2008 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
The over-arching goal of this project is to develop new knowledge to increase the value of underutilized seafood processing by-products for aquaculture and agriculture in a sustainable manner. This will be achieved by accomplishing the three objectives listed below.
1. Elucidate the chemical, biological, and physical properties of underutilized Alaska fish by-products and their biochemical constituents to identify properties/compounds that can be used to make new and improved aquaculture and agriculture feed ingredients, and other high value products.
2. Improve processes and methods for analysis, collection, and storage of raw materials, to retain the chemical, biological, and physical qualities of Alaska fish processing raw materials for developing new and improved ingredients/biochemicals.
3. Make and evaluate the value of new and improved aquaculture and agriculture ingredients and feeds from underutilized Alaska seafood by-products and their constituents.
Implementation memo (revised) 130 will assist in evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of developing sources of nutrients (protein and oils) from on-shore and off-shore fish processing by-products for the emerging organic aquaculture industry. The research on the objectives identified in the implementation memo will be conducted under existing Objective 2, subobjective 2.3.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
The overall goal of this research project is to develop new knowledge to increase the value of seafood processing by-products for aquaculture, agriculture and other high value uses in a sustainable manner.
Implementation memo (revised) 130 will allow the technical feasibility to be evaluated by first examining the definition of a sustainable by-product source and the standards for organic aquaculture ingredients. In light of the definitions and standard, by-products currently produced by fish oil and meal plants in Alaska will be evaluated. Initial effort would focus on utilization of by-products from the only two sustainable fisheries in the United States, which are the Alaska pollock and salmon fisheries. Altering existing processing methods or incorporating new methods to meet the organic standards will be explored. Organic products will be produced and chemical and nutritional properties characterized. In addition, properties such as lipid oxidation will be evaluated during storage and distribution. Additional studies will evaluate the feasibility to produce unique products such as palatability enhancers and feed attractants for organic aquaculture.
All research efforts relate specifically to NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement f. New Uses for Byproducts.
1. Adsorption processes using different absorbents were evaluated for fish oil purification.
2. Selected chemical and physical characteristics of crude and purified pollock and salmon oil were evaluated after purification.
3. Physical properties of salmon oils including thermal and rheological properties and lipid oxidation of salmon oil were determined.
STABILIZING BYPRODUCTS AND QUALITY DURING STORAGE
1. A storage study on raw pink salmon and Alaska pollock byproducts was completed and oils and meals made from the stored byproducts were evaluated.
2. A storage study on the stability of separated byproducts including heads, frames, and viscera is being completed.
3. Acidification as a preservation method for individual salmon byproducts was evaluated and has major implications for how fish processing waste should be collected and stored if maximum nutritional quality is to be preserved.
4. A study is in progress to determine the effects of long term storage on quality characteristic of both commercial salmon and pollock meals and oils.
“ORGANIC “ALASKA FISH MEALS
1. A study was complete using Alaska “organic” in for shrimp and Pacific threadfin diets and the from Pacific threadfin fillets had acceptable sensory quality characteristics.
2. A study was completed and information transferred to agriculture producers on guidelines for using Alaska organic fish meal as a nutrient sources for crop production.
FISH SKINS AND GELATINS
1. Fish gelatin films were found to have better water vapor and oxygen permeability properties than films made with mammalian gelatins.
2. Drying methods were developed that can alter physical properties of gelatin films.
3. In progress is a study in which electrospun fibers of poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(lactic acid) with pollock gelatin were evaluated for biomedical applications.
1. Body wall byproduct of giant red sea cucumbers and Yelloweye rockfish byproducts from commercial harvesting were characterized for uses as food and feed ingredients.
2. Chemical characterization of roe-stripped pink and chum salmon are in progress.
3. Heads from five Pacific salmon species were dried at different temperatures, characterized, and evaluated for export.
1. Studies are underway evaluating the attractant properties of micro-particulates containing Alaska fisheries byproducts that are fed to larval rockfish.
2. A study is in progress to evaluate expression of genes associated with muscle growth and immuno-stimulatory effects of fish fed diets containing byproduct ingredients.
3. Studies were completed on sturgeon fed Alaska pollock byproduct meal and shrimp fed hydrolysates.
4. Data analysis was completed in a large study that found Alaska seafood byproducts were well suited for inclusion into trout diets to enhance fillet omega-3 fatty acid levels.
PURIFICATION OF COMMERCIAL SALMON OILS
The quality and value of salmon oil can be increased by removing protein, moisture and other impurities commonly found in unpurified oil; however low cost simplified procedures are needed. This study was completed by a University of Alaska scientist and graduate student and evaluated different materials for absorbing impurities from crude salmon oil. Crude salmon oil was obtained from a commercial fishmeal company, purified using two absorbent materials, shrimp chitosan or activated earth and three different processes. Results indicated that activated earth had a good ability to adsorb peroxides, minerals, moistures, and insoluble impurities of unpurified salmon oil and neither chitosan nor activated earth was effective in removing free fatty acids from unpurified salmon oil. This study developed an economical low temperature method for the fish byproduct industry to further purifying marine fish oils. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement f. New Uses for Byproducts.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF COMMERCIAL SALMON OIL
Many of the important physical properties of salmon oils have not been determined. This study by University of Alaska scientists was designed to characterized salmon oils obtained from a commercial fishmeal company in Alaska. Fresh commercial fish oils were obtained and the oils exhibited non-Newtonian fluid behavior and the apparent viscosity of unpurified salmon oil was significantly increased with decreased temperature. The study showed that changes in the magnitude of apparent viscosity and the lipid oxidation rate of the unpurified salmon oil with temperature could be well described by the Arrhenius equation. The research impacts processors of salmon byproducts by providing values on the basic properties of salmon oil that are needed for designing fish oil purification processes. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement f. New Uses for Byproducts.
STABILIZING FISH PROCESSING BYPRODUCTS
High-quality by-products from fish processing are sometimes discarded unless fishmeal plants are located nearby. ARS scientists in Alaska evaluated acidification as a preservation method for individual salmon by-products (heads, viscera, and a mixture). By-product components were stabilized through fermentation by lactic acid bacteria and through ensilage by direct acidification using formic acid. Stable silage pHs were
maintained by all treatment groups for 120 days, although lipid and protein quality decreased. Of note, viscera and heads preserved separately consistently maintained a lower, more effective pH than when mixed together, regardless of treatment. The research impacts fish processors by providing guidance concerning how by-products should be collected and stored if maximum nutritional quality is to be preserved. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement f. New Uses for Byproducts.
USING ALASKA FISH OIL TO ALTER THE OMEGA-3 COMPOSITION OF FILLETS
There is a need to understand how the composition of dietary fat alters the fat composition in market size fillets. The objective of this research by ARS scientists in the Subarctic Agriculture Research Unit in Fairbanks, AK was to investigate the differences in the kinetics of fatty acids (FA) deposition in the fillets of a market sized class of Idaho cultured rainbow trout fed commercial Alaskan fish oils versus menhaden oil. After eight weeks of feeding it was possible to boost EPA and DHA levels and increase the ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 FA in fillets of rainbow trout by replacing menhaden oil with the Alaskan fish oils. The FA composition of oils derived from Alaskan seafood by-products were nutritionally well suited for inclusion into feeds for rainbow trout, and in respect to long chained omega-3 FA levels, superior to menhaden oil. The research impacts the aquaculture industries by providing methods of meeting consumer demands for nutritious aquatic food products. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement f. New Uses for Byproducts.
LOW TEMPERATURE DRYING OF FISH HEADS. Drying fish byproducts is an expensive process that could be done more effeciently with low temperature drying. The objective of this research was to evaluate two low drying temperatures on the quality and chemical composition of five different types of wild Pacific salmon heads. University of Alaska and ARS scientists obtained red, pink, chum, king and silver salmon heads from commercial processors that were then dried at 40 and 77 ºC and their chemical and physical properties analyzed. Results indicated large differences between salmon species, less drying time and similar quality at both drying temperatures. Dried salmon heads were of high nutritional value and have potential as a value added edible food ingredient for export markets. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement f. New Uses for Byproducts.
CROP YIELDS USING ALASKA FISH BYPRODUCT ORGANIC FERTILIZERS
There is need to develop value-added products for fish waste. Three fish byproducts (fish meal, fish bone meal, and fish hydrolysate) were evaluated in two Alaska locations as organic fertilizer for barley production in 2007 and 2008 by University of Alaska and ARS scientists. The three fish meal products were applied at 50, 100, and 150 kg N/ha rate along with a control treatment receiving no fertilizer application, and a urea treatment with 100 kg N/ha application. The results showed that at current year of application, the fish meal and fish bone meal were as good as urea fertilizer and crops also responded from fish meals applied in the previous year. The research was presented in agriculture producers meeting in Alaska and provides guidelines for producers who use fish meal as fertilizer for crop production. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement f. New Uses for Byproducts.
IMPACT OF ALASKA ORGANIC MEAL ON FILLET QUALITY OF PACIFIC THREADFIN
There is lack of information on the use of Alaska “organic” fish by-product meals on fillet quality and sensory characteristics. Oceanic Institute scientists conducted a 12-week feeding trial to ascertain the impact of utilizing Alaska ‘organic' (no synthetic antioxidant) meal on fillet quality of market size Pacific threadfin. Sensory assessment from a trained taste panel did not show consistent differences in fillet aroma, appearance, texture and flavor between the experimental diet containing Alaska organic meal and control diets which were non-organic. The research indicates that the sensory quality of fillets from Pacific threadfin fed diets containing Alaska fish meal was satisfactory and provides feed ingredient options for the Pacific threadfin industry. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement f. New Uses for Byproducts.
BARRIER PROPERTIES OF FILMS MADE FROM ALASKA FISH SKIN GELATINS
There is increasing interest in making biodegradeble and/or edible films from gelatins; however, gelatin films from cold water fish skin have physical properties different from films made with the more common bovine and porcine gelatins. In this study the effects of drying temperature on barrier and mechanical properties of pollock and salmon gelatin films were determined by ARS scientists in California and Alaska. Results indicated the films dried below gelation temperature had higher helical content levels, resulting in higher strength, but worse water vapor barrier properties. The research impacts the gelatin film industry by providing new methods of altering the gelatin films physical properties. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement f. New Uses for Byproducts.
ALASKA FISHERY BYPRODUCTS FOR STURGEON DIETS
There is a potential market for Alaska byproduct feed ingredients for use in sturgeon diets. A second grow out diet for sturgeon incorporating fish meal derived from byproducts of the Alaskan seafood industry was completed by Oceanic Institute and University of Hawaii, Hilo scientists. The study utilized sturgeon at the University of Hawaii, Hilo and evaluated growth and survival performance of groups fed control diets and diets containing Alaska Pollock fish meal. Results indicated there were no significant differences between groups fed commercial feeds and those fed the diet containing pollock meal. The research impact is in providing new markets for Alaska fish meals and benefits to feed producers and farmers raising sturgeon by providing an alternate source of fishmeal. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement f. New Uses for Byproducts.
POTENTIAL FOR VALUE-ADDED BYPRODUCTS FROM YELLOWEYE ROCKFISH
Yelloweye rockfish (YER) are a highly prized species in both commercial and recreational fisheries in Alaska. The objective of this research study conducted by University of Alaska and ARS scientists was to characterize YER byproducts. YER heads and livers were obtained and yields, proximate composition, fatty acid, composition, amino acid profiles, lipid classes, cholesterol content, and mineral composition were determined. Results indicated oils were rich in omega-3 fatty acids similar to other cold water marine finfish and amino acid composition revealed that the liver and head protein was a good sources of essential amino acids. The research impacts fish processors by providing guidance on how YER byproducts can be utilized for production of food and feed ingredients. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement f. New Uses for Byproducts.
BY-PRODUCT STORAGE TIME AND TEMPERATURE ON FISH MEAL AND OIL QUALITY
The quality of raw fish byproducts may deteriorate during storage; however, more information is needed. A storage study on fish byproducts from pink salmon and Alaska pollock was conducted in Kodiak, Alaska by ARS scientists at two temperatures. After storage, the byproducts were processed into fishmeal and oil extracts and the quality of the meal and oil were examined. Results indicated oil quality deteriorated with storage time; however, the amino acid composition of the protein in the meal was good after all storage times and temperatures. This research impacts the fish processing industry by providing guidance on storage time and temperature of raw byproducts on fish meal and oil quality. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement f. New Uses for Byproducts.
5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
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Bower, C.K., Malemute, C.L., Oliveira, A.C. 2007. Preservation Methods for Retaining n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Alaska Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) Products. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology. 16(4):45-54.
Plante, S., Smiley, S., Oliveira, A., Stone, D., Hardy, R.W., Bechtel, P.J. 2008. Chemical Characterizations of Testes Meals Made from Alaska's Seafood Processing Byproducts. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology. 17(2):195-211. DOI: 10.1080/10498850801937265.
Sathivel, S., Huang, J., Bechtel, P.J. 2008. Properties of pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) skin hydrolysates and effects on lipid oxidation of skinless pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) fillets during 4 months of frozen storage. Journal of Food Biochemistry. 32:247-263.
Wu, T.H., Bechtel, P.J. 2008. Ammonia, Dimethylamine, Trimethylamine, and Trimethylamine Oxide from Raw and Processed Fish By-Products. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology. 17(1):27-38. doi: 10.1080/10498850801891140.
Wiklund, E., Finstad, G., Johansson, L., Aguiar, G., Bechtel, P.J. 2008. Carcass composition and yield of Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) steers and effects of electrical stimulation applied during field slaughter on meat quality. Meat Science. 78(3):185-193.
Zinn, K., Hernot, D., Fastinger, N., Karr-Lilienthal, L., Bechtel, P.J., Swanson, K., Fahey, G. 2008. Fish protein substrates can substitute effectively for poultry by-product meal when incorporated in high quality senior dog diets. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition. 93(4):447-455.
Wu, T.H., Bechtel, P.J. 2008. Salmon by-product storage and oil extraction. Food Chemistry. 111(4):868-871.