2008 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Objective 1. Develop new knowledge of life history, behavior, genetics, physiology, and ecology of CM, leafrollers, pear psylla, cherry fruit fly, apple maggot, secondary pests, and their natural enemies that provide opportunities for new and improved bio-rational management of tree fruit insect pests.
Objective 2. Develop monitoring methods and techniques that provide information to growers on the presence and threat level from pear psylla and CM.
Objective 3. Develop biorational and sustainable methods for control of CM, leafrollers, pear psylla, and fruit fly pests of tree fruits.
Objective 4. Develop and refine postharvest treatments for quarantine and phytosanitation pests to maintain or increase domestic and foreign markets of deciduous tree fruit.
Objective 5. Develop and evaluate multicomponent systems approach where accumulative effects of different processes suitable for commercial operations reduce or eliminate postharvest arthropod pests.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Objective 1. Determine foods used by fruit flies over nature. Determine local movement patterns of fruit flies. Evaluate nutritional requirements of fruit flies. Characterize pear psylla behavioral responses to psylla and pear odors. Determine impact of insecticides on codling moth development by looking at mating and oviposition following exposures. Anthocoroid predators of psylla will be studied to determine behavioral, morphological, and molecular differences among species. Monoclonal antibodies and PCR techniques will be used to identify pear psylla consumed by predators. New methods for moving and stabilizing genes will be evaluated for use against codling moth.
Objective 2. Formulations and chemicals for feeding attractant and kairomone lures will be tested for fruit flies. Arena and flight tunnel assays, GC-EAD and GC-MS will be used to isolate and identify new kairomonal attractans and pheromones for psylla and codling moth.
Objective 3. New formulations will be developed for virus and nematode pathogens of insects. Baits and insecticides will be modified and formulated for killing fruit flies. Dispensers, formulations, and strategies for codling moth mating disruption will be evaluated.
Objective 4. Basic and applied studies will be conducted to determine the efficacy of postharvest treatments to control various arthropod pests on temperate tree fruits. Tests will be conducted on the most susceptible resistant life stage. The test of suitability will be efficacious control with acceptable fruit. Phytotoxic effects will be measured in collaboration with other research facilities.
Objective 5. Applied studies in the laboratory, in orchards, and in commercial facilities will be conducted to evaluate the accumulative impact of various operations for reducing postharvest pests. These processes include, but are not limited to field control, host status, commodity shorting and culling, pest detection and computerized selection, inspection, baths and packing lines and storage conditions. Treatments could also be added during the postharvest process. Formerly 5352-22000-015-00D (3/05). 5352-43000-010-00D combined into this project. (2/08)
Methods were developed and used to identify and clone DNA sequences encoding proteins of the codling moth chemosensory system. These proteins are the odorant receptors and nerve and olfactory specific G proteins. The presence of pear foliage was not necessary for female pear psylla to attract males in laboratory assays. Male pear psylla attracted to females in pear orchards. Orius predators of pear psylla were obtained from locations in the western U.S. for taxonomic examination. Putative kairomone lures for codling moth were field tested. New trap designs were tested with pheromone and kairomone lures for codling moth. Hand-applied dispensers loaded with both codling moth sex pheromone and pear ester were more effective at mating disruption than dispensers with sex pheromone only. A microcapsule pear ester formulation in combination with 10 different insecticides showed improved efficacy over the pesticides alone. A new predictive phenology model for codling moth was finalized and published. Codling moth virus was formulated to provide UV protection. Improvements were made to a biodegradable foam to be used as a trap material for pupating codling moth larvae. A combination pheromone/kairomone lure for codling moth was optimized by determining best chemical release rate and ratio of lure components. A monoclonal antibody was developed against pear psylla that allows detection of psylla in the guts of insect predators and to measure the importance of pear psylla predators. Cherry fruit flies fed mostly by grazing the surfaces of cherry leaves and fed on cherry juice, bird droppings, and at glands on leaf stems, and feed more on the top than on the bottom of leaves. Decreased carbohydrate levels in cherry fruit flies deprived of food for 10 hours related to greater responses to a food bait. Cherry fruit flies fed more on insecticides with than without sugar, and insecticides could be classified as fast-acting (neonicotinoids) or slower kill (spinosad). Spinosad, when ingested by cherry fruit flies, was the most toxic of several insecticides tested.
National Program 304; Component II: Biology of Pests and Natural Enemies, Problem Statement A:Basic Biology; Component III: Plant, Pest, and Natural Enemy Interactions and Ecology, Problem Statement A: Understanding the Complex Interactions and Problem Statement B: Population Studies/Ecology; Component IV: Postharvest, Pest Exclusion, Quarantine Treatment, Problem Statements A, C, G: Detection and Delimitation of Exotic Insect Pests, Control and Eradication of Exotic Insect Pests, Development of New and Improved Control Technologies; Component V: Pest Control Technologies, Problem Statements D, E: Other Biologically-Based Control and Chemical Control, and Component VI: Integrated Pest Management Systems and Areawide Suppression, Problem Statements A, C: Sampling Methods, Detection and Monitoring and Developing of IPM Systems.
WING SHAPE AS A TOOL FOR DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN APPLE AND SNOWBERRY MAGGOT FLIES. Apple maggot flies, a major pest of apple, and snowberry maggot flies, a non-pest, are virtually indistinguishable. Characters used to separate them are not 100% reliable. Additional characteristics that can be used to distinguish the two species are needed. It has been shown by ARS researchers at the Fruit and Vegetable Insect Research Unit in Wapato, WA that wings of the two species differ in shape. These results should improve the positive identification of the two flies and eliminate mistakes made in quarantine areas that have snowberry and not apple maggot flies, thus allowing access to export markets. National Program 304: Component II: Biology of Pests and Natural Enemies (Microbes), Problem Statement A: Basic Biology; Component IV: Postharvest, Pest Exclusion, and Quarantine Treatment, Problem Statement A: Detection and Delimitation of Exotic Insect Pests.
COMBINED PEAR ESTER AND SEX PHEROMONE TO CONTROL CODLING MOTH. The use of sex pheromone for mating disruption of codling moth in apple and pear orchards has been broadly adopted by growers but remains a moderately effective technology that requires supplemental pesticide applications. Hand-applied pheromone dispensers in which pear ester has been added were evaluated by ARS researchers at the Fruit and Vegetable Insect Research Unit in Wapato, WA in orchard field trials. All dispensers with both chemicals outperformed pheromone-alone dispensers in disrupting male attraction to female moths. Such a product could be a significant improvement in the use of mating disruption as a key tactic in the integrated control of codling moth, either by improving efficacy or reducing cost. National Program 304: Component V: Pest Control Technologies, Problem Statement D: Other Biologically-Based Control.
SEX PHEROMONE IN PEAR PSYLLA. Difficulties in controlling and monitoring pear psylla, a key pest of pear, have led to efforts at developing a synthetic attractant. Methods were developed by ARS researchers at the Fruit and Vegetable Insect Research Unit in Wapato, WA to collect volatile chemicals emitted by female psylla, and to assay those chemicals for attractiveness to male psylla. Eventual identification, isolation, and synthesis of the pheromone could lead to the production of a synthetic attractant for use in monitoring or managing field populations of psylla. National Program 304: Component II: Biology of Pests and Natural Enemies (Microbes), Problem Statement A: Basic Biology.
NEW PHENOLOGY MODEL FOR CODLING MOTH. Apple and pear growers need an accurate assessment of the seasonal timing of codling moth egg hatch to effectively use pest management tactics. Data by ARS researchers at the Fruit and Vegetable Insect Research Unit in Wapato, WA detained from unsprayed orchards on the seasonal timing of new fruit injuries by codling moth were fit to cumulative curves of egg hatch for each moth generation. The new model was published in a scientific journal and posted online by Oregon State University for use by growers. This model shows growers the importance of maintaining effective control during the middle portion of the season, when previous models suggested that they could relax their control efforts, potentially improving crop protection from damage by codling moth. National Program 304: Component VI: Integrated Pest Management Systems and Areawide Suppression Programs, Problem Statement A: Sampling Methods, Detection and Monitoring.
ADULT INSECTICIDES FOR KILLLING LARVAE OF CHERRY FRUIT FLY. Cherry fruit fly is a major quarantine pest of cherries, with a zero tolerance for larvae in marketed fruit. Insecticide sprays are targeted against the adult stages and pesticide applications often stop at harvest. However, cherries left unpicked on trees may be attacked by flies and subsequently be infested with larvae. Larvae inside fruit need to be controlled to prevent production of adult flies that may infest fruit the following season. It was found by ARS researchers at the Fruit and Vegetable Insect Research Unit in Wapato, WA that Provado (imidacloprid) was the best of several soft pesticides in reducing larvae emergence from cherries. The use of Provado as a post-harvest spray may help reduce problems of cherry fly larvae being an issue with export markets and can be part of a systems approach for export of cherries to these markets. National Program 304: Component V: Pest Control Technologies, Problem Statement E: Chemical Control.
USE OF LOW VOLUME SEX PHEROMONE SPRAY APPLICATIONS. Apple and pear growers would prefer to use pesticide sprayers to apply sex pheromones for mating disruption of codling moth, but this approach has not yet proven to be effective. ARS researchers at the Fruit and Vegetable Insect Research Unit in Wapato, WA found that concentrating microencapsulated sex pheromone in a low volume of water improved disruption of moth mate-finding communication, and was used effectively by growers to attain control of codling moth that was comparable to their present use of hand-applied dispensers. The low volume spray created hundreds of attractive leaves on every tree and enhanced the importance of competitive attractiveness of female moths and the microcapsules by growers. The impact of these findings has been the adoption of the low volume spray approach, in particular to supplement control of codling moth along orchards’ borders and during periods of peak moth flight. National Program 304: Component V: Pest Control Technologies, Problem Statement D: Other Biologically-Based Control.
IDENTIFICATION AND CLONING OF CODLING MOTH PHEROMONE RECEPTORS. Codling moth is a key apple pest that is controlled largely with chemical insecticides and pheromonal mating disruption. Identification and characterization of semiochemical receptors will provide the means to identify new attractants, disruptants, semiochemical agonists, for use in pest management. Methods were developed by ARS researchers at the Fruit and Vegetable Insect Research Unit in Wapato, WA to identify codling moth odorant receptors without a sequenced genome. The methods developed can be used to identify semiochemical receptors for codling moth and other pest insects, potentially leading to improved integrated pest management using behavioral manipulation with semiochemicals. National Program 304: Component II: Biology of Pests and Natural Enemies (Microbes), Problem Statement A: Basic Biology.
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Arthurs, S.P., Lacey, L.A. 2007. Microbial control of insect pests of tree fruit. In: "Management of Nematode and Insect-borne Plant Diseases", G. Saxena and K.G. Mukerji, eds., pp. 1-46. Haworth Press, New York.
Lacey, L.A., Arthurs, S.P., Knight, A.L., Huber, J. 2007. Microbial control of lepidopteran pests of apple orchards. In: Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology: Application and Evaluation of Pathogens for Control of Insects and Other Invertebrate Pests, 2nd ed. L.A. Lacey & H.K. Kaya, eds. pp. 527-546. Springer Scientific Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Lacey, L.A., Siegel, J.P. 2007. Microbial control of insect pests of stone fruit and nut crops. In: Lacey, L., Kaya, H.K., editors. Field Manual of Techniques in Insect Pathology. Vol. II. Dordrecht: Springer. p. 547-566.
Hansen, J., Carlton, R., Adams, S., Lacey, L.A. 2008. Infrared Detection of Internal Feeders of Deciduous Tree Fruits. Journal of Entomological Science (43)1:52-56.
Lacey, L.A., Headrick, H.L., Arthurs, S.P. 2008. The Effect of Temperature on the Long Term Storage of Codling Moth Granulovirus Formulations. Journal of Economic Entomology 101(2):288-294.
Lacey, L.A., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2007. Microbial Control of Insect Pests in Temperate Orchard Systems: Potential for Incorporation into IPM. Annual Review Of Entomology 53:121-144.
Garczynski, S.F., Siegel, J.P. 2007. Chapter IV-2: Bacteria. pp. 175-198. In: Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology.
Brown, M.R., Clark, K.D., Gulia, M., Zhao, Z., Garczynski, S.F., Crim, J.W., Suderman, R.J., Strand, M.R. 2008. An insulin-like peptide regulates egg maturation and metabolism in the mosquito aedes aegypti. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol 105(15):5716-5721.
Horton, D.R., Guedot, C.N., Landolt, P.J. 2008. Attraction of male summerform pear psylla to volatiles from female psylla: effects of female age, mating status, and presence of host plant. The Canadian Entomologist 140:184-191.
Cockfield, S.D., Beers, E.H., Horton, D.R., Miliczky, E. 2007. Timing of oviposition of thrips (thysanoptera: thripidae) in apple fruit. Journal of British Columbia Entomological Society 104:45-53.
Miliczky, E., Cockfield, S.D., Beers, E.H., Horton, D.R. 2007. Spatial patterns of western flower thrips in apple orchards and associated fruit damage. Journal of British Columbia Entomological Society 104:25-33.
Knight, A.L. 2008. Codling Moth Areawide IPM. pp. 159-190. In: Areawide Pest Management Theory and Implementation. O.Koul, G.Cupernus, N. Elliott (eds.) CAB International, Oxfordshire, UK.
Knight, A.L. 2007. Adjusting the Phenology Model of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington State Apple Orchards. Environmental Entomology 36:1485-1493.
Landolt, P.J., Guedot, C.N. 2008. Field Attraction of Codling Moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to Apple and Pear Fruit, and Quantitation of Kairomones from Attractive Fruit. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 101(3):675-681.
Landolt, P.J., Suckling, D.M., Judd, G. 2007. Positive Interaction of a Feeding Attractant and a Host Kairomone for Trapping the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Journal of Chemical Ecology 33:2236-2244.
Bajet, N., Unruh, T.R., Druffel, K., Eastwell, K.C. 2008. Occurrence of Two Little Cherry Viruses in Sweet Cherry in Washington State. Plant Disease Vol 92(2)234-238.
Yee, W.L. 2008. Feeding substrates and behaviors of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae). Environmental Entomology. 37(1):172-180.
Yee, W.L. 2007. Gf-120, nulure, and mazoferm effects on feeding responses and infestations of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology 23(3):125-140.
Yee, W.L. 2007. Attraction, Feeding, and Control of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) Using GF-120 with Added Ammonia in Washington. Florida Entomologist 90(4):665-673.
Lacey, L.A., Unruh, T.R., Simkins, H., Thomsen Archer, K.L. 2007. Gut bacteria of the Pacific coast wireworm, Limonius canus, inferred from 16s rDNA sequences and their implications for control. Phytoparasitica. 35:479-489.
Lacey, L.A. 2007. Bacillus thuringiensis serovariety israelensis and bacillus sphaericus for mosquito control. In "Biorational Control of Mosquitos" (T.G. Floore, ed.) pp 133-163. Bull. 7, American Mosquito Control Association.American Mosquito Control Association.
Lacey, L.A., Wraight, S.P., Kirk, A.A. 2008. Entomopathogenic fungi for control of Bemisia spp.:foreign exploration, research and implementation. In: Classical Biological Control of Bemisia tabaci in the USA: A Review of Interagency Research and Implementation. J.K.Gould, K.Hoelmer, and JGoolsby (eds.), Vol 4 'Progress in Biological Control' (H.Hokkanen, series editor) pp. 33-69. springer, Dorcrecht.
Lacey, L.A. 2008. Forward. In: Controle Microbiano de Pragas na America Latina Avancos e Desafios (S.B. Alves and R.B. Lopes, eds.) pp 19-20. Biblioteca de Ciencias Agrarias Luiz de Queiroz.
Kaya, H.K., Lacey, L.A. 2007. Introduction to Microbial Control. In: Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology: Application and Evaluation of Pathogens for Control of Insects and Other Invertebrate Pests, 2nd ed. L.A.Lacey & H.K.Kaya, eds. pp. 3-7. Springer, Dordrecht.
Kirk, A., Lacey, L.A., Goolsby, J. 2008. Foreign exploration for insect natural enemies of Bemisia for use in biological control in the USA: A successful program. In: Gould, J., Hoelmer, K., Goolsby, J., editors. Classical Biological Control of Bemisia tabaci in the United States - A Review of Interagency Research and Implementation. Vol. 4. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Springer Netherlands. p. 17-31.
Skovmand, O., Kerwin, J., Lacey, L.A. 2007. Microbial control of mosquitoes and black flies. In: Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology: Application and Evaluation of Pathogens for Control of Insects and Other Invertebrate Pests, 2nd ed. L.A.Lacey & H.K. Kaya, eds. pp. 735-750. Springer, Dordrecht.
Vega, F.E., Dowd, P.F., Lacey, L.A., Klein, M.G. 2007. Dissemination of beneficial microbial agents by insects. Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology. 18 p.