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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: DETECTION, CONTROL AND AREA-WIDE MANAGEMENT OF FRUIT FLIES
2006 Annual Report


1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? Why does it matter?
Fruit flies are among the most serious agricultural pests, having a severe economic impact on tropical and subtropical agriculture in many parts of the world and posing an increased threat of establishment into new areas. In Hawaii, fruit flies jeopardize development of a diversified fruit and vegetable industry, cause export fruits to undergo expensive quarantine treatments, and provide a reservoir for introduction into the mainland United States. When pests (e.g. Hawaiian fruit flies) are introduced into the U.S. mainland, they often require large-scale eradication programs, sometimes at great public expense. In California where the total value of the fruit and vegetable industry has been estimated to be more than $14 billion annually, the California Department of Food and Agriculture has estimated that an established infestation of Mediterranean fruit fly would cost from $855 million to $1.4 billion during the first year of establishment. In Hawaii, production of fruits and vegetables is limited due to insect pests. Furthermore, the presence of regulated pests in shipments of produce from Hawaii to other states or countries causes rejection of the shipment and loss of income to Hawaii's growers. One major goal of our laboratory is to facilitate the export of Hawaii's fruits to encourage expansion of the industry and create jobs.

Our unit researches and develops environmentally acceptable technologies for detection and control of fruit flies. We are resolving the problem of fruit flies by developing a comprehensive research program aimed at developing new or improved semiochemical lures for detection and control, evaluating replacements for organophosphate insecticides and improvements for biologically-based control methods such as the use of parasitoids and sterile insects and continuing fundamental studies on the biology, ecology and physiology of these pests in the Hawaii environment. Area-wide suppression of fruit flies will allow for expansion of diversified agriculture in Hawaii.

Relevance to ARS National Program Action Plan: National Program 304, Crop & Commodity Pest Biology, Control, & Quarantine: Research will provide new information on pest biology, spatial distributions, control and quarantine of fruit flies and associated pest insects. This information will be useful for (1) development of ecologically based area-wide control & eradication methods and (2) export of tropical fruits. This project also contributes to National Program 308, Methyl Bromide Alternatives: Research will provide alternative methods to methyl bromide for control of fruit flies (& associated insect pests) and treatment of infested crops.


2.List by year the currently approved milestones (indicators of research progress)
FY05 Objective 1: B. latifrons population ecology Objective 2a: Female attractants Objective 2b: Improved male lures Objective 3a: Classical biological control-regional Objective 3b: Classical biological control-assessment of new species in Hawaii Objective 3c: Multiple parasitoid releases in Hawaii Objective 4a: Spinosad bait spray optimization Objective 4b: Alternative toxicants Objective 5a: Area--Wide Pest Management Objective 5b: Melon fly SIT + P. fletcheri releases Objective 5c: F. arisanus releases in wild host areas Objective 5d: F. arisanus releases in cucurbits

FY06 Objective 1: B. latifrons population ecology Objective 2a: Female attractants Objective 2b: Improved male lures Objective 3a: Classical biological control-regional Objective 3b: Classical biological control-assessment of new species in Hawaii Objective 3c: Multiple parasitoid releases in Hawaii Objective 4a: Spinosad bait spray optimization Objective 4b: Alternative toxicants Objective 5a: Area--Wide Pest Management Objective 5b: Melon fly SIT + P. fletcheri releases Objective 5c: F. arisanus releases in wild host areas Objective 5d: F. arisanus releases in cucurbits

FY07 Objective 1: B. latifrons population ecology Objective 2a: Female attractants Objective 3b: Classical biological control-assessment of new species in Hawaii Objective 4a: Spinosad bait spray optimization Objective 4b: Alternative toxicants Objective 4c: B. latifrons suppression trial Objective 5b: Oriental fruit fly SIT + F. arisanus releases

FY08 Objective 2a: Female attractants Objective 3b: Classical biological control-assessment of new species in Hawaii Objective 4a: Spinosad bait spray optimization Objective 4b: Alternative toxicants Objective 4c: B. latifrons suppression trial Objective 5b: Oriental fruit fly SIT + F. arisanus releases

FY09 Objective 2a: Female attractants Objective 3b: Classical biological control-assessment of new species in Hawaii Objective 4a: Spinosad bait spray optimization Objective 4b: Alternative toxicants Objective 4c: B. latifrons suppression trial Objective 5b: Oriental fruit fly SIT + F. arisanus releases


4a.List the single most significant research accomplishment during FY 2006.
The male lures ceralure B1 (medfly) and Melolure (melon fly) have been formulated into various contolled release devices and tested in the field under a variety of conditions. To improve detection, and control technologies for melon fly and Medirerranean fruit fly. The work was carried out by unit staff at USPBARC, and industry cooperators at Scentry Biologicals under a CRADA with that company. The impact of this research will be increases ability to detect medfly and melon fly and possible use of these compounds for control in the field. This accomplishment will directly address NP304, Component IV - Quarantine by improving detection, and control technologies for melon fly and Mediterranean fruit fly.


4b.List other significant research accomplishment(s), if any.
The development of novel male annihilation end products, AmuletTM C-L (cue-lure) and AmuletTM ME (methyl eugenol) molder paper fiber "attrace and kill" dispensers containing fipronil, were tested under Hawaiian weather conditions against melon fly and oriental fruit fly. AmuletTM C-L compare well to existing treatment methods while AmuletTM ME did not achieve the labeled interval of 60 days between replacements. The work was carried out by unit staff at USPBARC and areawide staff. Amulet C-l and ME dispensers are more convenient adn safer to handle than current liquid insecticide formulations used for areawide suppression of B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in Hawaii. This accomplishment will directly address NP304, Component IV - Quarantine by Improving Detection and Control Technologies for melon fly and oriental fruit fly.


4c.List significant activities that support special target populations.
None.


4d.Progress report.
None.


5.Describe the major accomplishments to date and their predicted or actual impact.
The U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has provided clients with environmentally acceptable technologies for fruit fly control, such as protein bait sprays, male annihilation, biological control and the sterile insect technique. Substitution of spinosad for malathion bait sprays and for naled male annihilation treatments provides clients with user-friendly, economical and environmentally acceptable technology. These fruit fly control approaches will be major components of IPM programs for fruit flies not only in Hawaii, but also throughout the Pacific. Each of these factors is important to developing effective IPM control methodologies for fruit flies. Related behavioral studies have resulted in valuable information on the response of female fruit flies to various baits, lures and traps in climates similar to those found in major agricultural production areas in the U.S. mainland. This information may help predict how newly introduced pests behave in the field. In addition we have improved our formulations of new attractants to augment existing male and female attractants. NP304-Crop & Commodity Pest Biology, Control & Quarantine: Research will provide new information on pest biology, spatial distributions, control and quarantine of fruit flies and associated pest insects. This information will be useful for development of ecologically bases area-wide control and eradication methods and export of tropical fruits. These accomplishments are relevant to National Program 304, Crop & Commodity Pest Biology, Control, & Quarantine and also contribute to National Program 308, Methyl Bromide Alternatives.


6.What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end-user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products?
The general technology for areawide fruit fly control in Hawaii has been transferred to growers in demonstration areas and is now spreading island-wide on all islands. Major technologies transferred to growers in Hawaii and to fruit fly researchers worldwide include the importance of sanitation, GF-120 spinosad bait sprays, male annihilation treatments, sterile flies, and parasitoids. In cooperation with the University of Hawaii, State Department of Agriculture, growers and other organizations, we have secured special local needs registrations for agricultural chemicals, implemented a fruit fly IPM extension educational program, developed site specific implementation plans and have initiated trapping, sanitation and control measures within a defined grid area for sites on Hawaii, Oahu and Maui Islands. The possible constraints to full adoption of the technology are the lack of EPA registered chemicals, grower resistance to change and the costs of producing and releasing sterile fruit flies and parasitoids. Sterile flies and parasites may not be sustainable by the farmer and may require continued government assistance. Work on chemical registrations and grower education is continuing.


7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below).
McQuate, G. T., Bokonon-Ganta, A. H., and Jang, E. B. 2006. Use of Alpha-Ionol + Cade Oil for Detection and Monitoring of Bactrocera Latifrons Populations. Poster presentation at the 7th International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, September 10-15, 2006, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

McQuate, G. T., and Vargas, R. I. 2006. Effectiveness of Bait Sprays on Border Windbreaks for Population Suppression of Bactrocera Spp. in Papaya Orchards. Presentation at the 7th International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, September 10-15, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.


Review Publications
Mcquate, G.T., Peck, S.L., Barr, P.G., Sylva, C.D. 2005. Comparative Laboratory Evaluation of Spinosad and Phloxine B as Toxicants in Protein Baits for Suppression of Three Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Species. Journal of Economic Entomology. 98: 1170-1178

Jang, E.B., Holler, T.C., Khrimian, A., Lux, S., Casana-Giner, V., Carvalho, L.A. 2005. Field Response of Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Ceralure B1: Evaluations of Enantiomeric B1 Ratios on Fly Captures. Journal of Economic Entomology. 98(4):1139-1143.

Last Modified: 12/29/2014
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