2008 Annual Report
5. Feasibility Study of Using Infrared Heating for Almond Pasteurization with High Product Quality. The safety and quality of almonds, which are directly related to food safety and marketing potential, are important for almond producers and processors in California because California produces 80% of the world’s almonds. However, the development of effective almond pasteurization technologies has been a challenge for the almond industry in California ever since Salmonella Enteriditis was identified in raw almonds in 2001 and 2004, respectively, due to the consumption of raw almonds. There is a need to develop a non-chemical treatment method for the disinfection of almonds with high product quality, which is more desirable than chemical methods. To take the fast heating advantage of infrared, the effectiveness of infrared heating for almond disinfestation was investigated by ARS scientists in the Processed Foods Research Unit in Albany, CA with the support of the Almond Board of California. Infrared has successfully demonstrated its efficacy for disinfection of almonds without significant changes in the characteristics of raw almonds. This supports NP 306, Component 2, "New Processes, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods", Problem Statement c. 6. Fruit-Based Obesity Prevention Bar. American citizens are becoming increasingly obese and there is a great need to develop healthy food products that can combat this growing trend. Researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, in collaboration through a CRADA with a world renowned non-profit research institute and hospital are developing the first obesity prevention bar. The bar is fortified with a wide range of nutrients, fibers, fats, proteins and other health-promoting components. Processing and formulation research has been completed and Phase II human clinical trials have begun. This research supports NP 306, Component 2 "New Processes, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods", Problem Statement a. 7. Apple- and Tomato-Based Natural Antimicrobial Containing Edible Films. American citizens are increasingly concerned over the safety of their foods. Researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, through a USDA, CSREES-funded NRI grant are developing novel natural antimicrobial-containing films from apples and tomatoes. Incorporation of natural essential oils from oregano, thyme, cinnamon and lemon grass into apple- and tomato-based films and coatings were found to be active against E. coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella enterica. Films have been applied to hams and chicken, and their effectiveness has been verified on these foods. In addition, tests are underway to test the effectiveness of films against E. coli 0157:H7 in spinach. Concurrent sensory evaluations of films on foods are being performed to confirm sensory acceptability of these novel films. Continuous production methods have been developed to support commercialization of the technology. This research supports NP 306, Component 2. "New Processes, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods", Problem Statement a.
5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
The first accomplishments in 4 had an impact on rural employment in that this manufacturing facility operates in an area of high unemployment. Four full-time jobs have been created, two of which are minority filled, as a result of the support ARS provided in building the technology to support this small business. All of these accomplishments also impact children's nutritional status by providing alternatives to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables.
Roberts, J.S., Teichert, A., Mc Hugh, T.H. 2008. Vitamin D2 Formation from Post-Harvest UV-B Treatment of Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and Retention during Storage. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56:4541-4544.
Mc Hugh, T.H. 2008. The World of Food Science. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications. V4:1-3.
Zhu, Y., Pan, Z., Mc Hugh, T.H. 2007. Effect of Dipping Treatments on Color Stabilization and Texture of Apple Cubes for Infrared Dry-Blanching Process. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 31:632-648.
Shih, C., Pan, Z., Mc Hugh, T.H., Wood, D.F., Hirschberg, E. 2008. Sequential Infrared Radiation and Freeze-Drying Method for Producing Crispy Strawberries. Transactions of the ASABE. 51(1):205-216. Imam, S.H., Chiou, B., Wood, D.F., Shey, J., Glenn, G.M., Orts, W.J., Narayan, R.R., Avena Bustillos, R.D. 2008. Starch/pulp-fiber based packaging foams and cast films containing alaskan fish by-products (waste). BioResources. 3(3):758-773.
Shi, J., Pan, Z., Mc Hugh, T.H., Wood, D.F., Zhu, Y., Avena-Bustillos, R.D., Hirschberg, E. 2008. Effect of Berry Size and Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment on the Drying Characteristics of Blueberries under Infrared Radiation Heating. Journal of Food Science. 73(6):E259-E265.
Du, W., Olsen, C.W., Avena-Bustillos, R.D., Mc Hugh, T.H., Levin, C.E., Friedman, M. 2008. Storage Stability and Antibacterial Activity against Echerichia coli O157:H7 of Carvacrol in Edible Apple Films made by Two Different Casting Methods. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56:3082-2088.
Du, W., Olsen, C.W., Avena-Bustillos, R., Mc Hugh, T.H., Levin, C.E., Friedman, M. 2008. Antibacterial Activity against E. coli O157:H7, Physical Properties, and Storage Stability of Novel Carvacrol-Containing Edible Tomato Films. Journal of Food Science. 73(7):M378-383.
Brandl, M., Pan, Z., Huynh, S., Zhu, Y., Mc Hugh, T.H. 2008. Reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis Population Sizes on Almond Kernels with Infrared Heat. Journal of Food Protection. 71(5)-897-902
Srikiatden, J., Roberts, J.S. 2007. Moisture Transfer in Solid Food Materials: A Review of Mechanisms, Models, and Measurements. International Journal of Food Properties. 10:4, 739-777
Pan, Z., Zheng, Y., Zhang, R., Jenkins, B.M. 2007. Physical Properties of Medium-Density Particleboard Made From Saline Eucalyptus. Industrial Crops and Products. 26(2):185-194.
Zheng, Y., Pan, Z., Zhang, R., Wang, D., Jenkins, B. 2007. Non-ionic Surfactants and Non-catalytic Protein Treatment on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Pretreated Creeping Wild Ryegrass. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. DOI 10.1007/s12010-007-8035-9.
Ma, H., Pan, Z., Gao, M., Luo, L. 2008. Efficacy in Microbial Sterilization of Pulsed Magnetic Field Treatment. International Journal of Food Engineering. 4(4):1-14.
Zheng, X., Jiang, Y., Pan, Z. 2007. Drying and Quality Characteristics of Different Components of Alfalfa. Transactions of the CSAE.23(2)97-101.