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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: CONVERTING ALASKA FISH BY-PRODUCTS INTO VALUE ADDED INGREDIENTS AND PRODUCTS
2006 Annual Report


1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? Why does it matter?
The Alaskan fishing industry produces over one million metric tons of by-product and waste annually. This material has potential value as a protein and natural products source but much by-product is not utilized. This project seeks to characterize the various fish processing by-products and existing secondary products, and to develop new and higher valued ingredients for use in animal (agriculture and aquatic) feeds. Currently almost all of the fishery waste from large land-based processors is converted to low value, high ash meal. Meal production is considered a cost of doing business and has not yet become recognized as a significant source of revenue. Much of the waste from smaller processors is disposed of by using the grind and dump method. Regulatory changes including those requiring 100% utilization of cod and pollock make the development of best-use end products urgent. This project contributes to National Program 106, Aquaculture.


2.List by year the currently approved milestones (indicators of research progress)
2006 1. Develop new knowledge 1.1. Analyze by-product from flat, rock, cartilaginous fish 1.2. Analyze seasonal variation of the by-product stream 1.3. Characterize tissue and organ components 1.4. Characterize protein from organs and extracted proteins 1.5. Characterize lipid from organs and by-products 1.6. Characterize properties of hydrolysates 1.7. Characterize stick water properties 1.8. Value added salmon by-products

2. Examine processes and methods for analysis, collection & storage of raw materials 2.1. Evaluate raw material quality and its effect on meals and oils 2.2. Effects of storage time and temp. on by-product components 2.3. Evaluate changes in quality during storage of meals and oils 2.4. Evaluate stabilization and storage of by-products

3. Make new and improved ingredients & feeds from AK by-products 3.1. Aquaculture nutritional value of protein ingredients 3.2. Aquaculture nutritional value of lipid ingredients 3.3. Aquaculture palatability and attractant properties 3.4. Aquaculture growth promoters and immunostimulants 3.5. Aquaculture feed binding ingredients 3.6. Quality and sensory attributes of fish and shellfish ingredients 3.7. Use of by-product ingredients in livestock feeds 3.8. Nutritional ingredients for pet foods 3.9. Develop and evaluate novel feed ingredients for ornamental fish

2007 1. Develop new knowledge 1.1. Analyze by-product from flat, rock, cartilaginous fish 1.2. Analyze seasonal variation of the by-product stream 1.3. Characterize tissue and organ components 1.4. Characterize protein from organs and extracted proteins 1.5. Characterize lipid from organs and by-products 1.6. Characterize properties of hydrolysates 1.7. Characterize stick water properties 1.8. Value added salmon by-products

2. Examine processes and methods for analysis, collection & storage of raw materials 2.1. Evaluate raw material quality and its effect on meals and oils 2.2. Effects of storage time and temp. on by-product components 2.3. Evaluate changes in quality during storage of meals and oils 2.4. Evaluate stabilization and storage of by-products

3. Make new and improved ingredients & feeds from AK by-products 3.1. Aquaculture nutritional value of protein ingredients 3.2. Aquaculture nutritional value of lipid ingredients 3.3. Aquaculture palatability and attractant properties 3.4. Aquaculture growth promoters and immunostimulants 3.5. Aquaculture feed binding ingredients 3.6. Quality and sensory attributes of fish and shellfish ingredients 3.7. Use of by-product ingredients in livestock feeds 3.8. Nutritional ingredients for pet foods 3.9. Develop and evaluate novel feed ingredients for ornamental fish

2008 1. Develop new knowledge 1.1. Analyze by-product from flat, rock, cartilaginous fish 1.2. Analyze seasonal variation of the by-product stream 1.3. Characterize tissue and organ components 1.4. Characterize protein from organs and extracted proteins 1.5. Characterize lipid from organs and by-products 1.6. Characterize properties of hydrolysates 1.7. Characterize stick water properties 1.8. Value added salmon by-products

2. Examine processes and methods for analysis, collection & storage of raw materials 2.1. Evaluate raw material quality and its effect on meals and oils 2.2. Effects of storage time and temp. on by-product components 2.3. Evaluate changes in quality during storage of meals and oils 2.4. Evaluate stabilization and storage of by-products

3. Make new and improved ingredients & feeds from AK by-products 3.1. Aquaculture nutritional value of protein ingredients 3.2. Aquaculture nutritional value of lipid ingredients 3.3. Aquaculture palatability and attractant properties 3.4. Aquaculture growth promoters and immunostimulants 3.5. Aquaculture feed binding ingredients 3.6. Quality and sensory attributes of fish and shellfish ingredients 3.7. Use of by-product ingredients in livestock feeds 3.8. Nutritional ingredients for pet foods 3.9. Develop and evaluate novel feed ingredients for ornamental fish


4a.List the single most significant research accomplishment during FY 2006.
Salmon by-products increase use of soy-based aquaculture feeds: In Alaska, salmon livers and other viscera are not utilized in the production of human food and are often discarded. ARS scientists in Fairbanks in collaboration with researchers at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, Hagerman Fish Culture Experiment Station in Idaho and the Oceanic Institute in Hawaii, have developed industrial scale methods for processing these livers and have chemically characterized the resulting meals. The high cholesterol concentrations will be helpful in dietary formulations for shrimp and possibly as a feed ingredient for younger fish. There has been significant interest from European feed manufacturers in these meals. This research addresses the Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture component of NP 106.


4b.List other significant research accomplishment(s), if any.
Milt and viscera meals from pollock and pink salmon: This research seeks to enhance the performance of soy-based diets by adding meals made from selected fish by-product components. ARS scientists in Fairbanks in collaboration with researchers at the University of Alaska Fairbanks and the Hagerman Fish Culture Experiment Station in Idaho and the Oceanic Institute in Hawaii found that pollock viscera and salmon milt meal contain biologically-active components that stimulate growth of salmonids fed soybean meal-based diets. The study was a trout feeding trial in which meals made from different by-products including salmon gonad and pollock viscera were used with a soy protein diet. This demonstrates the validity of our project goal of developing high-value feed additives from seafood processing waste, although further work to refine and characterize the products is needed. This accomplishment addresses the Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture component of NP 106.

Alaska pollock and salmon oils in shrimp diets: The results of an 8-week feeding trial indicated that Alaska pollock and salmon oils were able to replace menhaden oil in diets for shrimp. Scientists from the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the Oceanic Institute in Hawaii, and ARS scientists in Alaska collaborated to provide pollock and salmon oils that were used to replace menhaden oil for in a shrimp growth diets. After the eight week feeding trial, shrimp fed diets containing the Pollock and salmon oils had excellent growth, feed efficiency and survival. This finding will be useful to feed manufacturers who are looking for high quality replacements for standard sources of fish oil for aquaculture feeds. This accomplishment addresses the Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture component of NP 106.

Changes in proteolytic-enzyme levels in spawning salmon: Hydrolysate production can be a low-cost method for preservation of high quality fish by-products discarded by Alaska's fishing industry. However, endogenous proteolytic enzymes must be controlled in the raw material to ensure a consistent hydrolysate product. ARS scientists in Alaska compared the proteolytic activities among pink salmon, harvested at three different stages of spawning maturity, to evaluate changes that occurred as salmon moved from salt water to their freshwater spawning grounds. This variation has implications for reduced-heat processing of hydrolysates when different maturity levels of pink salmon are used. This accomplishment addresses the Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture component of NP 106.

Salmon biodiesel is comparable to vegetable biodiesel: In Alaska there is potential for increasing the recovery of fish oil from underutilized salmon by-products. ARS scientists in Albany, CA and Fairbanks, AK have conducrted studies, which indicate that Alaska salmon oil can be converted to biodiesel. In these studies biodiesel from salmon oil was characterized and found to have comparable properties to biodiesel derived from vegetable oils, such as soybean and corn. Results suggest that waste salmon oil could be a viable source for biodiesel production. This accomplishment addresses the Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture component of NP 106.

Stability of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: The demand for salmon oil is increasing, as n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) gain recognition for their health benefits. ARS scientists in Alaska preserved salmon by five different processing methods and then evaluated the PUFA content of the products. High n-3 PUFA values were found in smoked or pressure-cooked samples, while salting, freezing, or acidifying significantly decreased n-3 PUFA levels; and salmon heads contained over 300% more total fatty acids than fillets, losing only 15% when heat-processed. Results of this study provide direction for handling and storage of underutilized fish by-products in order to retain the maximum levels of high-value n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. This accomplishment addresses the Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture component of NP 106.

Fish-skin gelatin with antimicrobial enhancements: Fish skins are rich in collagen and can be used to produce food-grade gelatin films and gels. ARS scientists in Albany, CA and Fairbanks, AK incorporated lysozyme, a food-safe antimicrobial protein, into fish-skin gelatin films and gels, and then evaluated them for antimicrobial properties and other useful characteristics. Results indicated both films and gels retained their lysozyme activity, Fish-skin gelatin, when formulated with lysozyme, may provide a unique, functional barrier to increase the shelf life of food products. This accomplishment addresses the Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture component of NP 106.

Films from fish skin gelatins: Currently in Alaska fish skins are either used to make fish meal or discarded. Studies were conducted by ARS scientists in Albany, California and Fairbanks, Alaska to evaluate unique permeability and tensile properties of films made from cold-water fish-skin gelatins. Studies focused on dehydration as a stabilization method for fish skins; development of gelatin extraction methods and determination of the oxygen permeability of cold-water fish-skin gelatin films. There are potential food applications for gelatin films from cold-water marine fish. This accomplishment addresses the Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture component of NP 106.

Salmon hydrolysates: A CRADA was initiated with a company to conduct research and develop new and improved processing technologies to add value to fish protein hydrolysates made from Alaska by-products. Studies were conducted by ARS scientists in Albany, CA and Fairbanks, AK to improve salmon hydrolysate production by changing the acidification agent,and using drum drying as a method for stabilizing hydrolysates. Results included the feasibility of using drum drying for stabilizing salmon hydrolysates and the properties of the dried hydrolysates. These studies indicate it is possible to add value to fish protein hydrolysates made from Alaska by-products. This accomplishment addresses the Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture component of NP 106.

Attractant properties of hydrolysates from Alaska by-product for shrimp: Scientist from the Oceanic Institute in Hawaii, University of Alaska Fairbanks, and ARS in Alaska collaborated on shrimp feeding studies and found protein hydrolysate meals made from by-products of the Alaskan fishing industry exhibited positive attractant properties in diets for shrimp. A series of diets containing the prepared protein hydrolysate ingredients were produced for the shrimp trial. The voluntary consumption rates of the shrimp of all hydrolysates except one were significantly higher than the control. For most of the hydrolysates, the consumption rate was similar to that of menhaden fishmeal used in shrimp feeds. This finding is useful to feed manufacturers who are looking for alternatives to traditional sources of fishmeal. This accomplishment addresses the Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture component of NP 106.


4c.List significant activities that support special target populations.
None.


4d.Progress report.
1. Specific Cooperative Project number: 5341-31410-002-04S This report serves to document research conducted with Drs. McKeith, Ellis and Fahey of the University of Illinois in collaboration with ARS scientist in Fairbanks.

Title: Nutritional value of fish oil on reproductive performance in gilts and sows & fish protein hydrolysates indices in geriatric dogs. This SCA is slated to terminate in September 2006.

The initial study indicated the potential of using hydrolysates from fish by-products for enhancing the growth of young pigs and a second trial using 96 weaning pigs was completed and is being analyzed. An additional trial has evaluated the use of salmon oil on the reproductive performance of gilts and subsequent growth of piglets after birth through weaning. The initial trial was conducted at the University of Illinois swine farm and results indicate increased reproductive performance in terms of fetus number and this trail is being followed up with an on-farm trial that is scheduled to be completed in August 2006. The second aspect of this project was to determine the effects of feeding diets containing fish protein substrates on total tract nutrient digestibilities and indices of immune status on aged dogs. Differences have been detected and all laboratory and data analysis is scheduled to be completed by September 2006.

2. Specific Cooperative Agreement project number SCA 5241-31410-002-06S This report serves to document research conducted with Drs. Sathivel and Oliveira of the University of Alaska in collaboration with ARS scientist in Fairbanks.

Title: Properties of Protein hydrolysates and lipids extracted from fish processing byproducts. This SCA will terminate in September 2006.

The levels of cholesterol have been determined in the muscle of many species of fish; however, there is limited data on sterol compounds in fish by-products. Analysis of sterols in a number of different fish liver samples has been completed (except for the salmon samples that are currently being analyzed), the study is being prepared for publication and presentations at meeting. Physical, chemical and antioxidant properties of pollock trim and skin hydrolysate fractions separated by ultra filtration have been determined. There were differences in the antioxidant properties of the hydrolysate fractions and studies are under way to make the larger amounts of hydrolysate for addition to salmon mince in the storage study.

3. Specific Cooperative Agreement project number: 5341-31410-003-04S This report serves to document research conducted with Dr. DeWitt from Oklahoma State University in collaboration with ARS scientist in Fairbanks.

Title: Gasification of Alaskan processing waste in Alaskan communities. This project will terminate in August 2007.

The objective of this cooperative research project is to evaluate gasification technology as a method for adding value to fish processing by-products. Salmon samples from Fairbanks will undergo gasification trials at Oklahoma State University, where the dry to wet waste ratio will be determined to maximize gasification efficiency. Progress to date includes collection of salmon samples, which have been analyzed and sent to Oklahoma for gasification. Since good quality salmon oil can command a high price, one component of this study will involve gasification after removal of the oil.

4. Specific Cooperative Agreement project number: 5341-31410-003-05S This report serves to document research conducted with Drs. Zhang and Sparrow of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, School of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences in collaboration with ARS scientist in Fairbanks.

Title: Evaluation of nutritional values of Alaska whitefish by-products for organic food production. This SCA is slated to terminate in May 2007.

The objective of this cooperative research project is to investigate using white fish meal, white fish bone meal and salmon hydrolysate as soil amendments. The nutrient release rate of the three fish by-products will be simulated with mathematical models so that the release rates can be compared, and predicted at a given condition. Trials are under way and samples will be obtained during the summer of 2006 and analysis completed by May 2007. This information will be used to make recommendations to organic farmers in Alaska on application rate for different whitefish by-products.


5.Describe the major accomplishments to date and their predicted or actual impact.
All Accomplishments address the Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture component of NP 106.

The items below include those from the earlier project was completed in March 2005. A. The addition of stickwater to presscake, made from by-products of the Alaska fish processing industry, improved the nutritional quality of whitefish meals for rainbow trout, Pacific threadfin and Pacific white shrimp.

B. Selected fishmeals made from by-products of the Alaska fish processing industry were screened for pesticides and PCBs, and they did not contain detectable levels.

C. Alaska fish meals, made under standard conditions from the by-products of seafood processing, performed as well as or better than commercially available meals from whole industrial fish during shrimp and trout feeding trials.

D. Meals made from individual fish by-product tissues such as viscera, heads, and organs such as male gonads) can be used as minor ingredients to enhance the palatability, attraction and feed performance.

E. The high nutritional quality of Alaskan whitefish meals and salmon meals, established using scientific research trials in rainbow trout, Pacific threadfin and shrimp, has been disseminated to industry.

F. Processes have been developed to utilize fish skins to make gelatin and gelatin films. There has been interest expressed by companies in the unique properties of some of these materials and processes.

G. Hydrolysates have been made from different salmon and pollock by-products including heads, frames, viscera, and skins and their chemical and nutritional properties characterized.


6.What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end-user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products?
The list below includes those related to this earlier project completed in March 2005. A. Numerous options are being considered to convert seafood waste into products. This research has characterized oils, protein hydrolysates, extracted proteins and meals made from organs and parts of Alaska by-products. Research results are presented during meetings attended by the Alaskan seafood industry, and by the Alaska Marine Advisory Program. In addition, these studies are published in peer-reviewed journals. This information will significantly contribute to higher recovery and utilization of landed catch of Alaskan fish, and increase the economic return to the seafood industry by better utilization of the by-products.

B. The chemical and nutritional analysis of different by-product components, oils, extracted proteins and hydrolysates have been presented at national and international meetings and published in scientific journals. This information has also been made available to processors, consultants, and others who may be further processing by-products.

C. Several companies that manufacture products from by-products have expressed interest in using pollock and cod skins. There is interest in other intact and hydrolyzed protein ingredients from fish by-products such as viscera and liver for aquaculture, farm animal and pet diets.

D. A CRADA has been established to conduct research and develop new and improved processing technologies to add-value to fish protein hydrolysates.

E. Use of low-ash fish meal from Alaskan seafood processing waste is now being produced and successfully marketed to the US trout feed manufacturing industry for use in low-pollution trout feeds.

F. The high nutritional quality of Alaskan whitefish meals and salmon meals, established using scientific research trials in rainbow trout, Pacific threadfin and shrimp, has been disseminated to industry.

G. Chemical properties of oils derived from the production of fish meals from different species and production has been disseminated to industry and consultants.


7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below).
Avena-Bustillos RJ, Olsen C, Olson D, Chiou B, Bechtel PJ, and McHugh T. 2006. Oxygen permeability of mammalian and fish gelatin films. Institute of Food Technologists annual meeting, Orlando, FL. June 24-28, 2006.

Bechtel PJ, Morey A, Plante S, and Oliveira ACM. 2006. Chemical properties of Pacific Ocean Perch (Sebastes alutus) whole fish and by-products. Institute of Food Technologists annual meeting, Orlando, FL. June 24-28, 2006. Bechtel PJ, Wiklund E, Finstad G, and Oliveira ACM. 2006. Lipid composition of meat from free-ranging reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and reindeer fed soybean meal or fishmeal-based rations. Institute of Food Technologists annual meeting, Orlando, FL. June 24-28, 2006.

Bechtel PJ. 2006. Protein meals made from Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) viscera and liver. Aquaculture America, Las Vegas, NV. Feb 13-16, 2006.

Bechtel PJ, Sathivel S, and Oliveira ACM. 2005. Extracting high quality protein from salmon byproducts using new high pH methodology. Arctic Science Conference. Kodiak, AK. Sept. 27-29, 2005.

Bechtel PJ, Wiklund E, Finstad G, and Oliveira ACM. 2006. Lipid composition of meat from free-ranging reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) or reindeer fed soybean meal or fishmeal-based rations. Institute of Food Technologists annual meeting, Orlando, FL. June 24-28, 2006.

Bechtel PJ, Oliveira ACM, Plante S, Smiley S, and Forster I. 2006. Characterization of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) liver and meal: a cholesterol rich feed ingredient. World Aqauculture Society meeting. Italy, 2006.

Bechtel PJ, Bower CK, and Crapo CA. 2006. Estimates of Alaska Fish Processing Waste Stream Components. Pacific Fisheries Technologists annual conference, Anchorage, AK. March 5-8, 2006. Bower CK, and Malemute CM. 2005. Utilization of salmon by-products in rural Alaska. Arctic Science Conference. Kodiak, AK. Sept. 27-29, 2005.

Bower CK, Avena-Bustillos RD, Olsen CW, Olson DA, and McHugh TM. 2006. Barrier properties, gel strength, and microbial safety of fish-skin gelatin gels and films. Aquaculture America, Las Vegas, NV. Feb 13-16, 2006. Bower CK, and Bechtel PJ. 2006. Converting Alaska fish by-products into high protein liquid concentrates. Pacific Fisheries Technologists annual conference, Anchorage, AK. March 5-8, 2006. Bower CK, Malemute CL, and Oliveira ACM. 2006. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in salmon preserved by native Alaskan methods. Institute of Food Technologists annual meeting, Orlando, FL. June 24-28, 2006.

Bower CK, Bechtel PJ, and Malemute CL. 2006. Endogenous enzymes in pink salmon as a function of spawning maturity. Institute of Food Technologists annual meeting, Orlando, FL. June 24-28, 2006.

Chantarachoti J, Bechtel PJ, Oliveira ACM, and Sathivel S. 2005. Immature pollock roe: Chemical and nutritional properties. Arctic Science Conference, Kodiak, AK. Sept. 27-29, 2005.

Chiou B, Avena-Bustillos R, Bechtel P, Shey J, Imam S, Glenn G, and Orts W. 2005 Rheology of cross-linking fish gelatins. Pacifichem 2005 in Honolulu, HI. Dec. 15-20, 2005.

Dewitt C, Bower C, Brown L, Rice S, and Bowser T. 2006. Gasification. Can it work for small seafood processors? Pacific Fisheries Technologists annual conference, Anchorage, AK. March 5-8, 2006.

El-Mashad H, Chiou B, Avena-Bustillos R, Bechtel P, McHugh T, and Zhang R. 2006. Rheological and thermal properties of salmon processing products. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting in Portland, OR. July 9-12.

Forster I, Plante S, Smiley S, Oliveira ACM, and Bechtel PJ. 2006. The effectiveness of byproducts of the Alaska fishing industry in diets for marine fish. Aquaculture America, Las Vegas, NV. Feb 13-16, 2006.

Huang J, Sathivel S, and Bechtel PJ. 2006. Pollock skin protein hydrolysates coatings affect yield and lipid oxidation of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) fillets during frozen storage. Institute of Food Technologists annual meeting, Orlando, FL. June 24-28, 2006.

Morey A, Bechtel PJ, and Oliveira ACM. 2005. Characteristics of lipids from heads, and headed and gutted spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). Arctic Science Conference, Kodiak, AK. Sept. 27-29, 2005.

Oliveira ACM, Stone DAJ, Plante S, Smiley S, Bechtel PJ, and Hardy RW. 2006. Fish oils from Alaskan seafood processing by-products an un-exploited sustainable resource for aquaculture. World Aqauculture Society meeting. Italy, 2006.

Olson D, Avena-Bustillos RJ, Lane S, Chiou, Bechtel, PJ and McHugh, T. 2006. Drum Drying Evaluation of Salmon Hydrolysate. Institute of Food Technologists annual meeting, Orlando, FL. June 24-28, 2006.

Reppond K, Oliveira ACM and Bechtel PJ. 2006. Recovery and characterization of lipids from enzymatic digestion of fish eye tissue. Pacific Fisheries Technologists annual conference, Anchorage, AK. March 5-8, 2006.

Sathivel S. 2005. Thermal and flow properties of Fish Oils. American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Annual Meeting, Cincinnati, Ohio, 2005.

Sathivel S. and Himelbloom B. 2005. Effects of chitosan on the quality of fish fillet and fish oil. Institute of Food Technologists annual meeting, New Orleans, LA, 2005.

Sathivel S, and Bechtel PJ. 2006. Properties of salmon fish meal. Aquaculture America, Las Vegas, NV. Feb 13-16, 2006.

Sathivel S, Bechtel PJ, and Smiley S. 2006. Functional Properties of Alaska salmon meal. World Aqauculture Society meeting. Italy, 2006.

Smiley S. 2005. Investigation of Ichthyophonus in Alaskan whitefish. 2005 Arctic Science Conference, Kodiak, AK. Sept. 27-29, 2005.

Sathivel S. and Bechtel PJ. 2005. Comparison of functional and nutritional properties of arrowtooth flounder protein powders made using three methods. Arctic Science Conference. Kodiak, AK, Sept. 27-29, 2005.

Smiley S, Bechtel PJ, Hardy RW, Oliveira ACM, Plante S, Sathivel S, and Stone D. 2006. Chemical and nutritional characteristics of novel fish meals made from the Alaska seafood processing waste stream. World Aqauculture Society meeting. Italy, 2006.

Smiley S, Oliveira ACM, Stone DAJ, Plante S, Bechtel PJ and Hardy RW. 2006. Lipids and contaminants in fish oils from Alaska seafood processing byproducts. Pacific Fisheries Technologists annual conference, Anchorage, AK. March 5-8, 2006.

Stone D, Oliveira A, Smiley S, Bechtel PJ, and Hardy RW. 2006. Phase feeding freshwater produced rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with canola oil and Alaskan pollock fish oil. United States Trout Farmers Association. Aquaculture America, Las Vegas, NV. Feb 13-16, 2006.


Review Publications
R.J. Avena Bustillos, C.W. Olsen, D.A. Olson, B. Chiou, E. Yee, P.J. Bechtel, T.H. McHugh, 2006. Water Vapor Permeability of Mammalian and Fish Gelatin Films. Journal of Food Science. Vol 71(4):E202-E207.

Bechtel, P.J., Oliveira, A. 2006. Chemical characterization of liver lipid and protein from cold-water fish species. Journal of Food Science Vol. 71(6):S480-S485.

Oliveira, A.C., Bechtel, P.J. 2006. Lipid analysis of fillets from giant grenadier (albatrossia pectoralis), arrow tooth flounder (atherestes stomia), pacific cod (gadus macrocephalus) and walleye pollock(theragra chalcogramma). Journal of Muscle Foods 17:20-33.

Sathivel, S., Bechtel, P.J., Babbit, J., Prinyawiwatkul, W., Negulescu, I. 2006. Functional, thermal, and rheological properties of Alaska white fish meal made from processing byproducts. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology 14(4):5-22.

Sathivel, S., Bechtel, P.J. 2006. Properties of soluble protein powders from Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma). International Journal of Food Science and Technology 41:520-529.

Bower, C.K., Avena Bustillos, R.D., Olsen, C.W., Mc Hugh, T.H., Bechtel, P.J. 2006. Characterization of fish skin gelatin gels and films containing the antimicrobial enzyme lysozyme. Journal of Food Science. 71(5):141-145

Last Modified: 9/10/2014
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