2006 Annual Report
Agriculture products over-production, such as wheat, barley, and oats, created pressure to develop new uses for these products to maintain farming industry profitability. Potentially, blends of these proteins are suitable candidates to replace synthetic petroleum-based polymers in numerous applications. However, our understanding of the performance of these proteins in the traditional polymer processing industry is almost non-existent. Rareness of this knowledge restricts the further use of these proteins in food and nonfood industry and limits the chance of cost-effectively selecting proteins that may be able to compete with synthetic polymers in certain applications. Trial and error procedures will remain the only method to process these proteins, which is a costly process. The research conducted as part of this project is directed at developing the necessary structure-function and processing relationships that will enable the use of these proteins to partially replace synthetic polymers in different food and non-food applications. The thermal properties, flow and processing behavior of native and modified wheat, barley, and oats will be investigated. The information gathered will be used to address specific processing problems in existing commercial food and/or non-food applications.
This project falls under national program 306 N Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products.
2006. Develop gluten-Poly (Lactic Acid) and cross-linked gluten-Poly (Lactic Acid) blends. Determine their thermo-mechanical properties and compatibility.
2007. Develop a jet cooked gluten and different isolated proteins mixed with lecithin. Determine the effect of the jet cooked material on baked product staling and starch retrogradation.
2008. Develop enzymatic method to isolate barley, oats and lupin proteins in their native state. Chemically and enzymatically modify the isolated proteins. Determine the thermal and surface properties of the isolated proteins.
2009. Determine the effect of the isolated proteins on the mechanical and rheological properties of gluten. Determine properties of modified wheat proteins and develop new applications.
Objective 2. 2005. Determine the viscoelastic behavior of seed proteins (e.g. wheat gluten, barley, and oats).
2006. Test Multiple-Particle Tracking (MPT) technique and/or diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) using protein solutions or other plant biopolymers.
2007. Determine the physical properties of seed proteins or blends by MPT and/or DWS.
2008. Determine the effect of shear rate deformation on protein solution or suspension concentrations.
2009. Determine the linear and non-linear rheological properties of proteins and blends and apply model analysis.
Objective 3. 2005. Find compatible protein-polymer pairs and develop product prototypes.
2006. Protein isolation, characterization and chemical modification.
2007. Evaluate the mechanical properties of developed polymer blends.
2008. Find structure-property relationship of developed polymer blends.
2009. Determine the best processing condition and practical application fields.
2. The consumption of high-protein content products was the trend in the past several years. This project has contributed to this trend by developing products with high protein content which is within the scope of expanding wheat protein utilization. This contribution came as complementary to the effort of the food industry by developing high protein bread and cookies to satisfy the needs of consumers wishing to reduce their body weight. The developed formulations can be easily utilized by commercial bakeries.
3. Chemically and enzymatically crosslinked vital wheat protein was developed and blended with Poly (Lactic acid). The conditions of the reaction, such as ionic strength, time, and enzyme concentration were maximized. The thermal properties of the blend and the level of miscibility of the two polymers were reported.
Signed a confidential agreement with a chewing gum company to expand wheat gluten utilization.
Our CRIS is working on collaboration with universities to develop new quick ways to determine wheat quality.
In collaboration with a university, we are developing micro-rheological methods to characterize plant proteins.
Our work has been made available to scientists in academia, industry and government through presentations at scientific meetings and at universities.
Our finding have been published in several peer reviewed scientific journals.
Mohamed, A. 2005. Kinetics of poly(lactic acid) and transglutaminase-crosslinked wheat gluten blends. In: Proceedings of North American Thermal Analysis Society Meeting, September 17-21, 2005, Universal City, California. p. 75.
Liu, Z., Erhan, S.Z., Xu, J. 2005. Preparation, characterization and mechanical properties of epoxidized soybean oil/clay nanocomposites. Polymer. 46:10119-10127.
Kim, S., Xu, J., Biswas, A., Willett, J.L. 2006. Shear-induced aggregate formation in starch solutions. Carbohydrate Polymers. 64(2):168-174.
Kim, S., Inglett, G.E. 2006. Molecular weight and ionic strength dependence of fluorescence intensity of the calcofluor/b-glucan complex in flow-injection analysis. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 19(5):466-472.
Mohamed, A., Rayas-Duarte, P., Inglett, G.E. 2005. Hard red spring wheat/nutrim-20 bread: formulation, processing and texture analysis [abstract]. American Chemical Society Abstracts. Paper No. AGFD56.
Xu, J., Chang, T., Tseng, Y., Inglett, G.E., Wirtz, D. 2005. Multiple-particle tracking study of the microheterogeneity of nutrim-10 suspensions [abstract]. American Association of Cereal Chemists Meetings. Paper No. 247.
Kim, S., Inglett, G.E. 2005. Quantitative analysis of beta-glucan in oat hydrocolloids [abstract]. American Chemical Society Abstracts. Paper No. AGFD55.
Xu, J., Chang, T., Inglett, G.E., Carriere, C.J., Tseng, Y. 2006. Multiple-particle tracking study of the microheterogeneity of nutrim-10 suspensions. Cereal Chemistry. 83(1):37-41.
Mohamed, A., Rayas-Duarte, P., Shogren, R.L., Sessa, D.J. 2006. Low carbohydrate bread: formulation, processing, and sensory. Journal of Food Chemistry. 99(4):686-692.
Xu, J., Chang, T., Inglett, G.E., Kim, S., Tsebg, Y., Wirtz, D. 2006. Micro-heterogeneity and micro-rheological properties of beta-glucan solutions. Polymer Processing Society. p. 291.
Mohamed, A., Peterson, S.C., Grant, L.A., Rayas-Duarte, P. 2006. Effect of jet-cooked wheat gluten/lecithin blends on corn and rice starch retrogradation. Journal of Cereal Science. 43(3):293-300.