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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: IPM TECHNOLOGIES FOR SUBTROPICAL INSECT PESTS

Location: Subtropical Insects and Horticulture Research

2006 Annual Report


1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? Why does it matter?
The citrus, ornamental and vegetable industries are major economic businesses in the United States and particularly in Florida. The sustainability and profitability of these industries is continually challenged by subtropical arthropod pests. The major goal of this project is to increase sustainability of these industries by reducing economic losses to subtropical arthropod pests and by eliminating or reducing adverse environmental impacts associated with managing these pests. Research on invasive pest problems is emphasized. The southeastern U.S., and Florida in particular, are subject to introductions of exotic pest organisms due to geographic position, recent expansion of regional and global trade in agricultural products, and greatly increased tourist travel within and among areas of the U.S., Asia, Central and South America, and the Caribbean. Many of these exotic pests spread unabated due to absence of effective natural enemies. Considerable research is sometimes required to develop effective management programs for exotic pests. Current research under this project is directed toward invasive pests including the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaprepes root weevil, pink hibiscus mealybug, and different biotypes of the silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). Research goals of the project include providing growers with pest management technologies to reduce damage by pests; to decrease dependence on chemical insecticides; to lower production costs; to increase yields; and to reduce adverse effects of pest management strategies on the environment and human health. The project is intended to provide new biological control agents including insect parasitoids, predators and pathogens; plant resistance to insect pests through traditional and transgenic approaches; novel approaches to disrupting insect-plant interactions and insect vectoring of plant diseases; new detection and sampling methods; better understanding of insect-plant interactions; and information on genes/gene products that could lead to new control strategies.

The Diaprepes root weevil is an important invasive pest problem of citrus and certain horticultural crops in Florida, Texas and California. The Asian citrus psyllid is the leading invasive insect pest problem in Florida citrus because the psyllid vectors citrus greening, a devastating disease first found in Florida during August 2005. Another disease vector, the brown citrus aphid, has significantly increased the incidence of an important citrus disease in Florida, leading to yield losses, tree decline, and death of trees. More severe isolates of this citrus disease occur in other countries and could be devastating if introduced into the United States. The silverleaf whitefly has caused more than a billion dollars of production losses to growers throughout the U.S. since its introduction into Florida in 1986. This whitefly is the key pest of tomatoes in southern Florida, vectoring virus diseases and promoting an irregular ripening disorder that greatly reduces profitability of fresh tomatoes. The Q biotype of this whitefly from Europe that is insecticide resistant was recently found in the United States and has spread to a number of states. This new biotype could be devastating to the tomato and ornamental plant industries. The invasive pink hibiscus mealybug was discovered for the first time in the United States in Florida during June, 2002. Estimates indicate this mealybug could cause $750 million of damage annually over a range of horticultural and ornamental crops. The mealybug was initially restricted in Florida to small geographical areas but is spreading and proving difficult to manage on ornamental plants. An infested ornamental plant nursery unknowingly shipped plants potentially infested to 15 other states during 2004.

This program falls within Component VI (Integrated Pest Management Systems and Areawide Suppression) of NP 304. The project focuses on developing economical and sustainable management of important subtropical insect and mite pests of horticultural plants using environmentally appropriate strategies including biological control with insect parasitoids, predators and entomopathogens; host plant resistance; and disrupting chemical and biological aspects of plant-insect interactions. The project specifically addresses NP 304 goals 2.2.2.1 (Insect/Mite Biology & Biosystematics) and 2.2.2.4 (Insect and Mite Control) as described in the National Program Action Plan.


2.List by year the currently approved milestones (indicators of research progress)
Year 1 (FY 2005) Plant resistance to Diaprepes root weevil (DRW) - identify sources of plant resistance and elucidate the underlying mechanisms of resistance.

Develop a transgenic citrus rootstock with resistance to the Diaprepes root weevil based on the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) - characterize and sequence the Cry protein from active Bt isolates, construct a synthetic homolog, and construct a transformation vector.

Reduce silverleaf whitefly (SLW) mediated crop losses in tomato through molecular analysis of plant resistance and virus transmission - Global identification of tomato genes associated with SLW feeding will be initiated using gene array technology, evaluations of the systemic nature of SLW feeding induced changes in tomato will be initiated, and Begomovirus-induced changes in viruliferous SLW will be investigated.

Discover, import, release, and monitor establishment and impact of parasitoids for biological control of the Diaprepes root weevil - Establish release sites and initiate releases of Q. haitiensis and A. vaquitarum, initiate foreign exploration for parasitoids in Dominica, Dominican Republic, Montserrat and/or Guadeloupe.

Describe basic biology of the Lobate lac scale alone and in association with entomopathogenic fungi - Establish a laboratory colony of the scale.

Develop methods for detecting, monitoring and managing pink hibiscus mealybug using a synthetic sex pheromone - Optimal trap design will be determined based on male pink hibiscus mealybug and non-target catch, effective range of pheromone-baited traps and residual activity will be determined.

Investigate basic biology and ecology of the Asian citrus psyllid and its natural enemies and develop methods for monitoring the psyllid - Assessments will be initiated of psyllid infestation densities and biological control.

Year 2 (FY 2006) Plant resistance to Diaprepes root weevil (DRW) - characterize elite citrus rootstock germplasm for reaction to DRW before varietal release and investigate biochemical basis for resistance in Tephrosia candida and other plant species.

Develop a transgenic citrus rootstock with resistance to the Diaprepes root weevil - verify Bt-toxin activity of the transformation vector, develop a model plant system for analysis of transgenic expression of the Bt-toxin construct, and initiate transformation of citrus.

Reduce silverleaf whitefly (SLW) mediated crop losses in tomato - Global identification of tomato genes associated with SLW feeding will be continued, and investigations of the systemic nature of SLW feeding induced changes in tomato and on begomovirus induced changes in viruliferous SLW will be continued.

Increase biological control of the Diaprepes root weevil - Continue regular monitoring for parasitoids and releases of natural enemies, evaluate establishment and impact of parasitoids, compare establishment among release locations and host plants. Continue foreign exploration for parasitoids.

Describe basic biology of the Lobate lac scale alone and in association with entomopathogenic fungi - Gather qualitative and quantitative information on the scale’s biology including development, sex ratio, reproduction, fecundity, and longevity.

Develop methods for detecting, monitoring and managing pink hibiscus mealybug using a synthetic sex pheromone - Seasonal phenology of pink hibiscus mealybug will be assessed using weekly trap catches of males, deployment strategies for traps will be investigated for applications in ornamental plantings.

Investigate basic biology and ecology of the Asian citrus psyllid and its natural enemies and develop methods for monitoring the psyllid - Development of hierarchical sampling plans and trapping methods for the psyllid will be initiated, assessments will be continued of psyllid infestation densities and biological control.

Year 3 (FY 2007) Plant resistance to Diaprepes root weevil (DRW) - biochemicals associated with resistance to DRW in roots of Tephrosia candida and other plant species will be isolated and identified.

Develop a transgenic citrus rootstock with resistance to the Diaprepes root weevil - evaluate model plant system and continue transformations of citrus.

Reduce silverleaf whitefly (SLW) mediated crop losses in tomato – Research will be concluded on identifying tomato genes associated with SLW feeding, on the systemic nature of SLW feeding induced changes in tomato and on begomovirus induced changes in viruliferous SLW. Verification of gene expression changes discovered will be initated.

Increase biological control of the Diaprepes root weevil - Continue releases and evaluations. For parasitoids with incomplete establishment, investigate reasons and possible steps to achieve complete establishment. Assess spread of parasitoids from release locations.

Describe basic biology of the Lobate lac scale alone and in association with entomopathogenic fungi - Develop entomopathogenic assay techniques. Begin screening commercially available entomopathogenic fungi formulations in the laboratory and greenhouse.

Develop methods for detecting, monitoring and managing pink hibiscus mealybug using a synthetic sex pheromone - Seasonal phenology of pink hibiscus mealybug will be concluded. The ability of pheromone to disrupt mating will be quantified. The response of parasitoids to the female sex pheromone will be described.

Investigate basic biology and ecology of the Asian citrus psyllid and its natural enemies and develop methods for monitoring the psyllid - Assessments will be concluded of psyllid infestation densities and biological control. Evaluations of methods of monitoring psyllid continue.

Year 4 (FY 2008) Plant resistance to Diaprepes root weevil (DRW) - determination of the structure and activity of natural products from Tephrosia spp. and other plant species with activity towards DRW.

Develop a transgenic citrus rootstock with resistance to the Diaprepes root weevil - screening of transgenic citrus will be initiated and of transgenic model plants continued.

Reduce silverleaf whitefly (SLW) mediated crop losses in tomato - Verification of gene expression changes will be continued, and comparisons of virus tolerant and susceptible varieties will be concluded. Experiments to identify gene expression changes in SLW that influence begomovirus transmission will be concluded.

Increase biological control of the Diaprepes root weevil - Continue releases and evaluations. For parasitoids with incomplete establishment, investigate reasons and possible steps to achieve complete establishment. Assess spread of parasitoids from release locations.

Describe basic biology of the Lobate lac scale alone and in association with entomopathogenic fungi - Continue screening commercially available entomopathogenic fungi formulations in the laboratory and greenhouse. Field test promising formulations.

Develop methods for detecting, monitoring and managing pink hibiscus mealybug using a synthetic sex pheromone - Best management practices and recommended integrated control tactics based on accumulated knowledge of behavior, response to pheromone traps, capacity for mating disruption, and integration with classical biological control agents will be investigated using data from the project.

Investigate basic biology and ecology of the Asian citrus psyllid and its natural enemies and develop methods for monitoring the psyllid - Research on methods of trapping psyllids will be concluded, statistics associated with spatial distribution and sampling parameters for the psyllid will be investigated, and studies on the dispersal of adult psyllids and on the potential of plant resistance for psyllid management will be initiated.

Year 5 (FY 2009) Plant resistance to Diaprepes root weevil (DRW) - finalize determination of the structure and activity of natural products from Tephrosia spp. and other species with activity towards DRW.

Develop a transgenic citrus rootstock with resistance to the Diaprepes root weevil - transgenic citrus plants will be tested for resistance to larvae and used as rootstock in grafting experiments, and the ability of the Bt-toxin to move through the graft union to the scion will be determined. Permits will be obtained and experiments initiated to field test citrus expressing the Bt-toxin.

Reduce silverleaf whitefly (SLW) mediated crop losses in tomato - Gene regulation information from comparisons of plant response in resistant and susceptible tomato lines will be used to develop transgenic methods for production of whitefly/virus resistant tomato. Molecular markers associated with resistance genes for use in tomato breeding will be identified. Important molecular steps necessary for begomovirus transmission in whitefly will be described, and the information will be investigated with respect to developing control strategies.

Increase biological control of the Diaprepes root weevil - Continue releases and evaluations. For parasitoids with incomplete establishment, investigate reasons and possible steps to achieve complete establishment. Assess spread of parasitoids from release locations.

Describe basic biology of the Lobate lac scale alone and in association with entomopathogenic fungi - Conclude field tests.

Develop methods for detecting, monitoring and managing pink hibiscus mealybug using a synthetic sex pheromone - Conclude formulating best management practices and recommended integrated control tactics.

Investigate basic biology and ecology of the Asian citrus psyllid and its natural enemies and develop methods for monitoring the psyllid - Investigations on sampling protocols for the psyllid, dispersal capabilities of adult psyllids, and preliminary research on plant resistance will be concluded.


4a.List the single most significant research accomplishment during FY 2006.
Participation in a national survey of B. tabaci whitefly resulted in biotype determinations of over 1,000 individual whiteflies from throughout the U.S., South America, and the Mediterranean areas. Analyses showed there have been at least two introductions into the U.S. of the Q biotype rather than a single introduction as was once thought. This is of practical importance since different Q biotype populations have different insecticide resistance profiles. Microsatellite marker analysis showed little if any gene flow occurs between the B and Q populations, supporting other findings about mating incompatibility between the two biotypes. The first comprehensive global phylogeny for the B. tabaci species complex was determined, from which nine distinct B. tabaci clades from distinct geographical affinities were identified. Based on the research, Sub-Saharan Africa is the most probable origin of B. tabaci and that the new world biotype A is most likely of Asian origin.


4b.List other significant research accomplishment(s), if any.
The physiological and developmental responses of all life stages of the Diaprepes root weevil to low temperatures were described, including a lower temperature threshold for oviposition. These data were used to generate a climate model in collaboration with APHIS to describe the current distribution of Diaprepes in Florida and to predict those regions in other U.S. states that are susceptible to establishment of Diaprepes and its parasitoid natural enemies. The study will allow state agencies to focus their efforts on those areas most susceptible to infestation, thereby conserving resources. The study indicated that Diaprepes root weevil could successfully establish within limited areas in California, Arizona and Texas but that egg parasitoids would be unlikely to successfully establish in these areas. Egg parasitoid establishment in Florida will likely be restricted to southern areas of the state.

Work was initiated to determine the olfactory response of the Diaprepes root weevil to plant and conspecific odors using a gas chromatograph-coupled electroantennogram (GC/EAG) in collaboration with ARS scientists at the Chemicals Affecting Insects Behavior Laboratory (CAIBL). Plant volatiles have been identified that elicit antennal responses and at least two EAG-active volatile compounds produced by the weevil have been discovered and are now being tested in the field. The objective of this work is to develop a chemical attractant for use in detection, monitoring, and control of the Diaprepes root weevil.

The attraction of the citrus leafmining moth Phyllocnistis citrella to three semiochemicals isolated from female pheromone gland extracts was documented for the first time in a Florida citrus grove. More moths were caught in traps baited with a binary lure consisting of two major EAG-active components. Addition of a third compound did not increase attractiveness of the traps. Trap height within a citrus grove canopy did not affect daily trap catch. This is the first pheromone trap available to monitor and detect the presence of citrus leafminer. The pheromone has application in the citrus-producing states of Alabama, Louisiana, Texas, California, and Hawaii.

BotaniGard ES mycoinsecticide (Beauveria bassiana) was evaluated for efficacy against two age groups (small and large) of lobate lac scale on two susceptible ornamental hosts, southern wax myrtle and co-co plum. The mycoinsecticide was applied according to the label as a rooted cutting dip at the recommended high rate and compared to an untreated control using cone-tainer plants. Mortality increased overtime for both life stages and host plants evaluated in the BontiGard treatments; however, no sporolation of Beauvaria bassiana entomopathogenic fungi was observed during the trial. The BotaniGard ES formulation does contain petroleum distillates in the inert ingredients which may have contributed to lobate lac scale mortality, but further testing needs to be conducted to insure environments are conducive for B. bassiana survival.

Phenology of Asian citrus psyllid in Florida citrus not treated with insecticides was clarified based on counts of adults on yellow sticky traps (7.8 x 12.8 cm) placed in trees, counts of adults per pair of mature leaves, and counts of adults, eggs and nymphs on vegetative flush shoots. Peak means commonly observed during the year were: 30 to 50 adults/trap/wk, 0.1 to 0.2 adults/leaf pair, 50 to 65 eggs/flush shoot, 40 to 65 nymphs/flush shoot, and 0.5 to 0.8 adults/flush shoot. Adult psyllids were present continually but sometimes at very low levels for extended periods of time. Immatures and adults were consistently abundant during the summer in association with vegetative flush and sometimes abundant during other times of the year in association with flush or blooms. Observations during a late bloom during May 2006 revealed the psyllid readily lays eggs and develops on young developing blooms. Evidence to-date indicates outbreaks of Asian citrus psyllid in Florida citrus consistently occur during the summer but may develop at any time of the year depending on environmental conditions and the availability of flush or blooms.

Biological control of the pink hibiscus mealybug has been established in Florida and appears to be highly successful. The female-produced sex pheromone was identified, synthesized, and tested in the field. The sex pheromone was patented and is available to industry. However, the success of highly effective biological control agents has reduced the need for detection and monitoring so as to minimize the market for commercialization of the pheromone. Work was completed to determine the optimal trap deployment methods, but the successful biological control argues for reduced research emphasis on this species in the future. Studies on the seasonal ecology of the mealybug based on adult males captured in pheromone traps indicate that the mealybug is consistently most abundant during the summer months of July and August.

Exploration for new natural enemies of Diaprepes root weevil was conducted in St. Croix. Meanwhile, release permits for two new parasitoid species Haeckeliania sperata and Fidiobia dominica under quarantine in Homestead have been approved. Releases of these parasitoids in Florida will be initiated pending colony increases.

The botanical compound(s) responsible for plant resistance to Diaprepes root weevil in the tropical legume Tephrosia candida was isolated through bioassay-driven chemical fractionation. A highly active fraction has been isolated. Final elucidation of the structure(s) is expected in FY07. Impact may involve the use of this plant as a cover or fallow crop, and the use of the toxic compounds as botanical insecticides.

Research on a set of Cry proteins produced by a collection of patented Bacillus thuringiensis isolates revealed that the most active isolates against Diaprepes root weevil larvae were those expressing CryET33 and CryET34, or Cyt2Ca1 toxins. The Cyt2Ca1 toxin produced by one of a number of isolates tested was most toxic based on probit analyses of data. Research on this particular isolate is being expanded.

Research on B. tabaci-Begomovirus interactions showed how different Begomoviruses influence the regulation of specific putative innate immunity genes that are also stress regulated. This work is supporting previous work that shows that different Begomoviruses interact in unique ways with B. tabaci. As part of this work we have, in collaboration with two other research groups, published and submitted to genbank the most comprehensive collection of B. tabaci EST sequences in the world.

Microarray analysis results of tomato plants showed a total of 68 genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis were up or down-regulated in response to whitefly feeding after 25 days of infestation. The highest fold changes in gene expression were in old leaf tissue (4.78) and fruit (-8.58).


4c.List significant activities that support special target populations.
None.


4d.Progress report.
None.


5.Describe the major accomplishments to date and their predicted or actual impact.
Seasonal ecology of the pink hibiscus mealybug and the efficacy of a new synthetic sex pheromone as a tool for monitoring the pest were clarified. Infestation levels of the pest were shown to be highest during the months of July and August, thus IPM tactics may be strategically timed just prior to or during this time period. The synthetic attractant was shown to be effective and had an effective life of greater than 7 months when impregnated in rubber septa.

Advances were made in biological control of the Diaprepes root weevil. Two Caribbean parasitoid species have been established in south Florida for control of Diaprepes root weevil, but these have not adapted to other citrus areas in Florida due to an absence of the appropriate stage of the weevil during winter months. Foreign exploration for additional parasitoids has resulted in two new promising species that have just been approved for release.

A particle film, kaolin, applied as a foliar spray was demonstrated to suppress infestations of Diaprepes root weevil in citrus and to enhance tree growth. This possible new IPM tool for the pest could have significant impact pending development of a rain-fast formulation.

The phylogeny of the Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspensa in relation to different geographic strains of the pest and to other Anastrepha species was clarified. Molecular procedures were developed for distinguishing Anastrepha species. These procedures are being refined and will be transferred to regulatory agencies, notably the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services for rapid distinction between A. suspensa and A. ludens. Suspect host shifts among A. suspensa individuals in Florida could not be confirmed using mitochondrial dna analyses based on the CO1 region.

A plastic version of the glass McPhail trap baited with a two-component lure consisting of ammonium acetate and putrescine was shown to be superior to the standard glass McPhail trap baited with torula yeast in water for required protocol monitoring of Caribbean fruit fly in fresh grapefruit for the export market. The new trap with the two-component lure is easier to use and less expensive. Impact: The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services is interested in adopting the new trapping approach pending approval within the foreign market.

Thousands of gene transcripts were identified and compared between different insect species including Asian citrus psyllid, Diaprepes root weevil, silverleaf whitefly, Caribbean fruit fly, brown citrus aphid and glassy-wing sharpshooter. Elucidating the function of these genes will advance understanding of gene-regulation of insect development, digestion, pathogen interactions and other aspects of insect biology. The sequences were annotated and published in the public domain.


6.What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end-user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products?
Research by the Subtropical Insects Research Unit prompted collaborative research within ARS toward successful development of an attractant for the invasive pink hibiscus mealybug. Although commercialization of the pheromone is not expected due to the success of biological control in reducing populations of the mealybug, USDA-APHIS and the Florida Department of Agriculture are using traps baited with the attractant for surveillance purposes.


7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below).
Boykin, L.M., R.G. Shatters, Jr., R.C. Rosell, C.L. McKenzie, R.A. Bagnall, P. De Barro,& D.R. Frohlich. 2006. Global Relationships of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) revealed using Bayesian Analysis of mitochondrial COI DNA sequence. Evolution 2006 Meeting. Boykin, L.M., Frohlich, D.R., Shatters, R.G., Rosell, R.C., McKenzie, C.L., Bagnall, R.A. 2006. Bayesian analysis of COI DNA sequence reveals the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a well supported species complex. The Eighty-Ninth Annual Meeting and Fifth International Caribbean Conference of the Florida Entomological Society, July 2006.

Hall, D.G., Childers, C.C., Eger, J.E. 2005. Estimating citrus rust mite densities on fruit. Citrus & Vegetable Magazine. 69: 8-9.

Hall, D.G. 2005. The Asian citrus psyllid and citrus greening – a closer look at the vector. Florida Grower. November 21. http://www.floridagrower.net/forging_ahead/20051121_psyllid.html

Hall, D.G. 2005. Diaphorina: Biology, life cycle, sampling and implications. Overview of the Asian citrus psyllid. Proceedings of the Second International Citrus Canker and Huanglongbing Research Workshop, Orlando, FL 2: 60.

Hall, D.G. 2005. Sampling to detect and monitor Diaprepes abbreviatus and other otiorhynchid weevils associated with citrus – state of the science and challenges for the future. Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

Hall, D.G. 2006. Asian citrus psyllid and citrus greening: a closer look at the vector. Citrus & Vegetable Magazine. 70(5):24-26.

Hall, D.G. 2006. Asian citrus psyllid – biology and seasonal ecology. 89th Ann. Meeting of the Florida Entomological Society, Jupiter Beach, FL.

Hunter, W.B., Smith, M. 2005. 5th-instar Anoplophora glabripennis larva (Coleoptera: Cerambicidae) cDNA clones, Acc. Nos.-DR108748-DR109303, Set of 556 mRNA sequences. Plus two full-length cDNA, DQ067276 & DQ067275. NCBI.(Public Database).

Hunter, W.B., Dang, P.M., McKenzie, C.L. 2005 Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Diaphorina citri, Acc. nos.- DN465721-DN470410, 4,686 mRNA sequences. (Public Database).

Hunter, W.B., McKenzie, C.L., Shatters, R.G., Weathersbee, A.A., Hall, D.G. Gene expression in field collected Asian citrus psylla, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) 1,220 EST’s, Acc. Nos. DN202325-DN201110. NCBI. (Public Database).

Hunter, W.B., Dang, P.M. 2005. Gene expression in filed collected Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). National Center for Biotechnology Information, NCBI. http://www4.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/. (Public Database).

Hunter, W.B., Dang, P.M., Cabrera, I., Powell, C.A. 2005. Gene expression in field collected Citrus Root Weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus L. (DRW) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Acc. Nos.-DN199437-DN201109. 1,674 mRNA sequences. NCBI. (Public Database).

Hunter, W.B., Katsar, C.S., McKenzie, C.L., Shatters, Jr., R.G., Weathersbee, A.A., Hall, D.G. 2006. Gene expression in the Asian citrus psyllid: vector of citrus greening (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). 89th Ann. Meeting of the Florida Entomological Society, Jupiter Beach, FL, Jul 24-26, 2006 (poster)

Lapointe, S.L. 2005. Progress in development of a sex pheromone for the citrus leafminer. Posted 11/7/05 to website of the Florida Citrus Production and Research Advisory Council. http://207.234.165.77/artman/publish/article_69.shtml. (Technical Bulletin)

Lapointe, S.L. 2005. Progress in discovery of an attractant for the Diaprepes root weevil. Posted 11/7/05 to website of the Florida Citrus Production and Research Advisory Council. http://207.234.165.77/artman/publish/article_70.shtml. (Technical Bulletin)

Lapointe, S.L. 2006. Book review: “Imaginal discs: the genetic and cellular logic of pattern formation” Florida Entomologist 89: 425.

McKenzie, C.L., Shatters, R.G., Albano, J.P., Sinisterra, X.H., Powell, C.A. 2005. Determining the role of ethylene in the development of tomato irregular ripening disorder using microarray technology and rt-real time PCR. Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

McKenzie, C.L., Mannion, C. 2005. Effect of Beauveria bassiana on Lobate lac scale infesting ornamentals. Arthropod Management Tests 30: G43 2 pp. htty:www.entsoc.org/protected/AMT/AMT30/AMT30.aspx?Report=G43.htm (report).

McKenzie C.L., Boykin L.M., Bryne F, Bethke J, Shatters, Jr., R.G. 2006. Microsatellite Technology as a Tool for Managing Insecticide Resistance in the Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Biotypes B and Q). Proceedings of the 5th National IPM Symposium. Pp. 68-69.

Shatters Jr., R.G., Weathersbee III, A.A., Dang, P. M., Panchal, T. D. 2005. Lysiphlebus testaceipes PR-5-like protein (pr-5L-1) mRNA, complete cds. Accession AY863030. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ (Genbank Accession).

Shatters, Jr., R.G., Boykin, L.M., Bagnall, R.A., Rosell, R.C., McKenzie, C.L., Frohlich, D.R. 2006. Phylogenetic Relationship of Bemisia tabaci Determined By Bayesian Analysis Of CoI Sequence Variation. Plant & Animal Genomes XIV Conference.

Shatters, Jr., R.G., McKenzie, C.L., Brown, J.K., Czosnek, H. 2006. An EST based trascriptome analysis of Bemisia tabaci (whitefly) response to vectored plant pathogenic begomoviruses. Plant & Animal Genomes XIV Conference.

Weathersbee III, A.A., Boykin, L, Katsar, C. 2005. Cytosolic and extracellular Cu, Zn superoxide dismutases from Lysiphlebus testaceipes. 2005 Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting, For Lauderdale, FL, December 15-18, 2005. Poster D0542 available from: http://esa.confex.com/esa/viewHandout.cgi?uploadid=412.

Weathersbee III, A.A., Hunter, W. B., Panchal, T. D., Dang, P. M. 2005. Lysiphlebus testaceipes knottin-like protein (Ltk) mRNA, complete cds. Accession DQ323126. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/(Genbank Accession).


Review Publications
Boykin, L.M., Shatters, Jr, R.G., Hall, D.G., Burns, R.E., Franqui, R.A. 2006. Analysis of host preference and geographical distribution of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) using phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial cytrochrome oxidase I DNA sequence data. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 96:1-13.

Hall, D.G., Konstantinov, A.S., Hodges, G.S., Sosa, O., Welbourn, C., Westcott, R.L. 2005. Insect and mites new to Florida sugarcane. American Society of Sugar Cane Technologists. 25: 143-156.

Huang, Z., Hunter, W.B., Cleland, C., Wolinski, M., Lapointe, S.L., Powell, C. 2006. A new member of the growth-promoting Glycoproteins from Diaprepes root weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Florida Entomologist. 89(2): 223-232.

Lapointe, S.L., McKenzie, C.L., Hall, D.G. 2006. Reduced oviposition by Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and growth enhancement of citrus by surround particle film. Journal of Economic Entomology. 99(1):109-116.

Sinisterra, X.H., Powell, C.A., Bausher, M.G., Albano, J.P., Shatters, Jr., R.G. 2006. Deciphering changes in plant physiological response to whitefly feeding using microarray technology. Acta Horticulturae.(ISHS)695:347-352.

Nagoshi, R.N., Meagher Jr, R.L., Nuessley, G., Hall, D.G. 2006. Effects of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) interstrain mating in wild populations. Environmental Entomology. 35:561-568.

Castillo, J., Jacas, J.A., Pena, J., Ulmer, B., Hall, D.G. 2005. Effect of temperature on life history of Quadrastichus haitiensis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an endoparasitoid of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Biological Control. 36:189-196.

Last Modified: 7/23/2014
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