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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: MANAGEMENT OF INSECT PESTS OF TEMPERATE TREE FRUIT CROPS

Location: Fruit and Vegetable Insect Research

2006 Annual Report


1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? Why does it matter?
The tree fruit industry faces increasing restrictions on pesticide use because of regulations regarding pesticide residues on food, worker safety, and environmental and wildlife concerns. In addition, there is reduced effectiveness of certain pesticides because of insect pesticide resistance. Tree fruit growers need alternative methods and approaches to managing insect pests that are effective, environmentally friendly, safe and economical. To resolve this problem, research is being conducted to develop alternative pest management strategies that include biological control with parasites and predators, insect pathogens, chemical attractants, pheromonal mating disruptants, and a genetically engineered autocidal strain of a pest insects. These strategies involve no or greatly reduced pesticide use. Codling moth, tortricid leafrollers, the pear psylla, cherry fruit fly and apple maggot are all species of major concern on tree fruits in the western U.S. These insect pests are very damaging to fruit quality and production. The apple maggot is now established in western Yakima County and is an imminent threat to commercial apple producing areas of eastern Washington. In addition, the codling moth and fruit flies are a phytosanitary concern when on fruit that is exported. We are developing new approaches to manage their populations that integrate the use of these alternative pest management strategies. The project has three overriding objectives:.
1)develop new biological information on the pest complex to facilitate the discovery and development of new pest control applications,.
2)develop and improve monitoring methods for pests and pathogens, and.
3)develop alternative methods of pest management. The implementation of mating disruption for codling moth and reduction of pesticide use mandated by the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) has made development of additional bio-rational controls of tree fruit insect pests a critical objective. Research of basic biology of pests and beneficial species is required to provide insights into developing new approaches and in testing and implementing ones that remain experimental.

The research undertaken falls under National Program 304 Crop Protection and Quarantine. The project addresses four components of the Nation Program Action Plan:

Component II: Biology of Pests and Natural Enemies (Microbes) The development of effective IPM strategies depends upon an in-depth knowledge of the biology and ecology of pests and their natural enemies. For IPM to be successful, it is necessary to investigate the biology for each major arthropod pest and its natural enemies for each cropping system, including physiology, nutrition, mating, fecundity, life tables, and developmental processes that impact ecological interactions.

Component III: Plant, Pest, and Natural Enemy Interactions and Ecology It is critical for successful use of biologically-based control, as part of IPM, to increase our knowledge of insect and mite population dynamics and ecology, as well as multi-trophic interactions among the biotic components of agricultural production systems. Research is needed to define the ecology of pest complexes and to determine the impact of pest-plant-natural enemy interactions on the effectiveness of IPM systems, and to apply this knowledge to improve estimates of economic and action thresholds. In addition, this knowledge may be used to develop plant varieties that combine pest resistance while promoting natural enemy activity.

Component V: Pest Control Technologies Successful IPM depends upon the availability of an array of component technologies that can be effectively combined to achieve environmentally-safe pest management. Research areas that will be emphasized to achieve this goal include (1) sampling, monitoring, detection, and validation of pest populations, (2) efficient production, delivery and utilization of beneficial organisms used in biological control, (3) response measures to control emerging and invasive pests, (4) development of selective chemical control strategies including those for minor crops, and (5) alternative control tactics such as resistant varieties and cultural measures, and other biologically-based strategies.

Component VI: Integrated Pest Management Systems and Areawide Suppression Programs The implementation of IPM and Areawide pest management programs will provide producers with safe and economical food production systems, reduce environmental risk, conserve our natural resources, and increase the competitiveness of producers. Emphasis will be placed on the implementation of practical integrated crop protection and production systems that are suitable for widespread use by growers on multiple scales in traditional or specialized production systems.


2.List by year the currently approved milestones (indicators of research progress)
FY2005:

1. Identify sugar and protein sources for fruit flies.

2. Evaluate codlng moth mating delays vs IPM method.

3. Complete study of Anthocoris antevolens complex.

4. Clarify taxonomy of A. antevolens/A. musculus complex.

5. Measure psylla predation by groundcover and tree predators.

6. Develop and evaluate plasmids and methods to locate transgenes for codling moth.

7. Acquire active isolates of pear psylla pheromone.

8. Design new model for codling moth.

9. Formulate virus and nematode pathogens for codling moth.

10. Complete studies on fruit fly attraction to baits.

11. Evaluate the codling moth mating success and delay of mating within orchards treated with a range of sex pheromone-based strategies.

12. Evaluate codling moth mating in orchards with mating disruption.

13. Evaluate codling moth killing stations.

14. Complete improvements to codling moth lure and kill design.

15. Isolate and clone Little Cherry (LC) virus 3 & 4, sample insects in cherry orchard to find vectors.

FY2006:

1. Identify sugar and protein sources for fruit flys.

2. Determine psylla winter sex pheromone behavior

3. Assess pear ester with apple chemicals for codlng moth.

4. Complete list of EAD-active compounds codlng moth.

5. Evaluate codlng moth mating delays vs IPM method.

6. Complete study of Anthocoris antevolens complex.

7. Clarify taxonomy of A. antevolens/A. musculus complex.

8. Identify psylla predators day and night.

9. Develop and evaluate plasmids and methods to locate transgenes for codling moth.

10. Determine best promoters and enhancers for effectiveness of conditional lethal gene for codling moth.

11. Acquire active isolates of pear psylla pheromone.

12. Design new model for codling moth.

13. Formulate virus and nematode pathogens for codling moth.

14. Complete studies on fruit fly attraction to baits.

15. Complete studies on fruit fly movement and behavior.

16. Evaluate the codling moth mating success and delay of mating within orchards treated with a range of sex pheromone-based strategies.

17. Evaluate codling moth mating in orchards with mating disruption.

18. Complete improvements to codling moth lure and kill design.

19. Role of habitats of predators and parasites: a) Test movement between groundcover and canopy and b) measure LR biocontrol

20. Express LC coat protein, develop ELISA, conduct transmission tests for LC and CLR virus vectors.

FY2007:

1. Describe feeding behavior of cherry fruit flies.

2. Determine psylla summer sex pheromone behavior.

3. Complete list of EAD-active compounds codlng moth.

4. Evaluate codlng moth mating delays vs IPM method.

5. Complete study of Anthocoris antevolens complex.

6. Clarify taxonomy of A. antevolens/A. musculus complex.

7. Refine primer methods to measure psylla predation rates.

8. Determine best promoters and enhancers for effectiveness of conditional lethal gene for codling moth.

9. Acquire active isolates of pear psylla pheromone.

10. Characterize putative pheromone compounds for pear psylla.

11. Finish field validation of new codling moth predictive timing model.

12. Formulate virus and nematode pathogens for codling moth.

13. Complete studies on fruit fly movement and behavior.

14. Complete studies on fruit fly bait efficacy

15. Evaluate the codling moth mating success and delay of mating within orchards treated with a range of sex pheromone-based strategies.

16. Evaluate codling moth mating in orchards with mating disruption.

17. Complete improvements to codling moth lure and kill design.

18. Use diagnostics to map distribution of LC3 & LC4 in orchards, continue potential virus vector studies.

FY2008:

1. Describe feeding behavior of cherry fruit flies.

2. Determine host role in psylla sex attraction.

3. Clarify Orius complex.

4. Measure psylla predation rates and design new primers.

5. Identify useful homologous genes and promoters, determine effectiveness of plasmid constructs for codling moth.

6. Characterize putative pheromone compounds for pear psylla.

7. Conduct field tests of putative pheromone compounds for pear psylla.

8. Finish field validation of new codling moth predictive timing model.

9. Formulate virus and nematode pathogens for codling moth.

10. Complete studies on fruit fly bait efficacy

11. Complete improvements to codling moth lure and kill design.

FY2009:

1. Determine host role in psylla sex attraction.

2. Clarify Orius complex.

3. Measure prey breadth of psylla predators

4. Identify useful homologous genes and promoters, determine effectiveness of plasmid constructs for codling moth.

5. Conduct field tests of putative pheromone compounds for pear psylla.

6. Finish field validation of new codling moth predictive timing model.

7. Formulate virus and nematode pathogens for codling moth.

8. Technology transfer.

9. Complete improvements to codling moth lure and kill design.


4a.List the single most significant research accomplishment during FY 2006.
NEMATODES FOR CONTROL OF CODLING MOTH AND ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH. NP 304, CROP PROTECTION AND QUARANTINE Component V: Pest Control Technologies

Codling moth (CM) is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut in many parts of the world and the principal pest of apple in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Oriental fruit moth (OFM) is a significant pest of peach and nectarines in the PNW and a pest of apple in the Eastern US. Insect-specific nematodes can target overwintering larvae in their cryptic habitats when conditions are favorable for infectivity. Researchers at the USDA-ARS, Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory, Wapato, WA conducted studies to develop and evaluate insect-specific nematodes in orchards and fruit bins for control of OFM and CM. Control of the overwintering stage of CM and OFM resulted in substantial reduction in fruit damage in the subsequent growing season. Technology to formulate and apply these nematodes has been transferred to other research laboratories in Parlier, CA (USDA-ARS), Logan, UT (Utah State University) Vancouver, WA (Washington State University) and Prosser, WA (Washington State University).


4b.List other significant research accomplishment(s), if any.
RESPONSES OF CHERRY FRUIT FLY TO PROTEIN BAITS. NP 304, CROP PROTECTION AND QUARANTINE Component II: Biology of Pests and Natural Enemies (Microbes) Component V: Pest Control Technologies

Responses of cherry fruit flies to GF-120, Mazoferm, and Nulure protein baits were determined in the field. The fly is currently managed using food-attractant bait sprays and understanding the mechanism of control using baits may help improve the use and effectiveness of baits. Personnel at the USDA, ARS Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory, Wapato, WA observed the responses of flies on cherry leaves to baits and showed that flies responded as frequently to water as they did to GF-120, Mazoferm, Nulure, and Entrust (spinosad alone), even though the durations of feeding on water, Mazoferm, Nulure, and Entrust were less than on GF-120. Further findings suggest all baits are equally effective in controlling flies when sprayed on trees. These findings are important because they suggest that the choice of baits may not be crucial in controlling flies. Because Mazoferm and Nulure are much less expensive than GF-120, growers may save money if they use the less expensive materials.


4c.List significant activities that support special target populations.
NONE


4d.Progress report.
None.


5.Describe the major accomplishments to date and their predicted or actual impact.
National Program 304, Crop Protection and Quarantine.

Results of our research are used by orchardists and fruit packers and processors, by other government agencies, and by scientists at other research institutions. Specific examples of our stakeholders include members of the Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission, Northwest Horticultural Council, USDA-APHIS, and USDA-ARS laboratories at Fairbanks and Parlier.

Problems solved over the past two years include the identification of sublethal effects of pesticides on parasites of insect pests, demonstration of enhanced biological control of apple leafrollers with strawberry and rose gardens with alternate pests for leafroller parasites, development of a DNA diagnostic tests for separating apple maggot from the snowberry maggot, differentiation of the species complex of Anthocoris predators of pear psylla, demonstration of a sex pheromone of the pear psylla, development of application methods for effective use of a virus for control of codling moth, and discovery of a lack of attractiveness of bait sprays used against the cherry fruit fly. Information on virus formulation and application has been transferred to a company via a CRADA, and has resulted in a significant increase in the use of the codling moth virus on acreage of apple in the PNW. Information on Anthocoris species and on sublethal effects of pesticides will permit better recommendations to growers on how to conserve and enhance biological control of psylla and other pests in their orchards. Information on fruit fly response to bait sprays should lead the way to development of improved baits, but will also result in cost savings to growers that can use the cheapest baits available.


6.What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end-user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products?
Information on sublethal pesticide effects on parasites and predators, identification of apple maggot flies and Anthocoris bugs, enhanced biological control of leafrollers, pear psylla sex pheromone, control of codling moth with virus, and efficacy of bait sprays for fruit flies, were provided to growers at the Annual Apple, Pear, and Cherry Research Reviews of the Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission, at the Annual Meetings of the Washington Horticultural Association, at the Western Orchard Disease and Pest Management Conference, and in the Good Fruit Grower. Information on formulation and application methods for codling moth virus has been transferred to company via a CRADA. Information on methods to apply pathogens was presented to other scientists at the Society of Nematology Annual Meeting and the Annual Meeting for the Society of Invertebrate Pathologists.

We have made great progress in using the codling moth BAC (Bacterial Artificial Chromosome) library as a resource for obtaining genes of interest, related to the development of genetic sexing lines. We have identified problems with the system purported to work with small DNA fragments (less than 3,000bp) in FISH (Fluorescent in situ Hybridization). We have been able to find the per (period) gene in the BAC library, and hope to use the gene to both aid in sexing embryos and in identifying potential insulator sequences which may be needed for gene expression in highly heterochromatic chromosomes, like the W chromosome. We have been able to find a muscle actin gene in the BAC library, which has led to the cytoplasmic actin gene in the genomic DNA. The cytoplasmic actin is important to help us find the promoter which is specific to codling moth and may be used in the transformation cassette. We have been able to screen the BAC library for W probes in an effort to identify genes found only in the W chromosome. These unique W chromosome genes may aid in sexing eggs and in discovering how genes on the W chromosome are expressed. These genes may lead us to insulator sequences and also better ways to identify transgenes located on the W chromosome.

We have completed the construction of the new plasmid pBac-BmA3- N60g11-DsRed2 and the secondary plasmid pBac-3XP3- N60g11-DsRed2. Orientation of the constructs has been confirmed by PCR. These new constructs will have to be sequenced to ensure that the components are in the right orientation and in frame for appropriate expression. As soon and the cassettes are confirmed, new embryo injections will begin in attempt to develop transgenic female codling moths.

These accomplishments are related to the development of transgenic sexing lines which will be used in the enhancement of codling moth sterile insect technique world-wide. In order to develop transgenic sexing lines we need efficient transformation cassettes and methods to determine the insertion location of the transgene in the chromosomes of the insects.


7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below).
Arthurs, S. P. and L. A. Lacey. “Improving codling moth granulovirus”. Western Orchard Disease and Pest Management Conference, Jan. 11-13, 2006, Portland, OR.

Barcenas, N., T. Unruh and W Yee. “DNA diagnostics for identifying quarantine insect pests: Rhagoletis pomonella”. Annual Meeting of the Washington State Horticultural Society. Wenatchee, Washington. December 5-7, 2005. (poster)

Barcenas, N., T. Unruh, W Yee, E Lisowski, K Archer, P Palmandez. “A search for molecular markers to discriminate Rhagoletis pomonella from R. zephyria”. Western Orchard Disease and Pest Management Conference, Jan. 11-13, 2006, Portland, OR.

Jones,V., C. Baker, T. Unruh “Movement of the leafroller parasitoid Colpoclypeus florus between rose/strawberry gardens and apple orchards”. Western Orchard Disease and Pest Management Conference, Jan. 11-13, 2006, Portland, OR.

Jumean Z., R. Gries, T. Lafontaine, D Wood, T Unruh, G Judd, G Gries. “Aggregation pheromone of larval codling moth: Identification and application in IPM programs”. Western Orchard Disease and Pest Management Conference”, Jan. 11-13, 2006, Portland, OR.

Jumean, Z., R. Jones, T. Unruh, G. Gries. “ Mastrus ridibundus parasitoids eavesdrop on aggregating codling moth larvae: Kairomonal attraction and risk of parasitism”. Western Orchard Disease and Pest Management Conference, Jan. 11-13, 2006, Portland, OR.

Knight, A.L., Hilton, R., Vanbuskirk, P., Light, D.M. 2006. Using pear ester to monitor codling moth in sex pheromone-treated orchards. Oregon State University Agricultural Experiment Station. Oregon State University, Extension Service Publication #EM 8904, February 2006

Lacey, L. A. “Abiotic factors affecting success of entomopathogenic nematodes in the field”. In Symposium, “Ecology of entomopathogenic nematodes”. Annual meeting, Society for Invertebrate Pathology, Aug. 7-11, 2005, Anchorage, AK.

Lacey, L. A., H. Headrick, S. Arthurs, T Unruh . “Entomopathogenic nematodes for control of overwintering codling moth in orchards”. Western Orchard Disease and Pest Management Conference, Jan. 11-13, 2006, Portland, OR.

Lacey, L. A. “Entomopathogenic nematodes for control of codling moth in apples and pears: Overcoming obstacles of environment and attitude”. In Symposium, “News, views and issues in the use of entomopathogenic nematodes for biological control in fruit and nut crops”, Society of Nematology Annual Meeting, Kauai, June 20, 2006.

Lacey, L. A. “Microbial control of codling moth: The search for weapons of moth destruction”. Biological Control Laboratory, USDA-ARS, Beltsville, MD, May 18, 2006. Lacey, L. A. “Optimizing the use of the codling moth granulovirus: Effects of application rate and frequency of spraying on control of codling moth larvae in Pacific Northwest apple orchards”. Annual meeting, Society for Invertebrate Pathology, Aug. 7-11, 2005, Anchorage, AK.

Lacey, L. A. “Use of microbial control in the integrated management of codling moth”, Department of Nematology, University of California, Davis, March 6, 2006.

Lacey, L. A. “Using entomopathogenic nematodes for control of tree fruit pest insects”. Annual meeting, Entomological Society of America, Dec. 14-18, 2005, Ft. Lauderdale, FL.

Lacey, L.A., Becnel, J.J. 2004. Microbial control of medically important insects. J.Capinera, ed. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. In Encyclopedia of Entomology. p. 1407-1410.

Landolt, P. J. “Field testing of multi component host plant kairomones for the codling moth .” 2006 Apple Entomology Review, WTFRC, Wenatchee, WA.

Landolt, P. J. “Sprayable foam for trap and kill of cocooning codling moth larvae”. 2006 Apple Entomology Review, WTFRC, Wenatchee, WA.

Miliczky, E., D. Horton, S. Cockfield and E. Beers. “Spatial and temporal distribution of western flower thrips eggs in apple tissues”. 101st Annual Meeting, Washington State Horticultural Association, Wenatchee, Washington (Dec. 2005)

Peters C. and T. Unruh. “Gardens for leafroller biological control: A 5 year update”. Annual Meeting of the Washington State Horticultural Society. Wenatchee, Washington. December 5-7, 2005.

Siegel, J. P., , L.A. Lacey, P. Noble, J. Bettiga, B. Higbee, R. Fritts, Jr. “Control of navel orangeworm in fallen pistachios using large scale application of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae.” Annual meeting, Society for Invertebrate Pathology, Aug. 7-11, 2005, Anchorage, AK.

Unruh, T, C Peters. “Rose-strawberry gardens to enhance parasitism of leafrollers: A 5th year update”. Western Orchard Disease and Pest Management Conference, Jan. 11-13, 2006, Portland, OR.

Yee, W. L. “Alternative hosts of apple maggot as threat to apple”. 2006 Apple Entomology Review, WTFRC, Wenatchee, WA.

Yee, W. L. “ Control of apple maggot using bait spray insecticides and traps”. 2006 Apple Entomology Review, WTFRC, Wenatchee, WA.


Review Publications
Horton, D.R., Lewis, T.M., Neven, L.G. 2005. Ovarian development and lipid reserves are affected by mating delays in three species of anthocoris (heteroptera: anthocoridae). The Canadian Entomologist. 137(3):328-336.

Lewis, T.M., Horton, D.R., Broers, D.A. 2005. New state and United States records for Anthocoridae (Hemiptera:Heteroptera). Pan Pacific Entomology. 81:59-67.

Horton, D.R., Lewis, T.M. 2003. Numbers and types of arthropods overwintering on common mullein, Verbascum thapus L (Scrophulariaceae), in a central Washington fruit-growing region. Journal of Entomological Society of British Columbia. 100:79-87.

Knight, A.L., Light, D.M. 2005. Timing of egg hatch by early-season codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) predicted by moth catch in pear ester and codlemone-baited traps. Can. Entomol. 137(6):728-738.

Knight, A.L., Light, D.M. 2005. Developing action thresholds for codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with pear ester and codlemone-baited traps in apple orchards treated with sex pheromone mating disruption. Can. Entomol. 137(6):739-747.

Knight, A.L., Light, D.M. 2005. Seasonal flight patterns of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) monitored with pear ester and codlemone-baited traps in sex pheromone-treated apple orchards. Environmental Entomology. 34(5):1028-1035.

Knight, A.L., Light, D.M. 2005. Factors affecting the differential capture of male and female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in traps baited with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-Decadienoate. Environmental Entomology. 34(5):1161-1169.

Knight, A.L. 2006. Codling moth management: from I.H.E.L.P. to M.A.P.S. to A.K.I.S.S. IOBC/WRPS Bulletin 28(7): 289-292.

Knight, A.L., Miliczky, E.R. 2004. Influence of trap color on the capture of codling moth (Lepiodoptera:Tortricidae),honeybees, and non-target flies. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia. 100:65-70.

Lacey, L.A., Arthurs, S.P., Unruh, T.R., Headrick, H.L., Fritts, R. 2006. Entomopathogenic nematodes for control of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple and pear orchards: Effect of nematode species and seasonal temperatures, adjuvants, application equipment and post-application irrigation. Biological Control. 37:214-223.

Lacey, L.A., Granatstein, D., Arthurs, S.P., Headrick, H.L., Fritts, R. 2006. Use of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae) in conjuction with mulches for control of overwintering codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). J. Entomol. Sci. 41(2): 107-119.

Siegel, J.P., Lacey, L.A., Higbee, B.S., Noble, P.M., Fritts, R.J. 2006. Effect of application rates and abiotic factors on steinernema carpocapsae for control of overwintering navel orangeworm (lepidoptera: pyralidae, amyelois transitella) in pistachios. Biological Control. 36:324-330.

Lacey, L.A., Arthurs, S.P., Headrick, H.L. 2005. Comparative activity of the codling moth granulovirus against Grapholita molesta and Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). J. Entomol. Soc. Brit. Columbia. 102:79-80.

Lacey, L.A., Neven, L.G., Headrick, H.L., Fritts, Jr, R. 2005. Factors affecting entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae) for the control of overwintering codling moth (Lepidopetera: Tortricidae) in fruit bins. Journal of Economic Entomology. 98(6):1863-1869.

Lacey, L.A., Arthurs, S.P. 2005. New method for testing solar sensitivity of commerical formulations of the granulovirus of codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Tortricidae: Lepidoptera). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 90:85-90.

Alston, D.G., Rangel, D.E., Lacey, L.A., Golez, H.G., Kim, J.J., Roberts, D.W. 2005. Evaluation of novel fungal and nematode isolates for control of Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) larvae. Biological Control. 35:163-171.

Siegel, J.P., Lacey, L.A., Higbee, B.S., Bettiga, J., Fritts, R. 2004. Entomopathogenic nematodes for control of overwintering navel orangeworm. International Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions, October 31-November 3, 2004, Orlando, Florida. p. 72:1-4.

Lacey, L.A. 2004. Book review: the Black Flies (Simuliidae) of North America. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 107: 241-243.

Georgis, R., Koppenhofer, A.M., Lacey, L.A., Belair, G., Duncan, L.W., Grewal, P.S., Samish, M., Torr, P., Van Tol, R.M. 2006. Successes and failures in the use of parasitic nematodes for pest control. Biological Control. 38: 103-123.

Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Duncan, L.W., Lacey, L.A., Han, R. 2005. In Grewal, P., Ehlers, R-U, Shapiro-Ilan, D. (eds.) Orchard crops. Nematodes as Biological Control Agents. p. 215-230. CABI Publishing.

Lacey, L.A., Shapiro Ilan, D.I. 2006. Microbial control of insect and mite pests in orchards: Tools for integrated pest management and sustainable agriculture. In: R. Dris (Ed.), "Crops: Quality, Growth and Biotechnology", pp. 1-24. WFL Publisher, Helsinki, Finland.

Lacey, L.A., Merritt, D.L. 2004. The safety of bacterial microbial agents used for black fly and mosquito control in aquatic environments. Kluwer Academic Publishers Netherlands. Appears in: Environmental Impacts of Microbial Insecticides: Need and Methods for Risk Assessment. Editors: H.M.T. Hokkanen and A.E. Hajek. 151-168.

Curkovic, T., Brunner, J.F., Landolt, P.J. 2006. Courtship behavior in Choristoneura rosaceana and Pandemis pyrusana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 99(3):617-624.

Landolt, P.J. 2005. Trapping the meal moth, Pyralis farinalis L. (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae) with acetic acid and 3-methyl-1-butanol. Journal of Kansas Entomological Society. 78(3):293-295.

Reed, H.C., Landolt, P.J. 2005. Late season polygynous Vespula pensylvanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) colonies in a northern temperate area. Pan-Pacific Entomologist. 81(3/4): 164-170

Landolt, P.J., Adams, T., Zack, R.S. 2006. Field response of alfalfa looper and cabbage looper moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Plusiinae) to single and binary blends of floral odorants. Environ. Entomol. 35(2):276-281.

Jumean, Z., Gries, R., Unruh, T.R., Rowland, E., Gries, G. 2005. Identification of the larval aggregation pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 31(4):911-924.

Unruh, T.R. 2003. Habitat manipulation to increase parasitism of leafrollers and codling moth. Washington State Horticulture Association Proceedings. p.125-127.

Unruh, T.R. 2003. Rose plantings increase leafroller parasitism in orchards: a story for the Rose City. Western Orchard Pest and Disease Management Conference. p.24-26.

Yee, W.L., Goughnour, R. 2006. New host records for the apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera Tephritidae) in Washington State. Pan-Pacific Entomologist. 82(1): 54-60.

Yee, W.L., Chapman, P.S. 2005. Effects of GF-120 fruit fly bait concentrations on attraction, feeding, mortality, and control of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 98(5):1654-1663.

Yee, W.L., Goughnour, R. 2005. New hosts of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae), and their relationship to life history characteristics of this fly. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 98(5):703-710.

Arthurs, S.P., Lacey, L.A., Fritts, R. 2005. Optimizing the use of the codling moth granulovirus: effects of application rate and spraying frequency on control of codling moth larvae in pacific northwest apple orchards. J. Econ. Entomol. 98:1459-1468.

Landolt, P.J., Pantoja, A., Green, D.L. 2005. Yellowjacket wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) trapped in Alaska with heptyl butyrate, acetic acid and isobutanol. J. Entomol. Soc. Brit. Columbia. 102:35-42.

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