INTEGRATION OF NUTRITIONAL, GENETIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO IMPROVE PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY OF RAINBOW TROUT
Small Grains and Potato Germplasm Research
Project Number: 5366-21310-003-00
Start Date: Jan 11, 2005
End Date: Dec 27, 2009
Objective of this research are; 1)Develop a series of trout feeds that replace fish meal and fish oil with novel and traditional plant-derived ingredients. 2) Determine optimal supplementation levels of vitamins and limiting amino acids for plant-based feeds. 3) Identify and evaluate genetic, biochemical and physiological responses of trout fed grain-based feeds. 4) Identify rainbow trout families with improved phenotypes for growth and utilization of an alternative plant-protein fish feed through a genetic selection program.
New funds will be used to expand objective one of the project plan:
1) Objective 1 of the project consists of developing trout feeds formulated with traditional plant-derived ingredients in place of fish meal and fish oil. Within this area of research the experimental diets are to be tested to determine the optimal supplementation level of vitamins and limiting amino acids necessary to obtain maximal growth. The financial increase to the project will aid in developing ingredient enhancement through the development of biological and mechanical concentration methods for the formulation of nutrient complete feeds.
New funds will be used to expand Objective One of the research project plan:
1) Develop a series of trout feeds that replace fishmeal and fish oil with traditional and enhanced plant-derived ingredients. The focus should be on ingredient enhancement through biological and mechanical concentration of required nutrients for complete feed development. Expedite expanded capacity to increase select cultivars in trout feeding trials. This includes expanding strains being developed at Leetown, WV.
Dr. Keshun Liu: Objectives include; 1) evaluate current methods of dry and wet fractionization for ways to improve performance or reduce cost of production; 2) evaluate chemical and enzymatic treatments for effectiveness and production costs, 3) evaluate nutritional quality of protein concentrates, and 4) develop improved analytical methods for some key grain nutrients, such as beta-glucan, protein, to assist breeding screen for improved grain quality.
Dr. Frederic Barrows Objectives; 1) identify the most effective organism and blend of grains to result in a high protein low carbohydrate ingredient,
2) identify optimal processing and incubating conditions,
3) evaluate digestibility and palatability of each ingredients with in-vivo testing,
4) evaluate effect of long term feeding of experimental ingredient on growth, and product quality.
Dr. Kenneth Overturf Objectives: 1) installation of 10 heath tray incubators for hatching and isolating individual families, 80- 4'x15" troughs for rearing fry, and 25- 5' circular for holding individual families and mixed tagged families. Also included with this is the necessary infrastructure such as securing adequate water to the tanks and electrical and lighting for rearing and handling of the fish.
This research will benefit fish farmers, grain farmers and assist in protecting the environment by reducing nutrients in hatchery effluents, and reducing exploitation of ocean fisheries. A series of plant-based feeds will be eveloped, replacing fish meal, and containing the proper balance of essential nutrients. New cultivars of barley and oats will be evaluated as a fish feed ingredient along with alternate crops such as flax, sunflower and safflower. A breeding program will be used to develop new strains of rainbow trout that are better able to utilize plant-based feeds, grow faster and more efficiently and have improved product quality characteristics.
Traditional methodologies to determine metabolic scope for a given nutrient or ingredient will be used to evaluate the relative contribution and metabolic efficacy of nutrients supplied in plant-based feeds. Information developed concerning the genetic, biochemical, and physiological responses of rainbow trout to consumption of various plant-derived ingredients will be used as a basis for developing future feed formulations and to develop improved selection parameters for trout breeding programs.
Dr. Keshun Liu: Use 4 approaches to address this problem. 1) evaluate and further process protein-rich by-products of current ethanol or beta-glucan production, 2) develop modified and novel methods to fractionate grain proteins for trout feed ingredients, 3) evaluate and process current improved cultivars of barley and oats, such as low-phyate cultivars for making fish feed ingredients, and 4) select and breed new cultivars of barleys and oats with enhanced composition through collaborating with plant scientist at the ARS, Aberdeen ID (Project # 5366-21000-024-00D).
Dr. Frederic Barrows: Solid substrate culture (SSC) has been proven to be an effective method for fungal production on a commercial scale. The effectiveness of this approach is due to the relatively low capital costs and low energy costs. This approach has not been used for the development of animal feeds before, but preliminary studies are quite promising. Utilizing different organisms and different blends of grains, a variety of products will be produced.
Dr. Kenneth Overturf: Genetic selection programs for trout have been initiated at the NCCCWA and at the HFCES (through Aberdeen). The goal of the HFCES program is to select fish with an enhanced ability to utilize a plant based feed more efficiently. The goal of the NCCCWA is to select trout for superior growth performance. Improved strains will be reared and analyzed in Idaho.
FY99 Program Increase $225,000 Add 1 SY for research on cereal grains & fish
FY03 Program Increase $223,537 Add 1 SY
FY04 Program Increase $241,566 Add 1 SY
FY04 Program Increase $584,232 Add 1 SY
FY05 Program Increase $111,600
Replaces 5366-21310-002-00D (12/04).
FY06 Program Increase $89,100