in citrus. Florida Entomologist. 90:327-334.