2010 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
1) Identify, and evaluate chemical attractants to augment trap selectivity and efficacy under laboratory and field conditions.
2) Design, develop, and evaluate innovative, robust, automated and economically feasible traps capable of selective sampling of mosquitoes, biting and filth-breeding flies.
3) Investigate relationships between mosquito and fly biology, physiology, and behavior and disease transmission and surveillance.
4) Design and validate automated, remote surveillance systems that incorporate selective trapping and global information technology to direct control efforts.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Conduct basic laboratory and field research to determine the relationship(s) between mosquito biology, physiology, and behavior and disease transmission, surveillance, and control. Design, develop, and evaluate innovative, robust and inexpensive traps capable of selective sampling of biting and filth-breeding flies. Isolate, identify, and adapt chemical attractants to augment trap selectivity. Devise accurate biological assays to evaluate attractant activity for biting and filth-breeding flies under laboratory and field conditions. Design and validate surveillance systems based on an understanding of the quantitative relationship between mosquito activity in time and space and the presence/absence of biotic and abiotic factors with GIS technology to predict disease transmission patterns and to direct control efforts.
Mosquitoes are serious threats to human and animal health. Early vector detection is essential to reduce disease risk. The overall objective was development of an early detection system included a GIS-based system that integrates improved detection (traps and attractants) methods with knowledge of the target insect’s biology and environmental factors. Major accomplishments were: Year 1: Blends of volatile chemicals identified from bovine and avian blood enhanced orientated flight and landing responses to membranes. Year 2: Chemical attractants were identified from the integument of chicken. Human associated single compounds and synthetic blends showed great promise as lures for Aedes aegypti. Field studies demonstrated the importance of enantiomers as attractants and repellents. An innovative marking system was developed for Culex quinquefasciatus to study population dispersal patterns. A model, based on climate and vegetation, forecasted the Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreak in the Horn of Africa. This model serves as a template for development of similar models for the U.S. for other important mosquito-borne diseases. Year 3: Horse attractant studies resulted in the discovery of a compound that is unique to equines. Novel compounds were isolated from hay infusion for use in gravid traps for Culex mosquitoes. Several models of automated traps were designed and evaluated which provided real time counts of mosquito and other biting fly activity. Historical vector surveillance data were organized into a digitized geodatabase, entered into a national Geographic Information System (GIS) database, and analyzed to better understand the mosquito population dynamics in the United States, and compared to national satellite data to create forecast models for the spatial and temporal distribution of important vector species. A Strategic Working Group from several federal and state agencies and universities was created to protect the U.S. against Rift Valley fever. Year 4: Host attractants and adult resting sites were determined for phlebotomine sand flies in Egypt, which will lead to more effective adult sand fly control. Synthesis and analysis of temporal and spatial dynamics of U.S. mosquito population surveillance data were continued at the national level, resulting in increased understanding of population dynamics of medically-important species of mosquitoes in the U.S. GIS models of climate-population associations were developed to predict the temporal and spatial dynamics and abundance of important mosquito species, thus serving as key elements of mosquito borne disease risk maps. Year 5: A statistical model based on unbiased estimators was developed that relates the number of adult mosquitoes captured by CDC light traps and collected from resting boxes to the mosquito landing rate on a host. These data can be used to understand and forecast mosquito distributions in time and space and to reliably predict mosquito-borne disease transmission risk. The models allow for inferences of mosquito attack rates from mechanical trap data. This project has been replaced by project #6615-32000-046-00D.
Britch, S.C., Linthicum, K. 2008. The value of long-term mosquito surveillance data. Technical Bulletin of the Florida Mosquito Control Association. 8:2-9.
Britch, S.C., Linthicum, K., Anyamba, A., Tucker, C.J., Pak, E., Mosq. Surveillance, T., Mosq. Surveillance, T., Mosq. Surveillance, T., Mosq. Surveillance, T. 2008. Long-term surveillance data and patterns of invasion by Aedes albopictus in Florida. American Mosquito Control Association. 24(1):115-120.
Allan, S.A., Kline, D.L., Walker, T. 2009. Environmental factors affecting efficacy of bifenthrin treated vegetation for mosquito control. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 25(3):338-346.
Obenauer, P.J., Kaufman, P.E., Allan, S.A., Kline, D.L. 2009. Infusion-baited ovitraps to survey ovipositional height preferences of container-inhabiting mosquitoes in two Florida habitats. Journal of Medical Entomology. 46(6):1507-1513.
Hogsette, J.A., Hanafi, H.A., Bernier, U.R., Kline, D.L., Fawaz, E.Y., Furman, B.D., Hoel, D.F. 2008. Discovery of dirunal resting sites of phlebotomine sand flies in a village in southern Egypt. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 24(4):601-603.
Britch, S.C., Linthicum, K., Anyamba, A., Tucker, C.J., Pak, E., Maloney, Jr., F.A., Cobb, K., Stanwix, E., Humphries, J., Spring, A., Pagac, B., Miller, M. 2008. Satellite vegetation index data as a tool to forecast population dynamics of medically important mosquitoes at military installations in the Continental United States. Military Medicine. 173(7):677-683.