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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

2008 Annual Report

1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Develop environmentally acceptable and economically feasible systems for detection, control, suppression, and eradication of the Mediterranean, oriental, melon, and Malaysian fruit flies and other insect pests associated with tropical fruits, vegetables, and ornamentals.

1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Test more environmentally acceptable pesticides and compounds for use in control or eradication programs for fruit flies. Investigate biology and behavior of fruit flies and their parasitoids. Evaluate augmentative parasite releases, mass trapping, male annihilation, sterile fly releases, novel insecticides and food bait sprays as control, suppression, or eradication technologies. Develop new or improved lures, attractants, parapheromones, and baits to be used in improved trap detection devices and/or control systems. Investigate fruit fly and parasitoid olfactory, gustatory, and oviposition aensilla and their electrophysiology. Investigate chemical structure and activity relationships of semiochemicals of fruit flies and their biocontrol agents. Formerly 5320-22430-020-00D (3/05).

3.Progress Report
Progress towards meeting objectives of the OSQR milestones is on track for this project and major progress is highlighted below. Further studies on the population ecology of Bactrocera latifrons have been completed including trials on the efficacy of protein bait sprays for control of this species and biological control evaluations of parasitoid releases in the field. New formulations of fruit fly lures under a CRADA have improved some characteristics of the lures but minor issues on other formulations remain with some active ingredients. EPA registrations of some methyl eugenol and cuelure formulations for use in field control have been accomplished. Environmentally acceptable replacement toxicants for use in areawide control and eradication programs have been developed and tested in the field. The Hawaii Areawide Pest Management program is ending this year and has resulted in the successful transfer of fruit fly control technology to Hawaii’s farming community. NP304, Component 4.

1. Registration of SPLAT MAT ME for Control of Oriental Fruit Fly

In spite of being used in California for the last 30 yr and for many eradication programs throughout the Pacific, male annihilation with methyl eugenol was still not legally available in Hawaii for control purposes except on an experimental basis until now. In 2008 the first provisional methyl eugenol end product registration for the Dow AgroScience product SPLAT-MAT-ME spinosad sprayable formulation was obtained by ARS scientists in the Tropical Plant Pests Research Unit in Hilo, HI through the US Environmental Protection Agency. The product will reduce the use of organophosphate insecticides, improve area-wide control of oriental fruit fly, and help guarantee sustainability of the Hawaii Area-Wide Pest Management program after ARS funding ends in FY-08. This environmentally friendly product will impact fruit fly control worldwide.

The accomplishment directly address NP 304, Component IV - Postharvest, Pest Exclusion, and Quarantine Treatment. Problem being addressed: c) Control and Eradication of Exotic Insect Pests

2. Identifying Control Technologies for Bactrocera latifrons

The 2007 invasion of the African continent by Bactrocera latifrons shows that there is an invasion threat posed by this species, which has been established in Hawaii for over 20 years, but for which little research had been directed toward developing methods of control. Through research efforts by scientists at the Tropical Plant Pests Research Unit, U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center, with collaboration with scientists at the University of Hawaii, potentials for control of B. latifrons were documented in the areas of biological control, male annihilation and use of bait sprays. Natural parasitization rates of B. latifrons were found to be very low in Hawaii suggesting that efforts to improve the effectiveness of biological control against B. latifrons may help in the field. Additionally, male B. latifrons were found to show significant response to alpha-ionol + cade oil before the age of sexual maturity suggesting that male annihilation could contribute to population suppression of B. latifrons. Finally, protein bait sprays were found to have good effectiveness against B. latifrons and offer, at present, the best tool for population suppression. These results provide approaches for field suppression that could potentially minimize the impact of this species in Hawaii and in areas where B. latifrons invades.

These accomplishments directly address NP 304, Component IV Postharvest, Pest Exclusion, and Quarantine Treatment. Problem being addressed: c) Control and Eradication of Exotic Insect Pests, and NP 304, Component V Pest Control Technologies. Problem being addressed: d) Other Biologically-Based Control, and e) Chemical Control

6.Technology Transfer

Number of Active CRADAs1

Review Publications
Jang, E.B., Klungness, L.M., Mcquate, G.T. 2007. Extension of the use of Augmentoria for Sanitation in a Cropping System Susceptible to the Alien Tephritid Fruit Flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) in Hawaii. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management. 11(2):239-248

Bokonon-Ganta, A.H., Mcquate, G.T., Messing, R.H. 2007. Natural establishment of parasitoid complex on Bactrocera latifrons, the most recent tephrid fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) species introduction in Hawaii. Biological Control. 42(2007):365-373

Mcquate, G.T., Vargas, R.I. 2007. Assessment of Attractiveness of Plants as Roosting Sites for the Melon Fly, Bactrocera Cucurbitae, and Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis. Journal of Insect Science. 7(57):1536-2442.

Mcquate, G.T., Bokonon-Ganta, A.H., Jang, E.B., Messing, R.A. 2008. Age of Response of Male Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Alpha-ionol + Cade Oil Relative to Age of Sexual Maturity. Intern J. of Tropical Insect Sci. 28:12-18.

Suckling, D.M., Jang, E.B., Carvalho, L.A., Holder, P., Stephens, A.E., Jessup, A. 2008. Evaluation of Formulations for Fruit Fly Surveillance in New Zealand. Pest Mgt Sci. 64: 848-856.

Lurie, S., Jang, E.B. 2007. The Influence of Heat Shock Proteins in Insect Pests and Fruits in Thermal Treatments. pp 269-290 (in J.Tang, E. Mitcham, S. Wang and S. Lurie eds) Heat Treatments for Postharvest Pest Control. CABI International, UK. 349 pp.

Jang, E.B., Mau, R.L., Vargas, R.I. 2007. The Hawaii Fruit Fly Area-Wide Pest Management Program: Accomplishments and Future Directions. Proc Hawaiian Enotomol Soc. 39: 99-104.

Jang, E.B. 2007. Fruit Flies and Their Impact on Agriculture in Hawaii. Proc Hawaiian Entomol Soc. 39: 117-119.

Vargas, R.I., Mau, R.F., Jang, E.B., Faust, R.M., Wong, L. 2008. The Hawaii Fruit Fly Area-Wide Pest Management Program. pp 300-325. In: O.Koul, G.W. Cuperus, and N.C. Elliot (eds). Areawide IPM: Theory to Implementation. CABI Books, London.

Last Modified: 3/1/2015
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