2007 Annual Report
Pathogen effects on pests of potato tubers. Pacific coast wireworm, flea beetles, and potato tuber worms cause damage to tubers throughout Washington and Oregon and methods of control of these pests are limited. ARS Scientists at the Fruit and Vegetable Insect Research Unit in Wapato, WA, isolated fungi from wireworms, formulated and tested baits, and established flea beetle colonies and develop bioassays. The fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, in a bait formulation, was assayed in lab and field trials. It was found that the larvae in the laboratory that were confined in moist soil became infected and the biofumigant, Muscodor albus was not detrimental to wireworms, but was lethal to potato tuber moth adults and larvae. These results suggest possible control options using pathogens against several insect pests of potato. NP 304 Component II: Biology of Pests & Natural Enemies (Microbes), Problem Statement A: Basic Biology; Component II: Plant, Pest, & Natural Enemy Interactions & Ecology, Problem Statement A: Understanding the Complex Interactions; Component V: Pest Control Technologies, Problem Statement A: Traditional Biological Control
New methods to measure aphid movement.
Green peach aphid is the most important insect pest of potatoes and many other vegetables because it transmits a variety of diseases to these crops. Identifying the weedy reservoirs of potato diseases used by the aphid and identifying when diseases are spread to new potato fields is difficult because the aphid is very small and may spread diseases when the aphids are still in low abundance and not readily detected. Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory, Wapato, WA, developed a method to mark aphids on weedy plants using an inexpensive protein marker which allows use to spray large areas. The lab also developed a dry trapping method suitable for recapturing the aphids that retains the mark. This method should allow us to pinpoint weedy source of both aphids and diseases near new potato fields. Understanding sources of potato diseases vectored by the green peach aphid in the environment will allow two approaches to improved management:.
Enhancing predation of green peach aphid in potatoes. The green peach aphid is a major pest of potato, especially because of damaging virus diseases it transmits to this crop. Studies at the Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory, Wapato, WA, using lures with natural floral chemicals showed that predation of this insect pest could be enhanced by attracting beneficial insects in potato fields by deploying these lures. The use of these lures could greatly reduce the use of pesticides targeted against this insect pest in potatoes. NP 304 Component II: Biology of Pests & Natural Enemies (Microbes), Problem Statement A: Basic Biology; Component III: Plant, Pest, & Natural Enemy Interactions & Ecology, Problem Statement A: Understanding the Complex Interactions; Component V: Pest Control Technologies, Problem Statement A: Traditional Biological Control
De Camelo, L.A., Landolt, P.J., Zack, R.S. 2007. A kairomone based attract-and-kill system effective against alfalfa looper (lepidoptera: noctuidae).Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 100(2):366-374.
Landolt, P.J., Pantoja, A., Hagerty, A.M., Crabo, L., Green, D.L. 2007. Moths trapped in Alaska with feeding attractant lures and the seasonal flight patterns of potential agricultural pests. The Canadian Entomologist 139:278-291.
Landolt, P.J., Buchanan, C.L., Zack, R.S., Camelo, L. 2006. Attraction of Heliothis belladonna (Henry and Edwards) to the sex pheromone of the corn earworm moth, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Kansas Entomological Society. 79(4):303-308.
Munyaneza, J.E., Crosslin, J., Upton, J.E. 2007. Association of Bactericera cockerelli (Homoptera: Psyllidae) with 'Zebra Chip', a New Potato Disease in Southwestern United States and Mexico. Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 100(3): 656-663.
Crosslin, J., Vandemark, G.J., Munyaneza, J.E. 2006. Development of a real-time, quantitative PCR for detection of the Columbia Basin potato purple top phytoplasma in plants and beet leafhoppers. Plant Disease. 90:663-667.
Lee, I., Bottner, K.D., Munyaneza, J.E., Davis, R.E., Crosslin, J., Du Toit, L., Crosby, T. 2006. Carrot purple leaf: a new carrot disease associated with spiroplasma citri and phytoplasmas in Washington State. Plant Disease.90-989-993.