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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: CONVERTING ALASKA FISH BY-PRODUCTS INTO VALUE ADDED INGREDIENTS AND PRODUCTS
2007 Annual Report


1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
The over-arching goal of this project is to develop new knowledge to increase the value of underutilized seafood processing by-products for aquaculture and agriculture in a sustainable manner. This will be achieved by accomplishing the three objectives listed below. 1. Elucidate the chemical, biological, and physical properties of underutilized Alaska fish by-products and their biochemical constituents to identify properties/compounds that can be used to make new and improved aquaculture and agriculture feed ingredients, and other high value products. 2. Improve processes and methods for analysis, collection, and storage of raw materials, to retain the chemical, biological, and physical qualities of Alaska fish processing raw materials for developing new and improved ingredients/biochemicals. 3. Make and evaluate the value of new and improved aquaculture and agriculture ingredients and feeds from underutilized Alaska seafood by-products and their constituents. Implementation memo (revised) 130 will assist in evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of developing sources of nutrients (protein and oils) from on-shore and off-shore fish processing by-products for the emerging organic aquaculture industry. The research on the objectives identified in the implementation memo will be conducted under existing Objective 2, subobjective 2.3.


1b.Approach (from AD-416)
The overall goal of this research project is to develop new knowledge to increase the value of seafood processing by-products for aquaculture, agriculture and other high value uses in a sustainable manner. Implementation memo (revised) 130 will allow the technical feasibility to be evaluated by first examining the definition of a sustainable by-product source and the standards for organic aquaculture ingredients. In light of the definitions and standard, by-products currently produced by fish oil and meal plants in Alaska will be evaluated. Initial effort would focus on utilization of by-products from the only two sustainable fisheries in the United States, which are the Alaska pollock and salmon fisheries. Altering existing processing methods or incorporating new methods to meet the organic standards will be explored. Organic products will be produced and chemical and nutritional properties characterized. In addition, properties such as lipid oxidation will be evaluated during storage and distribution. Additional studies will evaluate the feasibility to produce unique products such as palatability enhancers and feed attractants for organic aquaculture.


3.Progress Report
None


4.Accomplishments
Parameters for use of fish hydrolysates in diets of Shrimp Value-addition of underutilized seafood processing by-products is critical for aquaculture industry as well as U.S. agriculture. Scientists at Oceanic Institute in Hawaii in collaboration with scientists at the Western Regional Research Center in Albany, California and the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks have conducted a study to evaluate how different methods of processing acidified fish byproduct hydrolysates, when used as a dietary ingredients, affects shrimp growth. Hydrolysates made from fish byproducts are usually stabilized by acidification; however, little is known concerning how different hydrolysis production parameters such as neutralization and drying affect nutritional quality. An 8-week shrimp growth trial was conducted to determine the suitability of four experimental fish processing byproduct hydrolysates, manufactured under different conditions, as ingredients replacing fishmeal. It was found that fish hydrolysates produced under some conditions can replace up to 50% of the standard fishmeal in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) diets, with no significant diminishment in growth or survival. The results from this research will be useful in developing specific ingredients suitable for commercial shrimp aquaculture. This work was conducted in collaboration with a private company involved in production of hydrolysates. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts.

Alaskan seafood processing byproducts in diets for Sturgeon Scientists at Oceanic Institute in Hawaii and the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia evaluated the use of Alaska byproducts as feed ingredients for farmed sturgeon. This study addressed the limited information available concerning the range of aquatic species that can accept the use of Alaska fisheries byproducts. A diet with the protein component based on Alaska pollock meal was found to promote growth and survival in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) equal to that of standard commercial feeds. The experimental feed exhibited superior stability when immersed in water and reduced the effort required to achieve good water quality. A growth trial was conducted in which a series of 4 diets, including one containing Alaskan pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) meal and 3 commercial products (Biodiet, Skretting, and Silvercup), were fed to sturgeon for 6 weeks. The findings from this work could be used to develop more cost effective feeds for sturgeon culture, while providing a value-added opportunity for utilization of Alaska pollock seafood processing byproducts. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts.

Replacement diets for Lingcod grow-out Scientists at NOAA Fisheries in Manchester, Washington in collaboration with scientists at the University of Idaho Hagerman Fish Culture Experiment Station, the University of Alaska’s Fishery Industrial Technology Center in Kodiak, Alaska and the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks are using Alaska byproducts to develop unique aquaculture diets for lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus) and other species. The objective of these studies is to develop superior diets using Alaska byproducts that improve growth rate and feed efficiency of lingcod and other new marine farmed fish species. In grow out experiments, forty percent of the diet was protein meal derived from one of four Alaskan processing byproduct sources: pollock viscera meal, salmon livermeal, organic whitefish meal, whitefish meal, and a control diet containing anchovy meal. It was found that the lingcod performed significantly better in growth and feed efficiency on the diets containing the salmon livermeal, pollock viscera meal and the anchovy control than the diets containing either version of the whitefish meal. These results indicate the potential for using specialized meals made from individual byproduct components as dietary components for these species. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts.

Alaskan fish oils in finishing diets for rainbow trout Scientists at the University of Idaho Hagerman Fish Culture Experiment Station in collaboration with the University of Alaska’s Fishery Industrial Technology Center in Kodiak, Alaska and the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks evaluated the fatty acid composition in fillets of trout fed diets containing different commercially available Alaska fish oils. Oils made from Alaska marine fish byproducts contain high levels of the long chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, and when these oils are incorporated into aquaculture diets they can increase the EPA and DHA content in the fillets. Studies were completed with 400g and 800g (market size) rainbow trout fed diets containing Alaskan fish oils (pollock, salmon, rockfish) to enhance the omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) content in fillets. Alaska pollock oil was found to be more effective than menhaden oil in enriching fillets with EPA and DHA when fed during the final stages of grow-out to trout that had previously been fed diets containing either rendered poultry oil or canola oil as the major dietary lipid. These results are very relevant to the aquaculture industry as global fish oil supplies are fully utilized and alternative strategies to producing healthful farmed fish products must be developed. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts.

Processing byproducts in diets for Pacific threadfin Scientists at Oceanic Institute in Hawaii in collaboration with scientist at the University of Alaska’s Fishery Industrial Technology Center in Kodiak, Alaska and the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks evaluated the use of Alaska byproducts in the grow out diets of Pacific threadfin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of Pacific threadfin feed Alaska byproduct ingredients on the composition, texture and sensory properties of the fillets from these fish. A 12-week feeding trial was completed to ascertain the impact of utilizing Alaskan pollock meal and pollock oil on growth and fillet quality of market size Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus sexfilis). The feeding trial was conducted in a recirculation aquaculture system to grow fish from 333g to 503g using an experimental diet containing pollock meal and pollock oil as major ingredients. The results of this study indicated no differences in fish growth and the sensory assessment from a trained taste panel for sashimi and baked samples did not show consistent differences in fillet color, texture and flavor between experimental and commercial diet. The information will be useful in formulating cost-effective grow-out diets that can ensure good growth and desirable fillet quality for Pacific threadfin. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts.

Weaning rock sole onto artificial feeds with chemical cues Scientists at the NOAA Fisheries in Manchester, Washington in collaboration with scientists at the University of Idaho Hagerman Fish Culture Experiment Station, the University of Alaska’s Fishery Industrial Technology Center in Kodiak, Alaska and the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks evaluated different Alaska byproducts for their ability to stimulate diet consumption of marine fish larvae and thus increase the efficiency of larvae production. The objective of this study was to determine whether chemical cues from the byproducts that were introduced to the culture water could stimulate the weaning of rock sole (Lepidopsetta spp.) larvae onto prepared feeds. L-alanine, Artemia culture water and red salmon stickwater were chosen as the chemical cues and inert metal oxides were incorporated at known proportions into the feeds to measure their consumption. When red salmon stickwater was added to the culture medium before weaning, the fish were more likely to take up the microparticulate food on the first and second days post-weaning than fish that were not given the chemical cue. These results indicate the potential for using stickwater or compounds derived from stickwater in fish larvae production. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts.

Antioxidant properties of pollock skin hydrolysates Scientists at the University of Alaska’s Fishery Industrial Technology Center in Kodiak, Alaska and the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks have collaborated on studies to make hydrolysates with antioxidant properties from underutilized fish skin. Pollock skin is an abundant and under-utilized byproduct that can be used as a unique protein source to make hydrolysates with useful chemical and functional properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and solubility properties of pollock skin hydrolysates and evaluate the use of hydrolysate coating materials to suppress lipid oxidation in fish fillets during frozen storage. Results indicated that the edible coatings prepared from pollock skin protein hydrolysate enhanced the storage stability and quality of frozen salmon fillets. The edible hydrolysates coating may also provide a degree of protection against damage during transportation and handling of fish fillets. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts.

Fish oil purification and adsorption technology Scientists at the University of Alaska’s Fishery Industrial Technology Center in Kodiak, Alaska and the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks have collaborated on low cost methods of purifying the high omega-3 content oils that can be extracted from Alaska fish byproducts. In order to increase the quality and stability of crude fish oils there is a need for a rapid, low cost method of purifying oil extracted from salmon heads and other fish byproducts. The objective of this project was to develop a low cost adsorption technology that would remove fish oil impurities. Results of research conducted in Alaska indicate that a dual step differential adsorption process performs well in removing many of the impurities from crude fish oil and is likely to be cost effective. Due to the great interest in the high levels of the 3-omega fatty acids in salmon oil, many salmon processors are now evaluating the extraction and partially purification of oil from salmon heads. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts.

Gasification of salmon byproducts Scientists at Oklahoma State University in Stillwater, Oklahoma and the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks worked together on studies to evaluate the potential of producing combustible gas from unused fish waste. Unused fish processing waste represents biomass that may be valuable for generating energy. Raw and treated salmon samples (heads, frames, and viscera) in combination with wood pellets (to reduce the moisture levels) were converted to combustible gases using an up-draft gasifier. Salmon by-products were found to be too wet to undergo combustion using an up-draft gasifier, and therefore may not be practical for large-scale energy production. However, this technology can still provide a feasible energy source in Alaska if an inexpensive method of drying the feedstock is developed. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts.

Preservation of individual byproduct components Scientists at the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks are evaluating methods of economically stabilizing individual fish byproducts such as heads and viscera so they can be used at a later time to make products such as protein and oil feed ingredients and fertilizers. Fish by-products are typically mixed together, even though some components may have adverse effects on others. Individual salmon by-products (heads, viscera, and a mixture) were stabilized through fermentation by lactic acid bacteria and through ensilage by direct acidification. Viscera and heads that were preserved separately for 120 days maintained a lower and thus more desirable pH than when mixed together. This finding has major implications for how fish processing waste should be collected and stored if maximum nutritional value is to be preserved. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts.

Antioxidant activity in Alaska salmon oil Scientists at Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks have evaluated the natural antioxidant activity in oil extracted from salmon byproducts and the loss of antioxidant activity in raw materials held at for different amounts of time and at different temperatures. Salmon oil contains fat soluble vitamins and other compounds, which have antioxidant properties that are important in preventing oxidation and are beneficial to health. On occasion, raw byproducts are held unrefrigerated for several days until a sufficient quantity of byproduct is received for processing. A study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant activity in oils extracted from Alaska salmon byproducts stored for different amounts of time (0 to 4 days) and at two different temperatures (6 or 15C). Results showed a linear decrease for antioxidant activity of the extracted oils during the 4 days of storage and no significant difference in the regression lines between the two storage temperatures. These data suggest that storage temperatures of 6 or 15C were of less importance than the storage time for reducing the natural antioxidant activity in oils extracted from salmon byproducts. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts.

Volatile amines and trimethylamine oxide in byproducts Scientists at the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks have developed a fast and sensitive method for measuring the major volatile amines in fish byproducts, which can be used to evaluate the quality of fish byproducts. When storage time is prolonged and/or temperature increased the quality of fish byproducts is decreased and can result in lower quality products made from the byproducts such as fish meals. A capillary electrophoresis method was modified to simultaneously measure the major volatile amines and trimethylamine oxide in fish byproducts in less than 10 minutes per sample. The levels of the different volatile amines were determined in different fish byproducts from different fish species and products. Large difference in volatile amine values were observed between the different fish byproducts. These values can be used as quality indicators of raw and processed material freshness and as indicators for the potential of these materials to spoil. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts.

Alaska by-products as an organic fertilizer Scientists on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks in collaboration with scientists from the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks have conducted study on use of Alaska fish byproduct fertilizers on Alaska crop production. The expanding of organic farming in Alaska demands alternative nutrient sources for crop production and one source of these nutrients is fish by-product meals, bone meals and hydrolysates from the large Alaska fishing industry. A project was designed to evaluate plant nutritional value of Alaska fish byproducts and consisted of laboratory incubation, field research plots, and on farm demonstration. The major findings from the project was N release from the three byproducts followed a two stage release pattern, a fast release phase until 7 days and a slow release phase thereafter. In conclusion fish meal, fish bone meal, fish hydrolysate all provided similar crop biomass production in the field. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts.

Cross linked fish gelatin films Scientists at the Western Regional Research Center in Albany, California and the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks have collaborated on research to increase utilization of Alaska fish skins by making films from extracted fish skin gelatins. Gelatin extracted from fish skin can be used to make biodegradable films and properties of these films can be improved by cross linking the gelatin prior to forming films. The objective of this study was to evaluate properties of films made from cross-linked salmon and pollock gelatins. Varied cross-linker (glutaraldehyde) concentrations were used to crosslink the gelatins and used to make films and film properties evaluated including, oxygen permeability, water permeability, tensile properties, thermal properties, and biodegradability. Results indicated that cross-linked films had slightly reduced water permeability when compared to control films, but comparable tensile and thermal properties. These results indicate new gelatin film products with different physical properties can be made from cross-linked cold water fish skin gelatins. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts.

Fish hydrolysates in weaner pig diets Scientists at the University of Illinois in Urbana, Illinois and the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks have collaborated on research to evaluate the use of hydrolysates made from Alaska fish byproducts as a low cost replacement for spray dried animal plasma in early weaner pig diets. Hydrolysates made from fish byproducts are good sources of digestible protein and have potential applications as feed ingredients for young animals with immature digestive systems. The first study on weanling pig was conducted with four treatments: hydrolyzed pollock fish meal, hydrolyzed salmon fishmeal, hydrolyzed commercial fishmeal, and spray dried animal plasma to measure the apparent digestibility. The second study was conducted to investigate the effects on growth performance of diets based on 2 of the fishmeals plus a spray dried animal plasma diet. The results of these studies suggest that the fish based samples evaluated were inferior to spray dried animal plasma in terms of their effect on early post-weaning performance of piglets; however, fish hydrolysats may have a role as a dietary ingredient later in the post-weaning period. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts.

Fish hydrolysates on the immune status of senior dogs Scientists at the University of Illinois in Urbana, Illinois and the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks have collaborated on research to evaluate utilization of Alaska byproducts as dietary ingredients for older dogs. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding diets containing fish protein substrates on total tract nutrient digestibilities and indices of immune status on aged dogs. Test diets contained pink salmon hydrolysate, white fish meal, and milt meal. There was a trend for higher apparent dry matter digestibility in dogs fed the milt meal and hydrolysate diets compared to those fed the control fish meal diet. Cytokine gene expression data showed a trend for a higher fold change from baseline of TGF-ÿ in dogs fed diets containing milt meal and hydrolysate compared to those fed the control diet. These results supported the use of Alaska byproduct ingredients in the diets of senior dogs; however, additional studies will be needed to further clarify the role of fish based protein ingredients on the immune system of older dogs. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts.

Protein meals and oil from arrowtooth flounder Scientists at the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit in Fairbanks and the University of Alaska’s Fishery Industrial Technology Center in Kodiak, Alaska collaborated on research to increase utilization of arrowtooth flounder byproducts. In the past arrowtooth flounder has been an underutilized species; however, an increasing amount of this abundant fish is being harvested and the byproducts are becoming available for meals, oils and other products. The objective was to evaluate the protein, lipid and mineral components of meals made from arrowtooth flounder byproducts. Arrowtooth flounder byproducts consisting of heads and viscera were obtained from commercial processors and analyzed. Results indicate the protein to be of high quality and the lipid had more saturated fatty acids and lower amounts of long chain 3-omega fatty acids than found in other common Alaska cold water marine fish. Unique meals and oils can be made from arrowtooth flounder byproducts and used in aqua diets to alter the lipid profile of farm raised fish. NP 106, Component VII: Quality, Safety and Variety of Aquaculture Products for Consumers, Problem Statement: f. New Uses for Byproducts.


5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
None


6.Technology Transfer

Number of non-peer reviewed presentations and proceedings46
Number of newspaper articles and other presentations for non-science audiences6

Review Publications
Folador, J., Karr-Lilienthal, L., Parsons, C., Bauer, L., Utterback, P., Schasteen, C., Bechtel, P.J., Fahey, G. 2006. Fish meals, fish components, and fish protein hydrolysates as potential ingredients in pet foods. Journal of Animal Science 84(10):2752-2765.

Bechtel, P.J., Chantarachoti, J., Oliveira, A.C., Sathivel, S. 2007. Characterization of Protein Fractions from Immature Alaska Walleye Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) Roe. Journal of Food Science 72(5):S338-S343.

Finstadt, G., Wicklund, E., Long, K., Rincker, P., Oliveira, A.C., Bechtel, P.J. 2007. Feeding soy or fish meal to Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) - effects on animal performance and meat quality. Rangifer 27(1):59-75.

Chiou, B., Avena Bustillos, R.D., Shey, J., Yee, E., Bechtel, P.J., Imam, S.H., Glenn, G.M., Orts, W.J. 2006. Rheological and mechanical properties of cross-linked fish gelatins. Polymer. 47(18):6379-6386.

Oliveira, A.C., Bechtel, P.J. 2006. Protein and lipid composition of Walleye Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) livers. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology Vol.15(3):5-19.

Zhang, M., Sparrow, S., Bechtel, P.J., Pantoja, A. 2007. Characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus release from fish meals and fish hydrolysates in subarctic soils. Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Restoration. 3:262-275.

Sathivel, S., Bechtel, P.J., Prinyawiwatkul, W. 2006. Physicochemical and Rheological Properties of Salmon Protein Powders. International Journal of Food Engineering. Vol. 2 : Iss. 2, Article 3. Available at: http://www.bepress.com/ijfe/vol2/iss2/art3

Last Modified: 9/10/2014
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