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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

2006 Annual Report

1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? Why does it matter?
The increase in production of agricultural commodities, such as wheat, oats, and barley, created pressure to develop new uses for these products to keep the farming industry profitable. Developing cost-effective technologies of farming will not solve the problem; it requires new applications for plant-based materials. In addition, consumers need higher quality and nutritious food. Determination of the physicochemical interactions that govern the flow, thermal, and mechanical properties, of cereal grain proteins is necessary to the timely and cost-effective development of new plant-based blend systems and to the food processing.

Agriculture products over-production, such as wheat, barley, and oats, created pressure to develop new uses for these products to maintain farming industry profitability. Potentially, blends of these proteins are suitable candidates to replace synthetic petroleum-based polymers in numerous applications. However, our understanding of the performance of these proteins in the traditional polymer processing industry is almost non-existent. Rareness of this knowledge restricts the further use of these proteins in food and nonfood industry and limits the chance of cost-effectively selecting proteins that may be able to compete with synthetic polymers in certain applications. Trial and error procedures will remain the only method to process these proteins, which is a costly process. The research conducted as part of this project is directed at developing the necessary structure-function and processing relationships that will enable the use of these proteins to partially replace synthetic polymers in different food and non-food applications. The thermal properties, flow and processing behavior of native and modified wheat, barley, and oats will be investigated. The information gathered will be used to address specific processing problems in existing commercial food and/or non-food applications.

This project falls under national program 306 N Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products.

2.List by year the currently approved milestones (indicators of research progress)
Objective 1. 2005. Develop formulation for low carbohydrate bread and cookies using gluten blended with soy, barley, and oats proteins.

2006. Develop gluten-Poly (Lactic Acid) and cross-linked gluten-Poly (Lactic Acid) blends. Determine their thermo-mechanical properties and compatibility.

2007. Develop a jet cooked gluten and different isolated proteins mixed with lecithin. Determine the effect of the jet cooked material on baked product staling and starch retrogradation.

2008. Develop enzymatic method to isolate barley, oats and lupin proteins in their native state. Chemically and enzymatically modify the isolated proteins. Determine the thermal and surface properties of the isolated proteins.

2009. Determine the effect of the isolated proteins on the mechanical and rheological properties of gluten. Determine properties of modified wheat proteins and develop new applications.

Objective 2. 2005. Determine the viscoelastic behavior of seed proteins (e.g. wheat gluten, barley, and oats).

2006. Test Multiple-Particle Tracking (MPT) technique and/or diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) using protein solutions or other plant biopolymers.

2007. Determine the physical properties of seed proteins or blends by MPT and/or DWS.

2008. Determine the effect of shear rate deformation on protein solution or suspension concentrations.

2009. Determine the linear and non-linear rheological properties of proteins and blends and apply model analysis.

Objective 3. 2005. Find compatible protein-polymer pairs and develop product prototypes.

2006. Protein isolation, characterization and chemical modification.

2007. Evaluate the mechanical properties of developed polymer blends.

2008. Find structure-property relationship of developed polymer blends.

2009. Determine the best processing condition and practical application fields.

4a.List the single most significant research accomplishment during FY 2006.
Enzymatically crosslinked wheat protein was developed and blended with Poly (Lactic acid) (PLA). The conditions of the reaction, such as ionic strength, time, and enzyme concentration were maximized. Modified wheat gluten was blended with PLA at 10, 20, 40, and 50% levels. The thermal properties of the blends indicated relative miscibility between the two polymers. This is significant, because it reduces the cost of PLA utilization and expands the use of wheat gluten. The next step is to develop an extruded-injection molded blend from wheat protein or crosslinked wheat protein/PLA and test the mechanical properties of the product. This research falls under National Program 306, Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products, New Uses, Products, and Materials.

4b.List other significant research accomplishment(s), if any.
"Rheological behavior of a newly developed biological hydro-gel produced from soybean oil". Hydro-gels formed from biopolymers or natural sources have special advantages because of their biodegradable and biocompatible properties. The viscoelastic properties of a newly developed biological hydro-gel made from modified vegetable oil, epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were investigated. The material named HPESO is a hydrolytic product of polymerized ESO (PESO). HPESO exhibited viscoelastic solid or gel behavior above 2% (wt.-%) at room temperature and viscous liquid behavior at 55 degrees C. The thermal assembly-disassembly-reassembly function of the HPESO hydro-gel was completely reversible. The viscoelastic properties of HPESO were strongly dependent on concentration. The analysis of modulus and concentration dependence and stress relaxation measurement indicated that HPESO was a physical gel meaning the cross-linking between the molecules is physical junctions. HPESO hydro-gel also showed fast initial partially recovery of its viscoelastic properties after being subjected to mechanical shear disruption. The function and behavior of the HPESO hydro-gel suggest that this biomaterial be a candidate for application in drug delivery and scaffolds of bioengineering and tissue engineering. This research falls under National Program 306, Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products, Functional Performance Properties.

4c.List significant activities that support special target populations.

4d.Progress report.

5.Describe the major accomplishments to date and their predicted or actual impact.
The accomplishments listed below are linked to the search for New Processes, New Uses and Value-Added Products, which is one of the components of National Program 306. The accomplishments fall under Component 2 (New Processes, New Uses and Value-Added Foods and Biobased Products). 1. The major accomplishments over the life (two years) of this project are: (a) Different approaches were taken to develop new uses for wheat, barley, and oats proteins, (b) Unmodified vital wheat gluten protein as well as enzymatically crosslinked and chemically modified (acetylated) barley proteins were used in synthetic and biopolymer blends to develop new products with unique thermo-mechanical properties, (c) New techniques for testing the thermo-mechanical properties of these blends were introduced, (d) Ultra-filtration-di-filtration method used to isolate water soluble proteins from native and acetylated barley flour. The isolated protein was characterized and the rheological properties were determined.

2. The consumption of high-protein content products was the trend in the past several years. This project has contributed to this trend by developing products with high protein content which is within the scope of expanding wheat protein utilization. This contribution came as complementary to the effort of the food industry by developing high protein bread and cookies to satisfy the needs of consumers wishing to reduce their body weight. The developed formulations can be easily utilized by commercial bakeries.

3. Chemically and enzymatically crosslinked vital wheat protein was developed and blended with Poly (Lactic acid). The conditions of the reaction, such as ionic strength, time, and enzyme concentration were maximized. The thermal properties of the blend and the level of miscibility of the two polymers were reported.

6.What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end-user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products?
Signed a confidential agreement with a dog-food company to resolve processing problems of one of their products that is related to dog health.

Signed a confidential agreement with a chewing gum company to expand wheat gluten utilization.

Our CRIS is working on collaboration with universities to develop new quick ways to determine wheat quality.

In collaboration with a university, we are developing micro-rheological methods to characterize plant proteins.

Our work has been made available to scientists in academia, industry and government through presentations at scientific meetings and at universities.

Our finding have been published in several peer reviewed scientific journals.

7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below).

Review Publications
Mohamed, A., Peterson, S.C. 2005. Barley proteins: thermal and rheological properties [abstract]. American Association of Cereal Chemists Meetings. Paper No. 122.

Mohamed, A. 2005. Kinetics of poly(lactic acid) and transglutaminase-crosslinked wheat gluten blends [abstract]. North American Thermal Analysis Society Meeting. Paper No. 1.

Mohamed, A. 2005. Kinetics of poly(lactic acid) and transglutaminase-crosslinked wheat gluten blends. In: Proceedings of North American Thermal Analysis Society Meeting, September 17-21, 2005, Universal City, California. p. 75.

Liu, Z., Erhan, S.Z., Xu, J. 2005. Preparation, characterization and mechanical properties of epoxidized soybean oil/clay nanocomposites. Polymer. 46:10119-10127.

Kim, S., Xu, J., Biswas, A., Willett, J.L. 2006. Shear-induced aggregate formation in starch solutions. Carbohydrate Polymers. 64(2):168-174.

Kim, S., Inglett, G.E. 2006. Molecular weight and ionic strength dependence of fluorescence intensity of the calcofluor/b-glucan complex in flow-injection analysis. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 19(5):466-472.

Mohamed, A., Rayas-Duarte, P., Inglett, G.E. 2005. Hard red spring wheat/nutrim-20 bread: formulation, processing and texture analysis [abstract]. American Chemical Society Abstracts. Paper No. AGFD56.

Xu, J., Chang, T., Tseng, Y., Inglett, G.E., Wirtz, D. 2005. Multiple-particle tracking study of the microheterogeneity of nutrim-10 suspensions [abstract]. American Association of Cereal Chemists Meetings. Paper No. 247.

Kim, S., Inglett, G.E. 2005. Quantitative analysis of beta-glucan in oat hydrocolloids [abstract]. American Chemical Society Abstracts. Paper No. AGFD55.

Xu, J., Chang, T., Inglett, G.E., Carriere, C.J., Tseng, Y. 2006. Multiple-particle tracking study of the microheterogeneity of nutrim-10 suspensions. Cereal Chemistry. 83(1):37-41.

Mohamed, A., Rayas-Duarte, P., Shogren, R.L., Sessa, D.J. 2006. Low carbohydrate bread: formulation, processing, and sensory. Journal of Food Chemistry. 99(4):686-692.

Xu, J., Chang, T., Inglett, G.E., Kim, S., Tsebg, Y., Wirtz, D. 2006. Micro-heterogeneity and micro-rheological properties of beta-glucan solutions. Polymer Processing Society. p. 291.

Mohamed, A., Peterson, S.C., Grant, L.A., Rayas-Duarte, P. 2006. Effect of jet-cooked wheat gluten/lecithin blends on corn and rice starch retrogradation. Journal of Cereal Science. 43(3):293-300.

Last Modified: 4/19/2014
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