Location: Mosquito and Fly Research Unit
2006 Annual Report
Year 2 (FY 2006) 1. Initiate QSAR approaches to characterize mosquito attractants. Evaluate attractant blends against different mosquito species in lab assays. Conduct outdoor cage tests to further optimize blend release rates. 2. Compare extraction methods for obtaining active crude (avian) extracts. Continue GC/MS of chicken volatiles. 3. Isolate active (equine) compounds through extractions, fractionation and lab bioassay. 4. Continue chemical analysis of blood volatiles. Evaluate (blood volatile) compounds in lab bioassays. 5. Continue fractionation and GC/MS analysis of hay infusions and extracts; expand to other infusions. Initiate lab evaluation of identified compounds as oviposition attractants. 6. Identify chemical composition of (stable fly feces) extracts by GC/MS (Carlson). Continue lab bioassays of candidate (stable fly feces) attractants. 7. Field testing of locally stored count output system of automated mosquito trap. 8. Begin evaluation in field situations for which the (muscid) trap was designed. Make modifications for improvement. 9. Field test (adult mosquito) marking system. Select natural breeding sites of target species and initiate studies to characterize population structure (temporal and spatial distribution patterns. 10. Conduct field studies on impact of habitat variables on virus detection. Develop strategy for optimal West Nile virus detection with traps. 11. Complete small plot studies to develop sampling procedures for adult mosquito population density. Commence large plot studies to characterize dispersion of adult mosquito populations and to relate dispersion characteristics to biologic and environmental factors in the environment.
Year 3 (FY 2007) 1. Field test attractant blends in areas with large natural populations of mosquitoes. Initiate field release optimization studies using Field assisted ion mobility mass spectrometry (FAIMS) for downwind detection of attractants released from traps. 2. Isolate active compounds in (avian) extracts through fractionation and bioassays. Initiate formulation of (avian) blends and evaluate in lab bioassays. Complete GC/MS of chicken volatiles and initiate analysis of crow volatiles. 3. Initiate GC/MS analysis of equine odors. Evaluate (equine) compounds and blends in lab bioassays. 4. Complete GC/MS analysis of blood volatiles. Continue lab bioassays of compounds and blends from blood. 5. Continue GC/MS analysis of other (oviposition) infusions and extracts. Continue lab assays for oviposition attractants. Optimize trap design for use with hay infusion lures. 6. Initiate field studies of active (stable fly feces) compounds and blends. 7. Develop wireless capabilities for remote display of acquired counts (from automated mosquito trap). 8. Transfer technology of novel muscid trap. 9. Continue field (mosquito) population structure characterization studies. 10. Complete first year evaluation of (adult mosquito) trapping strategy. Compare public detection of virus activity to detection with traps. Revise strategy, if needed. 11. Complete large plot studies of mosquito dispersion and biologic and environmental factors in the environment. Develop preliminary eco-GIS model to explain relationship between GIS-definable habitat parameters and adult mosquito presence/absence. Use eco-GIS model to develop preliminary adult mosquito trap deployment strategy (-ies).
Year 4 (FY 2008) 1. Incorporate avian and equine produced attractants with human attractant blend to develop a universal attractant blend and initiate to optimize delivery system under field conditions. 2. Continue lab evaluation of (avian) blend formulations and refine as needed. Initiate evaluation of (avian) blends in cage and field trials. Incorporate lab bioassay attractants data into a Quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) model. Complete GC/MS of crow volatiles and initiate analysis of grackle volatiles. 3. Complete GC/MS analysis of equine odors. Complete lab evaluation of (equine) compounds and blends. Initiate field tests with equine odor blends. 4. Complete evaluation of blood-based attractants. 5. Complete GC/MS analysis of hay infusions. Formulate blends of compounds to mimic hay infusion, incorporate into lure materials and evaluate in lab bioassays and field tests Initiate development of a QSAR model to predict oviposition attractants. 6. Transfer technology on attractants from stable fly feces. 7. Develop methods for automatic mosquito species classification by traps. Investigate acoustics, visual and spectral modalities. 8. Incorporate new automated trapping technology into mosquito population structure studies. Utilize new attractants developed to determine effect(s) on traps population structure/abundance sensitivity. 9. Complete second year of evaluation of optimal trapping strategy. Compare public detection of virus activity to detection with traps. 10. Test, revise, validate eco-GIS model for deployment of adult mosquito traps. Initiate studies to use key eco-GIS model variables and real time imagery to explain/forecast mosquito distribution(s).
Year 5 (FY 2009) 1. Complete optimization of release (universal blend) studies in the field and transfer technology. 2. Complete lab bioassays of compounds from crows and grackles and evaluate blends in the field. Complete GC/MS analysis of grackle volatiles. 3. Continue field tests with equine odor blends. 4. Continue collection of data to improve the QSAR model (for oviposition attractants). Refine formulations and delivery of (oviposition) lures. Complete field evaluations of oviposition attractants and lures. 5. Complete automatic species classification system design. Initiate field studies for validation of (automatic species identification trap) design. 6. Mesh trapping technology with GIS technology. 7. Complete validation of eco-GIS model for deployment of adult mosquito traps. Commence transfer of technology to appropriate user groups, regulatory/action agencies, DoD. Complete studies to use eco-GIS model variables and real time imagery to determine adult mosquito distribution(s).
The chemical analysis of equine odors for candidate mosquito attractants has revealed a compound that equines produce that has not been identified previously. The data indicate that this compound is most likely a methyl-branched unsaturated alcohol and additional studies are being conducted to better elucidate the identity of this compound.
An innovative marking system was developed for Culex quinquefasciatus, which will be used in field studies on population dispersal from known developmental sites. This technique will be used to gain a better understanding of the biology, behavior and pattern of interactions with potentially viremic hosts of this mosquito vector species. The knowledge gained will help in the development of an early detection system for accurate detection of this vector species and the pathogens it transmits, for monitoring changes in, forecasting, mosquito population density/distributions in time, and estimating vectorial capacity.
Field studies were completed on the efficacy of the enantiomers of 2 mosquito attractants and a spatial repellent. In each case one enantiomer was a better attractant and the other either caused little attraction, or exhibited repellency.
Specific Cooperative Agreement with the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station is to develop new methods and strategies to reduce the risk of human and domesticated animal infections with West Nile and other emerging infectious viruses carried by mosquitoes.
Specific Cooperative Agreement with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center will use remotely sensed satellite data to develop an early warning system to detect elevated populations of potential vectors of Rift Valley fever (RVF) and other emerging mosquito-borne virus threats in the United States. Early detection of environmental conditions which could promote endemic/epidemic transmission of exotic arboviruses will be helpful in providing decision support for agricultural and public health officials in their implementation of improved agricultural and medical planning for potential containment and control operations.
Dr. Allan presented "Responses of Various Mosquito Species to Avian Odors in the symposium 'Vector-Host Interactions and Trap Development" at the 4th International Congress of the Society for Vector Ecology, October 2-6, 2005.
Dr. Allan presented "Host and oviposition associated attractants of Culex and Aedes mosquitoes" at the Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, October 17 2005. Dr. Allan presented " Evaluation of human-associated odors on attraction of Culex" at the annual meeting of the Entomological Society of America, Ft. Lauderdale, FL. December 15-18 2005.
Dr. Allan presented " Laboratory evaluation of attractants for Culex" at the 3rd Arbovirus Surveillance and Mosquito Control Workshop. March 23, 2006 Anastasia Mosquito Control District, St. Augustine, FL
Dr. Barnard presented a keynote address on the use of "Global Information Technology for Mosquito Surveillance and Control" at the International Conference on Biodiversity of Insects: Challenging Issues in Management and Conservation, January 30 - February 3, 2006, Bharathiar University, Coibatore, India.
Dr. Bernier presented "Mosquito Attractant and Repellent Research Progress," at 3rd Arbovirus Surveillance and Mosquito Control Workshop, Anastasia Mosquito Control District (AMCD) Workshop, March 22-24, 2006, St. Augustine, FL.
Dr. Bernier presented "Chemistry Strategies to Identify Host Odors That Attract Ornithophilic Mosquito Species" at the 4th International Congress of Vector Ecology, October 2-7, 2005, Reno, NV.
Dr. Bernier presented "Development of Mosquito Attractants and Repellents" at the Florida Department of Health Training Session, March 15, 2006, Tallahassee, FL.
Dr. Bernier's post-doc (Dr. Brian Quinn) presented "Monitoring Compounds Produced by Hay Infusion Using Passive Samplers" at the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, December 15-18, 2005, Ft. Lauderdale, FL.
Dr. Bernier presented "Chemistry of Avian Emanations: Candidate Host-Seeking Attractants from Chicken Feathers, Skin, and Uropygial Glands" at the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, December 15-18, 2005, Ft. Lauderdale, FL.
Dr. Geden presented an invited keynote talk, "Biological control of pests of animal husbandry" at the International Conference on Implementation of Biological Control in Temperate Regions, Flakkebjerg, Denmark, November 1, 2005.
Dr. Geden presented "Pathogens for control of beetles and flies in poultry systems", as an invited seminar talk presented to the Department of IPM, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Lyngby, Denmark, November 4, 2005.
Dr. Geden presented an invited talk, "Sampling methods to monitor pathogens associated with muscoid flies and fly dispersal"in symposium "Muscoid flies: Pathogens dispersal and control", ESA national meeting, Fort Lauderdale, FL, December 2005.
Dr. Geden co-authored a paper presented by Dr. V. D. Blaeske, entitled, "Sex and flies and birth control?", at the ESA national meeting in Fort Lauderdale, FL, December 2005.
Dr. Geden presented "Visual targets for management of house flies"at the Livestock Insects Workers Conference, Amarillo, TX, June 2006
Dr. Geden presented "Salivary gland hyperplasia virus of house flies; prevalence, transmission, and effects on fitness" at the meeting of the Society for Invetrebrate Pathology, Wuhan, China, August 2006.
Dr. Hogsette presented a seminar entitled "Nuisance fly management on Australian feedlots" in the First Friday Seminar Series, CMAVE, January 13, 2006.
Dr. Hogsette was invited to teach a day-long course entitled "Flies and other arthropods of public health importance" at the Florida Mosquito Control Association Dodd Short Courses, Ocala, Florida, January 24, 2006.
Dr. Hogsette was invited to present a 1-hour lecture entitled "Biology and control of nuisance flies" at the Florida Environmental Health Association Training Session, Tallahassee, Florida, March 15, 2006.
Dr. Hogsette was invited by the World Health Organization to attend a planning meeting to discuss the chapter, entitled "Chapter 8 Flies", written by him and co-author Dr. Jens Amendt, Frankfurt, Germany, to be included in the upcoming WHO book "Urban Pests and Health", London, March 23-24, 2006.
Dr. Hogsette was invited to attend the 2nd Annual Review of the ARS-DWFP Research Program and make a presentation entitled "Flies and fly management", College Station, Texas, March 27-28, 2006.
Dr. Hogsette attended several meetings of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland. At the October, 2005, meeting, he was invited to revise, in cooperation with Dr. Graham White, the Technical Guide 30, entitled "Flies", which was completed and presented to the Board at the meeting in March, 2006. At the March, 2006, meeting he was requested by the Board to evaluate commercial fly traps of potential interest to the military to determine efficacy in various climatic zones. At the July, 2006, meeting, he gave a presentation describing plans to evaluate traps in Egypt in August, 2006.
Dr. Hogsette was invited to consult with members of the Florida Poultry Federation and attend their Annual Poultry Days Awards Banquet, Orlando, Florida, April 29, 2006.
Dr. Hogsette and others at CMAVE met with Drs. Peter Knight and Sherine Huntley, Jamaican Ministry of Health, in Gainesville, for a demonstration and discussions about the air curtain system for preventing flies and mosquitoes from leaving commercial aircraft; then later in the day at the Orlando International Airport, for a demonstration of the system aboard an American Airlines Boeing 757.
Dr. Hogsette attended the 50th Annual Livestock Insects Workers Conference and presented the paper entitled "Evaluation of integrated techniques against nuisance fly populations on Australian feedlots", Amarillo, Texas, June 25-28, 2006.
Aimee Holton, Graduate Student of Drs. Kline and Hogsette, USDA, and Dr. S. TenBroeck, University of Florida, Department of Animal Sciences, attended the 50th Livestock Insects Workers Conference and presented two papers entitled "Evaluation of mosquito trapping efficiency and seasonality trends using the Mosquito Magnet Pro and three attractants: Octenol, Lurex and Lurex3 at the University of Florida Horse Teaching Unit", and "The efficacy of horse odors on trapping efficiency and species composition of mosquitoes at the University of Florida Horse Teaching Unit", which pertained to her graduate research projects, Amarillo, Texas, June 25-28, 2006.
Dr. Kline co-organized and co-moderated the symposium "Vector-Host Interactions and Trap Development," and presented "Do commercial traps efficiently collect mosquitoes attracted to various hosts?" at the 4th International Congress of the Society of Vector Ecology, October 2-6, 2005.
Dr. Kline presented "New traps for mosquito surveillance and control" at the annual meeting ot the Florida Mosquito Control Association, Duck Key FL, November 15, 2005.
Dr. Kline's post-doc (Craig Welch) presented "Dyed-food marking of Culex quinquefasciatus, a novel method for monitoring dispersal" at the annual meeting of the Florida Mosquito Control Association, Duck Key FL, November 15, 2005.
Dr. Kline's graduate student (Melissa Doyle) presented "Response of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) to control measures around the home" at the annual meeting of the Florida Mosquito Control Association, Duck Key, FL, November 15, 2005.
Dr. Kline was invited to teach a half-day-long course entitled "Trapping Technology" at the Florida Mosquito Control Association Dodd Short Courses, Ocala, Florida, January 26, 2006.
Dr. Kline presented "Attractant-baited traps for mosquito surveillance/management: present realities and future hopes", as an invited seminar talk presented to the Department of Entomology, North Carolina State university, Raleigh, NC, January 30, 2006.
Dr. Kline presented "Coleman's MD-2500 trap: industry's best kept secret?" at the 72nd annual meeting of the American Mosquito Control Association, Detroit, MI, February 26 - March 2, 2006.
Dr. Kline was invited to present a 1-hour lecture entitled "Trapping technology for mosquito surveillance and control" at the Florida Environmental Health Association Training Session, Tallahassee, Florida, March 15, 2006.
Dr. Kline presented "CO2: Various sources and their usefulness for mosquito surveillance and control," at the 3rd Arbovirus Surveillance and Mosquito Control Workshop, St. Augustine, FL, March 22-24, 2006.
Dr. Kline presented "Impact of various modifications to the standard Nzi trap on collections of Tabanidae in the Lower Suwannee Wildlife Refuge" at the 50th Annual Livestock Insects Workers Conference, Amarillo, TX, June 25-28, 2006.
Dr. Linthicum gave an invited presentation, "Factors affecting the ability of mosquitoes to transmit pathogens" in the American Committee on Medical Entomology Symposium at the 54th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Washington, DC, December 11-15, 2005.
Dr. Linthicum presented "Potential for Rift Valley fever expansion: Eco-climatic conditions on the Arabian Peninsula" at the IV International Congress of the Society of Vector Ecology, Reno, NV, October 2-7, 2005.
Dr. Linthicum presented "Near real-time surveillance for Rift Valley fever in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula" at the 72nd Annual Meeting of the American Mosquito Control Association, Detroit, MI, February 25-March 2, 2006.
Dr. Linthicum gave an invited presentation, "Six years of West Nile virus expansion in the US: Are we prepared to contain a globalization of Rift Valley fever?" at the 77th Annual Meeting of the Florida Mosquito Control Association, Duck Key, FL, November 13-16, 2005.
Dr. Linthicum was a co-author of a poster presented by Dr. S. Bedno entitled "Eco-climatic precursors to large chikungunya outbreaks in Kenya and Comoros, 2004-2005" at the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, March 19-22, 2006.
Dr. Linthicum presented, "Potential for Rift Valley fever activity on the Arabian Peninsula: detection of suitable eco-climatic conditions" at the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, March 19-22, 2006.
Dr. Linthicum was a co-author of a poster presented by Dr. J.-P. Chretien entitled "Satellite-based Rift Valley fever forecasts predict a large yellow fever epidemic in Sudan, 2005" at the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, March 19-22, 2006.
Dr. Linthicum presented "The Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology: developing new mosquito surveillance and control products" at the 74th Annual Conference of the Mosquito and Vector Control Association of California, Reno, NV, January 29-February 1, 2006.
Dr. Linthicum gave an invited presentation "Affects of environmental factors on the ability of mosquitoes to transmit arboviruses" at the 3rd Arbovirus Surveillance and Mosquito Control Workshop, St. Augustine, FL, March 22-24, 2006.
Dr. Linthicum gave an invited presentation "Overview of research programs a the Center for Medical, Agricultural, & Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE), Agriculture Research Service, USDA, Gainesville, Florida" at the 2006 IAEA Training Course, Gainesville, FL, May 10. 2006.
Dr. Linthicum presented "Satellite surveillance techniques for forecasting vector-borne disease" at the Collaborative Planning Session on ARS Research Concerning "GIS-Based Risk Models for Mosquito Transmission of Rift Valley Fever Virus if Introduced into the U.S.," University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, May 24-25, 2006.
Dr. Linthicum's postdoctoral researcher (Dr. Seth Britch) presented "AGIS early warning system to detect elevated populations of vectors of Rift Valley fever and the contributions from Florida's mosquito control community" at the Florida Mosquito Control Association Spring Meeting, St. Petersburg Beach, FL, May 17-18, 2006.
Dr. Linthicum's postdoctoral researcher (Dr. Seth Britch) presented "Preparing for Rift Valley fever in the U.S.: Implementing GIS and remote sensing to understand population dynamics of mosquito vectors" at the Collaborative Planning Session on ARS Research Concerning "GIS-Based Risk Models for Mosquito Transmission of Rift Valley Fever Virus if Introduced into the U.S.," University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, May 24-25, 2006.
Dr. Linthicum's postdoctoral researcher (Dr. Seth Britch) presented "Current issues and concerns regarding Rift Valley fever, an emerging virus threat" at the National Cattlemen's Beef Association Summer Convention, Reno, NV, July 11-13, 2006.
Dr. Linthicum's postdoctoral researcher (Dr. Seth Britch) presented "Rift Valley fever virus: an emerging threat to wildlife, livestock, and humans in the U.S. - a review of issues and concerns, and a GIS early warning system for RVF vectors" at the Wildlife Disease Association and American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians 2006 Conference, Storrs, CT, August 6-10, 2006.
Dr. Linthicum's postdoctoral researcher (Dr. Seth Britch) presented "A review of issues and concerns of Rift Valley fever, a potential emerging threat to livestock, wildlife, and humans in the U.S., and a GIS early warning system for RVF vectors" at the US Animal Health Association and American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, October 12-18, 2006.
Dr. Linthicum's postdoctoral researcher (Dr. Seth Britch) presented "Rift Valley fever: preparing for potential new mosquito-borne diseases in the U.S. with a vector surveillance system" at the Society of Vector Ecologists Annual Meeting, Anchorage, AL, September 29 - October 3, 2006.
Dr. Geden's parasitoid research was featured in an ARS press release by Jim Core titled "Filth flies feel the heat" http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2005/051229.htm
McCauley, C. 2006. Entrapment. Horse Capital Digest, June 2006, pp. 36-37. Article describes mosquito work performed by Drs. Dan Kline and Jerry Hogsette, USDA-ARS, Dr. Saundra TenBroeck and graduate student, Aimee Holton, both University of Florida, Department of Animal Sciences.
Allan, S.A., Bernier, U.R., Kline, D.L. 2006. Laboratory evaluation of avian odors for mosquito (diptera:culicidae) attraction. Journal of Medical Entomology. 43(2):225-231.
Mihok, S., Carlson, D.A., Krafsur, E.S., Foil, L.D. 2006. Performance of the nzi and other traps for biting flies in north america. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 96:1-11.
Barnard, D.R., Knue, G.J., Kline, D.L., Bernier, U.R., Allan, S.A., Linthicum, K.J. 2005. Can the mosquito landing rate on humans be predicted from cdc light trap collections?. American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Barnard, D.R., Xue, R.D. 2006. Book chapter: Biometrics and behavior in mosquito repellent assay. For: insect repellents: principles, methods, and use. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
Arshad, A., Xue, R.D., Barnard, D.R. 2005. Effects of sublethal exposure to boric acid sugar bait on adult survival, host-seeking and blood-feeding behavior, and reproduction of aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae). Vector Ecology International Congress.
Carlson, D.A., Hogsette Jr, J.A., Kline, D.L., Geden, C.J., Vander Meer, R.K. 2006. Prevention of mosquitoes and house flies from entering simulated aircraft with commercial air curtain units. Journal of Economic Entomology. 99(1):182-193.
Kline, D.L. New traps for mosquito population surveillance and control. Florida Mosquito Control Conference Proceedings.
Barnard, D.R., Knue, G.J. 2006. Can the mosquito landing rate on humans be predicted from cdc light trap collections?. American Mosquito Control Association.
Barnard, D.R. 2006. Use of global information technology for the development of mosquito vector surveillance systems. Meeting Abstract.
Anyamba, A., Small, J., Tucker, C.J., Cressman, K., Love, T.B., Linthicum, K. 2005. Remote sensing of eco-climatic conditions associated with the 2004 Desert Locust Outbreak in Northwest and Sahelian Africa. In Proceedings of Pecora 16 Symposium - Global Priorities in Land Remote Sensing, September 23-27, 2005, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.
Chretien, J., Linthicum, K., Pavlin, J.A., Gaydos, J.C., Malone, J.L. 2006. Epidemiologic applications of emerging infectious disease modeling to support us military readiness and national security. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 12(1):05-1214.
Anyamba, A., Chretien, J., Formenty, P., Small, J., Tucker, C.J., Malone, J.L., Bushra, H., Martin, V., Linthicum, K. 2006. Rift Valley Fever potential, Arabian Peninsula. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 12:518-520.