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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: CHEMICAL SIGNALS FOR MANAGING INSECTS
2007 Annual Report


1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Manage insect pests and beneficials through discovery and development of behaviorally active compounds including insect- and plant-produced attractants, feeding stimulants and deterrents. Enhance the effectiveness of beneficial insects, e.g. predators and parasitoids, with chemical signals.


1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Isolate chemical mixtures by aeration or direct extraction of insects and plants. Separate components of mixtures using chromatography and determine active compounds using coupled GC-electroantennogram detection and behavioral bioassays. Identify chemical structures using coupled chromatography-mass spectrometry and other spectral means. Verify identifications by synthesis or by comparison to commercial standards, and evaluate active chemicals in the laboratory and field. Characterize neural mechanisms used by targeted species to detect chemical signals. Determine processes regulating synthesis and release of insect and plant signals in order to improve their effectiveness and provide insight into novel approaches.


4.Accomplishments
Attractants and repellents for invasive tropical root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus - The tropical root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus, was introduced into the southern part of United States in 1964 where it is considered a major threat to orange crops and ornamental trees. Currently, the weevil is endemic in areas of citrus growing regions of Florida and Texas, and now infestations are reported in Orange, Los Angeles and San Diego counties in California. While some methods are available to control and detect this invasive insect, new knowledge is desperately needed to enhance existing detection techniques, and develop new sustainable pest management strategies. We identified specific volatiles emitted by citrus foliage attractive to Diaprepes females in laboratory behavioral bioassays. The same blend of volatiles is repellent to males. This is the first synthetic attractant ever identified for this invasive weevil. Our identification of a synthetic attractant for the tropical root weevil should lead to improved detection and monitoring of this invasive species, and novel management strategies for pestiferous populations. National Program Component II: Biology of Pests and Natural Enemies; Problem Area IIA: Basic Biology.

Range expansion of the brown marmorated stink bug - Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), including the newly invasive brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), are increasingly important since they are able to feed on genetically modified cotton and corn. Lures are needed to monitor and manage this emerging stink bug problem. Traps baited with methyl (2E,4E,6Z)-decatrienoate beginning in 2004 showed that the BMSB population has exploded in central Maryland from being undetectable in 2004 to current levels of hundreds of BMSBs in traps late in the season. In the course of this work it was also discovered that methyl 2,4,6-decatrienoates attract certain native stink bugs. This research demonstrates that the spread of the BMSB can accurately be forecasted using chemically baited traps, and adds impetus for the commercial development of lures useful in the management of both native and invasive stink bugs. National Program Component II: Biology of Pests and Natural Enemies; Problem Area IIA: Basic Biology.


5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
none.


6.Technology Transfer

Number of new CRADAs and MTAs4
Number of active CRADAs and MTAs3
Number of invention disclosures submitted1
Number of patent applications filed2
Number of non-peer reviewed presentations and proceedings15
Number of newspaper articles and other presentations for non-science audiences2

Review Publications
Aldrich, J.R., Khrimian, A., Zhang, A., Shearer, P. 2006. Bug pheromones (hemiptera: heteroptera) and tachinid fly host-finding. Denisia. 19:1015-1031.

Brown, A.E., Aldrich, J.R., Riddick, E.W., Holmes, W.E. 2006. The Identification of (-)-B-Caryophyllene as a Gender Specific Terpene Produced by the Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 32:2489-2499.

Dickens, J.C. 2007. Sexual contact influences orientation to plant attractant in Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Naturwissenschaften, DOI 10.1007/S00114-007-0261-2. ON-LINE.

Hammock, J.A., Vinyard, B., Dickens, J.C. 2007. Response to host plant odors and aggregation pheromone by larvae of the Colorado potato beetle on a servosphere. Arthropod-Plant Interactions 1:7-35.

Margaryan, A., Aldrich, J.R., Moaddel, R., Tsuruda, J., Chen, A., Leal, W., Wainer, I. 2006. Synthesis of an immobilized bombyx mori pheromone binding protein liquid chromatography stationary phase.. Talanta. 70(4):752-755.

Zhang, A., Wang, S., Vitullo, J., Roda, A., Minnion, C., Bergh, C. 2006. Olfactory discrimination of sex pheromone stereoisomers: chirality recognition by pink hibiscus mealybug males. Chemical Senses. 31(7):621-626.

Zhang, Q., Chauhan, K.R., Erbe, E.F., Vellore, A.R., Aldrich, J.R. 2004. Semiochemistry of the goldeneyed lacewing Chrysopa oculata (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): Attraction of males to a male-produced pheromone. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 30(9):1831-1853.

Zhang, Q., Sheng, M., Chen, G., Aldrich, J.R., Chauhan, K.R. 2006. Iridodial: a powerful attractant for the green lacewing, chrysopa septempunctata (neuroptera: chrysopidae). Naturwissenschaften. 93: 461-465.

Aldrich, J.R., Khrimian, A., Camp, M.J. 2007. Methyl 2,4,6-decatrienoates attract stink bugs (hemiptera: heteroptera: pentatomidae) and tachinid parasitoids. Journal of Chemical Ecology 33:801-815.

Robbins, P.S., Zhang, A., Averill, A.L., Linn, Jr., C.E., Roelofs, W.L., Villani, M.G., Sylvia, M.M. Sex pheromone of the cranberry root grub, lichnanthe vulpine. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 32(8): 1663-1672.

Vitullo, J., Wang, S., Zhang, A., Minnion, C., Bergh, J. Comparison of sex pheromone traps for monitoring pink hibiscus mealybug, (hemiptera: pseudococcidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 100(2):405-410.

Last Modified: 9/10/2014
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