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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

2010 Annual Report

1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
The over-arching goal of this project is to develop new knowledge to increase the value of underutilized seafood processing by-products for aquaculture and agriculture in a sustainable manner. This will be achieved by accomplishing the three objectives listed below. 1. Elucidate the chemical, biological, and physical properties of underutilized Alaska fish by-products and their biochemical constituents to identify properties/compounds that can be used to make new and improved aquaculture and agriculture feed ingredients, and other high value products. 2. Improve processes and methods for analysis, collection, and storage of raw materials, to retain the chemical, biological, and physical qualities of Alaska fish processing raw materials for developing new and improved ingredients/biochemicals. 3. Make and evaluate the value of new and improved aquaculture and agriculture ingredients and feeds from underutilized Alaska seafood by-products and their constituents. Implementation memo (revised) 130 will assist in evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of developing sources of nutrients (protein and oils) from on-shore and off-shore fish processing by-products for the emerging organic aquaculture industry. The research on the objectives identified in the implementation memo will be conducted under existing Objective 2, subobjective 2.3.

1b.Approach (from AD-416)
The overall goal of this research project is to develop new knowledge to increase the value of seafood processing by-products for aquaculture, agriculture and other high value uses in a sustainable manner. Implementation memo (revised) 130 will allow the technical feasibility to be evaluated by first examining the definition of a sustainable by-product source and the standards for organic aquaculture ingredients. In light of the definitions and standard, by-products currently produced by fish oil and meal plants in Alaska will be evaluated. Initial effort would focus on utilization of by-products from the only two sustainable fisheries in the United States, which are the Alaska pollock and salmon fisheries. Altering existing processing methods or incorporating new methods to meet the organic standards will be explored. Organic products will be produced and chemical and nutritional properties characterized. In addition, properties such as lipid oxidation will be evaluated during storage and distribution. Additional studies will evaluate the feasibility to produce unique products such as palatability enhancers and feed attractants for organic aquaculture.

3.Progress Report
This is the final report for the project 5341-31410-003D, closed in November 2009. Substantial results were realized over the 5 years of this project. ALASKA FISH PROTEIN MEAL & OIL QUALITY: The chemical and nutritive quality of Alaskan byproduct fish meals was evaluated. The quality of these meals was indistinguishable from commercial meals for shrimp and, with one exception, in formulations for Pacific threadfin and rainbow trout. A large study found Alaskan seafood by-products were well suited for inclusion into trout diets to enhance fillet omega-3 fatty acid levels.

BYPRODUCTS FROM DIFFERENT SPECIES: Properties of individual processing byproducts (heads, frames, viscera and skin) were evaluated from the major harvested species in Alaska.

ENERGY & FERTILIZERS FROM FISH BYPRODUCTS: Salmon oil biodiesel had properties comparable to biodiesel derived from plant based oils. Fish protein meal, fish bone meal, and byproduct hydrolysates can be used as fertilizers.

FEED INGREDIENTS FOR PETS, PIGS AND REINDEER: The nutritive quality of fish oils, meals, hydrolysates and organ meals have been tested as feed ingredients in swine, companion animals, and Alaskan reindeer industries.

GELATINS FROM FISH SKINS: Studies were conducted to increase the value of fish skins, including improved extraction of gelatin; chemical cross-linking of fish gelatin, dehydration as a stabilization method, making fish gelatin nano fibers and fish gelatin films.

HYDROLYSATES FROM BYPRODUCTS: Hydrolysates were made from processing byproducts of the most abundantly harvested Alaskan species and chemically characterized. A CRADA with Alaska Protein Recovery, LLC was completed to develop improved processing technologies for protein hydrolysates.

OILS FROM FISH BYPRODUCTS: Studies have provided the lipid information needed for further utilization of byproducts as feed ingredients. Adsorption processes using different absorbents were evaluated for fish oil purification.

PROTEIN POWDERS FROM BYPRODUCTS: Feed ingredients with different chemical and functional properties have been made from the insoluble and soluble protein fractions of different pollock and salmon byproducts. Salmon livers have relatively high cholesterol levels where these from pollock had high lipid levels. Methods were developed for processing fish livers and testes into protein meals, which were then characterized.

STABILIZING FISH PROCESSING BYPRODUCTS: Byproduct components were stabilized against microbial degradation through fermentation with lactic acid bacteria and through ensilage by direct acidification using formic acid. An improved detection method for determining biogenic amines was developed. Also, methods were developed for the evaluation of fat soluble vitamins in fish oils.

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES ON FISH BYPRODUCTS: International Symposia on fish processing byproducts were held in Anchorage AK in November 2002, and Portland OR in February 2009 where a number of the project research results were presented. Edited books from the 2002 and 2009 symposium are available.

1. This project 5341-31410-003-00D ended November 2009, when project 5341-31410-004-00D was initiated. There is a high degree of continuity from the old to the new project and significant accomplishments for the month of October 2010 are incorporated in 5341-31410-004-00D.

Review Publications
Wu, T.H., Bechtel, P.J., Bower, C.K. 2009. Effects of Delay Processing of Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) Byproducts into Fishmeal. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology. 18(4):345-359.

Rowland, S., Bower, C.K., Patil, K.N., Dewitt, C.A. 2009. Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste. Journal of Food Science. 74(8):E426-E431.

Last Modified: 7/12/2014
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