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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY AND SUSTAINABILITY OF MORONE SPECIES CULTURE
2006 Annual Report


1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? Why does it matter?
Nearly 1/3 of U.S. seafood consumption is composed of aquacultured products. Of that total, fish of the taxon Morone--i.e., striped bass and their hybrids-ranked fourth in the market, at 13 million pounds, representing a farm-gate value of $40 million in 2003. U.S. producers face increasing competition in the market. Efficiency and bottlenecks in the production of Morone sp. must be improved or alleviated to sustain and expand the U.S. industry.

Morone sp. are typically spawned in spring because breeders depend on mature fish captured from the wild. For the U.S. industry to remain globally competitive, stocks of domesticated broodstock must be developed and coupled with off-season spawning and larval feeding strategies to ensure year-round availability of genetically superior seedstock. Additionally, reduction of culture and handling stress must be accomplished through better understanding of the stress response of Morone sp. Gender-related differences in commercially relevant traits must be defined before they can be exploited in industry breeding programs. Understanding the regulation of Insulin-like Growth Factors I and II and their binding proteins (IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGFBPs) in fish is critical to increasing growth efficiency of Morone sp.

The availability of nutrients and energy to Morone sp. in traditional and novel feedstuffs must be defined as the logical first step in the reduction of fishmeal in aquatic feeds. New diets with reduced fish meal and oil must be vetted in commercial settings before industry adoption. Nutrient requirements as well as feeding strategies for different life stages, culture systems, and seasons are currently lacking.

Genetic variation among stocks influences commercially important traits such as reproductive success, fry survival, response to stress, disease resistance, nutrient utilization, and growth. In order for Morone producers to remain globally competitive, a sustained research program must be initiated to.
1)identify phenotypic and molecular differences among stocks of white and striped bass,.
2)selectively breed progeny with desired traits, and.
3)develop molecular markers for economically relevant traits to aid selective breeding efforts.

The objectives of this project are:.
1)develop and refine year-round production of hybrid striped bass fingerlings through photothermal, dietary, and culture manipulation,.
2)increase hybrid striped bass production efficiency through physiological control of stress, gender, and hormonal growth factors,.
3)increase hybrid striped bass production efficiency by refining nutrient requirements, manipulating feeding strategy and diet nutrient density, and reducing fish meal and oil content, and.
4)develop genetically superior Morone sp.

This project addresses the following components of NP 106 - Aquaculture:.
1)genetic improvement,.
2)reproduction and early development;.
3)growth and development, and nutrition; 4)aquaculture production systems; and.
5)sustainability and environmental compatibility of aquaculture.

Striped bass growers as well as State and Federal hatcheries will benefit from improved culture methods for year-round production of fry and fingerlings. Commercial as well as government hatcheries and managers will have tangible recommendations with respect to stress management, nutrient requirements, and alternate diet formulations. Farmers will be able to utilize improved strains of striped bass, white bass and their hybrids to increase profitability and sustainability. Increased numbers of hybrid striped bass producers will provide jobs and support collateral industries, including agriculture, feed manufacturers, processors, and supply companies. Wholesalers, retailers, and consumers will benefit from increased supplies of safe, quality seafood products.


2.List by year the currently approved milestones (indicators of research progress)
Year 1 (FY 2005) Determine the effects of hybrid striped bass larval density on survival and growth in tank culture in order to optimize indoor fry culture.

Provide guidelines from stress experiments on white bass and striped bass that can be used as characteristics for broodstock selection in support of National efforts on genetic improvement and selective breeding for the Hybrid Striped Bass Industry.

Produce monosex populations of striped bass using hormonal sex reversal techniques and select potential broodstock for producing all female populations for use in aquaculture in support of National efforts on genetic improvement and selective breeding for the Hybrid Striped Bass Industry.

Establish optimum temperatures for sunshine bass culture using insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) response profiles in order to optimize production management practices of the hybrid striped bass industry.

Provide the hybrid striped bass industry with recommendations regarding optimum dietary protein to energy ratio for different culture temperatures in order to optimize summer and winter production practices of the hybrid striped bass industry.

Year 2 (FY 2006) Determine effects of enriched rotifers on sunshine bass fry growth and survival in order to optimize fry culture.

Determine initial photothermal effects on early maturation of broodstock.

Establish desirable handling intensity and frequency conditions for sunshine bass to optimize commercial culture and management practices. Establish the effects of photoperiod on plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations and feeding in sunshine bass to optimize commercial culture and management practices.

Provide information to scientists and producers regarding the effects of stress on plasma IGF-I in sunshine bass to optimize commercial culture and management practices. Provide recommendations regarding optimum dietary levels of poultry meal for tank/recirculated system culture of hybrid striped bass.

Year 3 (FY 2007) Determine the effect of culture temperature on the growth rates of hybrid striped bass fry to optimize off-season fry culture.

Characterize reproductive output of normal Morone broodstock as a prerequisite to achieving reliable off-season spawning.

Provide recommendations regarding optimum dietary levels of poultry meal for pond culture of hybrid striped bass.

Provide digestibility coefficients for nutrients and essential amino acids in traditional and novel animal and plant products to feed mills.

Quantify dietary essential fatty acid requirements for hybrid striped bass fed high fat diets.

Characterize growth performance of hybrid striped bass fed diets in which fishmeal is replaced by animal or plant processing by-products such as fish processing offal, barley or soy protein isolates, or other promising by-product.

Year 4 (FY 2008) Determine earliest time-to-wean to prepared diet for sunshine bass fry.

Characterize reproductive output of second-year normal vs. first-year phase-shifted Morone broodstock as a prerequisite to achieving reliable off-season spawning.

Quantify dietary requirements for the essential amino acids isoleucine, leucine, and valine in hybrid striped bass.

Quantify dietary requirements for the essential amino acids phenylalanine and histidine in hybrid striped bass.

Year 5 (FY 2009) Determine optimum live feed densities for hybrid striped bass fry.

Characterize reproductive output of third-year normal vs. second-year phase-shifted Morone broodstock as a prerequisite to achieving reliable off-season spawning.

Provide recommendations to feed mills regarding optimum levels of an animal or plant processing by-product, barley, or vegetable protein isolate to replace fishmeal in hybrid striped bass diets.

Characterize growth performance of hybrid striped bass fed diets in which fish oil is replaced with alternate oil sources such as Alaskan fishery visceral meal.

Re-estimate hybrid striped bass requirements for the essential amino acid lysine and total sulfur amino acids (methionine + cysteine) using soy-based diets.

Quantify the requirement of hybrid striped bass for essential fatty acids when fed different ratios of arachidonic (20:4) to eicosapentaenoic acids (20:5).


4a.List the single most significant research accomplishment during FY 2006.
REPLACEMENT OF FISH MEAL WITH POULTRY BY-PRODUCT IN DIETS FOR TANK RAISED HYBRID STRIPED BASS: The reduction of fishmeal in aquafeeds is a high priority need of the aquaculture industry in order to lower costs and sustain a natural resource in high-demand. Scientists at the HKD Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center and Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Ft. Pierce, FL, were able to replace nearly half the fishmeal in commercial hybrid striped bass diets with a lower-cost poultry by-product and two added amino acids without significant changes in production and at a lower feed cost than current commercial diets. In cooperation with the hybrid striped bass industry, the test diets were commercially formulated and manufactured to mimic the nutrient profile of hybrid striped bass fillets and then fed to fish in commercial-scale recirculated tanks in Ft. Pierce, FL. Results also found that replacement of fishmeal with poultry by-product above 50% is feasible if the kind and amount of amino acids added to the diet are appropriately adjusted. The lower cost of these diets along with water-reuse technology has the potential impact of significantly increasing the sustainability of marine aquaculture in the U.S.. The actual impact is that some commercial growers are now field testing updated versions of these diets and that a similar strategy for replacing fishmeal is being pursued in other marine fish culture. This accomplishment addresses Year 2 (2006) milestone of CRIS Project No. 6225-31630-005-00D: Provide recommendations regarding optimum dietary levels of poultry meal for tank/recirculated system culture of hybrid striped bass and the following components of NP 106 - Aquaculture: Growth, Development, and Nutrition; Aquaculture Production Systems; and Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture; and also addresses ARS Strategic Plan Objective 1.2 - Contribute to the Efficiency of Agricultural Production Systems, Performance Measures 1.2.1, 1.2.2, and 1.2.5.


4b.List other significant research accomplishment(s), if any.
QUALITY OF JUVENILE HYBRID STRIPED BASS ENHANCED: Scientists at the HKD Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center found an optimum combination of commercial algal paste and nutrient supplement for larval hybrid striped bass production. Sunshine bass production starts with feeding newly hatched fish live food in the form of microscopic animals called rotifers. The nutritional profile, particularly essential fats, of the rotifers is beefed up with commercial algae pastes and supplements in order to improve the quality of the fry prior to stock-out; however, this process costs time, effort, and money. Various combinations of the most popular commercial algal pastes and supplements were tested and newly hatched fish fed rotifers enhanced with the algae Nannochloropsis plus the supplement Culture Selco 3000® had the greatest survival, total length, and weight, as well as the highest content of essential fats than all other combinations tested. The potential impact of these results will be to reduce costs and increase efficiency of year-round production of fingerling hybrid striped bass. This accomplishment addresses Year 2 (2006) milestone of CRIS Project No. 6225-31630-005-00D: Determine effects of enriched rotifers on sunshine bass fry growth and survival in order to optimize fry culture and the following components of NP 106 - Aquaculture: Reproduction and Early Development; Growth, Development, and Nutrition; Aquaculture Production Systems; and Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture; and also addresses ARS Strategic Plan Objective 1.2 - Contribute to the Efficiency of Agricultural Production Systems, Performance Measures 1.2.1, 1.2.2, and 1.2.5.

OFF-SEASON SPAWNING OF WHITE BASS: Scientists at the HKD Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center succeeded in altering the timing of the normal spawning cycle of white bass broodstock. Year-round spawning of hybrid striped bass broodstock is desirable to even out production and marketing spikes in the industry. White bass normally spawn during early April; however, by changing the water temperature profile at which the fish were conditioned and by significantly reducing the amount of injected hormone used to initiate spawning, white bass were spawned in mid-June and approximately 300,000 eggs were obtained. An estimated 200,000 fry were hatched (66% hatch rate) and 80,000 were subsequently stocked into ponds for further grow-out. The ability to manipulate hybrid striped bass spawning has the potential impact of promoting a year-round supply of fingerlings that will decrease price and supply volatility at both the farm and sea-food market level. This accomplishment addresses Year 2 (2006) milestone of CRIS Project No. 6225-31630-005-00D: Determine initial photothermal effects on early maturation of broodstock and the following components of NP 106 - Aquaculture: Reproduction and Early Development; Growth, Development, and Nutrition; Aquaculture Production Systems; and Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture; and also addresses ARS Strategic Plan Objective 1.2 - Contribute to the Efficiency of Agricultural Production Systems, Performance Measures 1.2.1, 1.2.2, and 1.2.5.

PARENTAL CONTRIBUTION TO STRESS TOLERANCE IN HYBRID STRIPED BASS: Scientists at the HKD Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center measured the relative contributions of the parental species (white bass and striped bass) to the stress tolerance and growth factor (IGF-I) levels in the sunshine bass which are hybrids produced by crossing female white bass with male striped bass. Typical indicators of stress, plasma cortisol and glucose, were compared before and after defined stressors as well as concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) among the parents and hybrid. Stress responses were higher and longer lasting in striped bass than in white bass or sunshine bass. Plasma IGF-I (growth hormone) concentrations were not different among the three fish types. The stress tolerance appears to be derived from the white bass but the source of the hormonal growth rate (IGF-I) stimulation is not clearly from either of the parental species. These results will impact scientific and commercial research efforts and the National Breeding Program aimed at elucidating physiological mechanisms and maximizing stress tolerance in hybrid striped bass. This accomplishment addresses Year 2 (2006) milestones of CRIS Project No. 6225-31630-005-00D: Establish desirable handling intensity and frequency conditions for sunshine bass and Provide information to scientists and producers regarding the effects of stress on plasma IGF-I in sunshine bass. Additionally, this accomplishment addresses the following components of NP 106 - Aquaculture: Reproduction and Early Development; Growth, Development, and Nutrition; Aquaculture Production Systems; and Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture; and also addresses ARS Strategic Plan Objective 1.2 - Contribute to the Efficiency of Agricultural Production Systems, Performance Measures 1.2.1, 1.2.2, and 1.2.5.

GENDER VS. GROWTH HORMONE (IGF-I) IN HYBRID STRIPED BASS: The growth of female sunshine bass is faster than male fish and sex hormones secreted during sexual maturation in females may be stimulating this gender biased growth by stimulating insulin-like growth factor–I (IGF-I)—-the growth factor now thought to be responsible for directly stimulating growth of fish. Scientists at the HKD Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center measured gonadal development, plasma sex hormone concentrations, and IGF-I in market size sunshine bass from a commercial farm during and after the spring peak of gonadal development and spawning and in tank-reared fish fed diets containing different sex hormones. IGF-I concentrations increased throughout the season and were always higher in males rather than females. In the tank study, those fish fed estrogen in the feed ate less, grew less, and had lower IGF-I concentrations than fish fed diets containing testosterone, methyl testosterone, or no hormone. Apparently the reason for the growth advantage seen in female fish is not stimulated by estrogen, and the physiological reason for the gender-based growth bias is not yet clear. These results will impact scientific and commercial research efforts and the National Breeding Program aimed at elucidating physiological mechanisms of growth and maximizing growth in hybrid striped bass. This accomplishment addresses Objective 2. Increase hybrid striped bass production efficiency through physiological control of stress, gender, and hormonal growth factors of CRIS Project No. 6225-31630-005-00D and the following components of NP 106 - Aquaculture: Growth, Development, and Nutrition; Aquaculture Production Systems; and Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture; and also addresses ARS Strategic Plan Objective 1.2 - Contribute to the Efficiency of Agricultural Production Systems, Performance Measures 1.2.1, 1.2.2, 1.2.4, and 1.2.5.


4c.List significant activities that support special target populations.
None.


5.Describe the major accomplishments to date and their predicted or actual impact.
Major accomplishments during the first two years (FY2005 & FY2006) include:

POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE IN HYBRID STRIPED BASS FRY PONDS: Scientists at the HKD Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center determined that the chemical potassium permanganate may temporarily harm the aquatic food chain in hybrid striped bass (HSB) fry ponds. Potassium permanganate is a chemical that shows promise in killing disease organisms in HSB ponds. Before it can be labeled by FDA for public use, however, the environmental effects of potassium permanganate must be determined. Scientists at the HKD Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center treated several HSB ponds with potassium permanganate during the summer when nutrient levels in the ponds were high and then measured the types and numbers of organisms at the base of the aquatic food chain. Zooplankton concentrations, principally rotifer and algae, significantly declined after the permanganate treatment. If accepted by FDA, the potential impact of this data would be to help set limits and conditions of future use of potassium permanganate as a treatment against diseases in hybrid striped bass culture. This accomplishment addresses Objective 1. Develop and refine year-round production of hybrid striped bass fingerlings through photothermal, dietary, and culture manipulation of CRIS Project No. 6225-31630-005-00D and Year 5 (2009) milestone of CRIS Project No. 6225-32000-004-00D: Gain FDA-approval of potassium permanganate for external columnaris and the following components of NP 106 - Aquaculture: Aquaculture Production Systems; Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture; and Integrated Aquatic Animal Health Management; and also addresses ARS Strategic Plan Objective 1.2 - Contribute to the Efficiency of Agricultural Production Systems, Performance Measures 1.2.1, 1.2.2, 1.2.4, 1.2.5 as well as Objective 3.2 - Develop and Deliver Science-Based Information and Technologies To Reduce the Number and Severity of Agricultural Pest, Insect, Weed, and Disease Outbreaks, Performance Measures 3.2.1, and 3.2.3.

LETHAL PH IN HYBRID STRIPED BASS FRY PONDS: Scientists at the HKD Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center found a relationship between fertilization method, water pH, and survival of hybrid striped bass (HSB) fry that may increase production in commercial fry ponds. Fry ponds are fertilized to stimulate the growth of live food organisms; however, when producers use chemical fertilizers the fry often die when pH levels become too high. Scientists at the HKD Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center treated several HSB fry ponds with chemical or organic fertilizers, or commercial baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) and observed the change in pond acidity (pH) and fry survival. Adding baking soda failed to prevent lethal increases in pH during algae blooms, but using organic fertilizers did. If adopted by industry, this information has the potential impact of improving year-round production of HSB fingerlings. This accomplishment addresses Objective 1. Develop and refine year-round production of hybrid striped bass fingerlings through photothermal, dietary, and culture manipulation of CRIS Project No. 6225-31630-005-00D and the following components of NP 106 - Aquaculture: Reproduction and Early Development; Growth, Development, and Nutrition; Aquaculture Production Systems; and Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture; and also addresses ARS Strategic Plan Objective 1.2 - Contribute to the Efficiency of Agricultural Production Systems, Performance Measures 1.2.1, 1.2.2, and 1.2.5.

GROWTH FACTOR (IGF-I) VS. TEMPERATURE IN HYBRID STRIPED BASS: Scientists at the HKD Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center demonstrated that growth factor (IGF-I) in hybrid striped bass (HSB) is higher at 25C and 30C than at lower temperatures. Plasma IGF-I is a hormone produced by the liver that stimulates growth. Knowing the optimum temperature that stimulates the release of natural growth hormones could improve the efficiency of hybrid striped bass production. By measuring IGF-I in HSB grown at various controlled temperatures, scientists at the HKD Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center determined the optimum culture temperatures for commercial tank producers. If adopted by industry, this information has the potential impact of optimizing management practices of the hybrid striped bass industry. This accomplishment addresses Year 1 (2005) milestone of CRIS Project No. 6225-31630-005-00D: Establish optimum temperatures for sunshine bass culture using insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) response profiles and the following components of NP 106 - Aquaculture: Growth, Development, and Nutrition; Aquaculture Production Systems; and Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture; and also addresses ARS Strategic Plan Objective 1.2 - Contribute to the Efficiency of Agricultural Production Systems, Performance Measures 1.2.1, 1.2.2, 1.2.4, and 1.2.5.

CORTISOL VS. GROWTH FACTOR (IGF-I) IN STRESSED HYBRID STRIPED BASS: Scientists at the HKD Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center demonstrated that a natural hormone (IGF-I) that stimulates growth decreases significantly in stressed hybrid striped (HSB) and that cortisol, another natural hormone, delivered orally has no effect on IGF-I levels. Better understanding of the stress response of HSB is necessary to develop management strategies to reduce disease and mortality due to handling stress. Scientists at the HKD Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center subjected HSB to acute low-water confinement and measured IGF-I in the blood before and after oral cortisol treatments and found no improvement in IGF-I. The potential impact of these findings is to stimulate research in alternative physiological mechanisms of stress in order to improve culture practices that optimize commercial production of fish. This accomplishment addresses Year 2 (2006) milestone of CRIS Project No. 6225-31630-005-00D: Provide information to scientists and producers regarding the effects of stress on plasma IGF-I in sunshine bass and the following components of NP 106 - Aquaculture: Growth, Development, and Nutrition; Aquaculture Production Systems; and Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture; and also addresses ARS Strategic Plan Objective 1.2 - Contribute to the Efficiency of Agricultural Production Systems, Performance Measures 1.2.1, 1.2.2, 1.2.4, and 1.2.5.

GROWTH AND GROWTH FACTOR (IGF-I) IN TWO HYBRIDS OF STRIPED BASS: Scientists at the HKD Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center found that the two main hybrids of striped bass, the palmetto and sunshine bass, grew at similar rates in an 18-month pond study and that growth and growth factor (IGF-I) levels in the blood were similar between the two hybrids. There were no consistent differences in IGF-I between males and females. Advantages and disadvantages exist for the commercial production of either hybrid; however, most of the industry is based on the sunshine bass. The growth trial and hormone measurements were conducted with palmetto bass produced and donated by the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission and sunshine bass produced and donated by a commercial fish farm. These data will impact current commercial and scientific research efforts toward maximizing sunshine bass production. This accomplishment addresses Objective 2. Increase hybrid striped bass production efficiency through physiological control of stress, gender, and hormonal growth factors of CRIS Project No. 6225-31630-005-00D and the following components of NP 106 - Aquaculture: Growth, Development, and Nutrition; Aquaculture Production Systems; and Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture; and also addresses ARS Strategic Plan Objective 1.2 - Contribute to the Efficiency of Agricultural Production Systems and specifically Performance Measures 1.2.1, 1.2.2, 1.2.4, and 1.2.5.

OPTIMAL STOCKING RATES FOR HYBRID STRIPED BASS FRY: Both commercial and publicly funded hybrid striped bass (HSB) hatcheries need to know the optimum number of fry (juvenile fish immediately after hatching) to stock in culture tanks to maximize fingerling production. Scientists at the HKD Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center discovered a relationship between stocking density and growth of HSB fry raised in tanks with unlimited feed that could optimize commercial fry production. We stocked indoor tanks with different densities of HSB fry and offered live food in abundance. When fry were weaned from live to artificial feed, we counted and weighed the fish and found that fish grew less at higher stocking densities, but total yield (fish number x average weight) was similar. If adopted by industry, these stocking recommendations have the potential impact of allowing HSB hatcheries to optimize fry production for their particular production needs. This accomplishment addresses Year 1 (2006) milestone of CRIS Project No. 6225-31630-005-00D: Determine optimum hybrid striped bass larval density in tank culture and the following components of NP 106 - Aquaculture: Reproduction and Early Development; Growth, Development, and Nutrition; Aquaculture Production Systems; and Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture; and also addresses ARS Strategic Plan Objective 1.2 - Contribute to the Efficiency of Agricultural Production Systems and specifically Performance Measures 1.2.1, 1.2.2, and 1.2.5.

ORAL ESTROGEN VS. HYBRID STRIPED BASS GROWTH: Aquaculture producers and scientists need to understand how fish gender and sex hormones affect commercially relevant production traits. Little is understood about the effect and timing of sex hormones on fish growth, but we do know that female striped bass grow faster by harvest time. Scientists at the HKD Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center found that growth and growth factor hormone (IGF-I) in very young (phase-I) hybrid striped bass (HSB) were actually reduced when fish were fed diets containing the female sex hormone estrogen. This scientific knowledge is an important step in further characterizing HSB genetic resources and has the potential impact of optimizing HSB production systems. This accomplishment addresses Year 1 (2005) milestone of CRIS Project No. 6225-31630-005-00D: Produce monosex populations of striped bass using hormonal sex reversal techniques and select potential broodstock for producing all female populations for use in aquaculture and the following components of NP 106 - Aquaculture: Reproduction and Early Development; Growth, Development, and Nutrition; Aquaculture Production Systems; and Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture; and also addresses ARS Strategic Plan Objective 1.2 - Contribute to the Efficiency of Agricultural Production Systems, Performance Measures 1.2.1, 1.2.2, 1.2.4, and 1.2.5.

SUMMER AND WINTER DIETS FOR HYBRID STRIPED BASS: Hybrid striped bass producers need diet recommendations for summer and winter culture. Seasonal extremes in pond temperatures reduce feed consumption, nutrient assimilation, and nutrient retention and result in deterioration of water quality, wasted feed, stress, disease, and increased cost. In two cooperative studies with the hybrid striped bass industry, scientists at the HKD Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center determined the influence of different diet protein and energy levels on feed consumption, growth, composition of growth, and protein and energy retention in fish reared at temperatures simulating summer (32 C) and winter (8 – 25 C). The actual impact of this accomplishment is that HSB pond producers adopted the seasonal diet formulations developed in this research. This accomplishment addresses Year 1 (2005) milestone of CRIS Project No. 6225-31630-005-00D: Provide the hybrid striped bass industry with recommendations regarding optimum dietary protein to energy ratio for different culture temperatures and the following components of NP 106 - Aquaculture: Growth, Development, and Nutrition; Aquaculture Production Systems; and Sustainability and Environmental Compatibility of Aquaculture; and also addresses ARS Strategic Plan Objective 1.2 - Contribute to the Efficiency of Agricultural Production Systems, Performance Measures 1.2.1, 1.2.2, and 1.2.5.


6.What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end-user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products?
Results of research studies and technologies developed were made available to customers and the general public through oral presentations (technical and non technical), poster presentations at local, state, national and international meetings, and scientific papers.


7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below).
Ludwig, G.M. 2006. Advances in tank culture of sunshine bass fry. Global Aquaculture Advocate. 8(4):56-57.

Rawles, S.D. February 2006. USDA/ARS-SNARC hybrid striped bass program. Fourth Annual Workshop on Genetic Improvement and Selective Breeding for the Hybrid Striped Bass Industry, Las Vegas, Nevada.

Rawles, S.D., Gaylord, T.G., Snyder, G.S., McEntire, M.E., Freeman, D.W. 2006. The influence of dietary protein and energy on the performance of hybrid striped bass reared at extreme temperature. Striped Bass Grower's Association, February 2006, Las Vegas, Nevada.

Rawles, S.D., Riche, M., Webb, J., Gaylord, T.G., Freeman, D.W., Davis, M. 2006. Evaluation of poultry by-product meal in commerical diets for hybrid striped bass in recirculated tank production. Striped Bass Grower's Association, February 2006, Las Vegas, Nevada.


Review Publications
Ludwig, G.M. 2005. White Sucker Culture. In: Kelly, A.M., Siverstein, J., editors. Aquaculture in the 21st Century. American Fisheries Society Book Series 46. Bethesda, MD. p.591-606.

Ludwig, G.M., Hobbs, M.S., Perschbacher, P. 2005. Sodium bicarbonate, inorganic fertilizer and pH in sunshine bass fingerling culture ponds [abstract]. American Fisheries Society Annual Meeting. p. 1428.

Ludwig, G.M. 2006. Review of tank culture of sunshine bass fingerlings. International Journal of Recirculating Aquaculture. 7:53-68.

Ludwig, G.M., Lochmann, S. 2006. Stocking density effects on phase 1 sunshine bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis growth and survival in tank culture [abstract]. Aquaculture America 2006 Book of Abstracts. p. 813.

Ludwig, G.M., Lochmann, S. 2006. Growth and survival of sunshine bass larvae stocked in tanks at different densities [abstract]. Southern Division American Fisheries Society Annual Meeting. Paper No. 100672.

Perschbacher, P.W., Edziyie, R., Ludwig, G.M. 2006. Herbicide drift studies at UAPB: New paradigms based on natural communities [abstract]. The 1890 Association of Research Directors 14th Biennial Research Symposium. p. 8.

Hobbs, M.S., Grippo, R.S., Farris, J.L., Griffin, B.R., Ludwig, G.M., Harding, L.L. 2006. Environmental fate and effects of agriculture therapeutant potassium permanganate: Summary of tier III (mesocosm) studies [abstract]. Arkansas Chapter of the American Fisheries Society Annual Meeting. p. 13.

Hobbs, M.S., Grippo, R.S., Farris, J.L., Griffin, B.R., Ludwig, G.M., Harding, L.L. 2006. Environmental fate and effects of aquaculture therapeutant potassium permanganate [abstract]. Aquaculture America 2006 Book of Abstracts. p. 137.

Hobbs, M.S., Grippo, R.S., Farris, J.L., Griffin, B.R., Ludwig, G.M., Harding, L.L. 2006. Environmental fate and effects of aquaculture therapeutant potassium permanganate [abstract]. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Abstracts. p. 8.

Ludwig, G.M., Lochmann, S. 2006. An examination of different stocking densities of sunshine bass larvae reared in tanks [abstract]. Arkansas Chapter of the American Fisheries Society Annual Meeting. p. 20.

Perschbacher, P.W., Ludwig, G.M. 2006. Evaluation of propanil and atrazine high drift impacts on fry pond plankton and water quality [abstract]. Book of Abstracts, World Aquaculture Society. Paper No. 813. p. 731.

Ludwig, G.M., Lochmann, S. 2006. Stocking density effects on phase 1 sunshine bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis growth and survival in tank culture [abstract]. Book of Abstracts, World Aquaculture Society. p. 507.

Rawles, S.D., Gaylord, T.G., Gatlin, D.M. 2005. Digestibility of gross nutrients by sunshine bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) from animal by-products and commercially blended products used as fishmeal replacements. North American Journal of Aquaculture. 68:74-80.

Gaylord, T.G., Rawles, S.D. 2005. The modification of poultry by-product meal for use in hybrid striped bass diets. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. 36(3):365-376.

Gaylord, T.G., Rawles, S.D., Davis Jr., K.B. 2005. Dietary tryptophan requirement of hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis). Aquaculture Nutrition. 11:367-374.

Rawles, S.D., Riche, M.A., Webb, J., Gaylord, T.G., Freeman, D.W., Davis, M. 2006. Evaluation of poultry by-product meal in commercial diets for hybrid striped bass in recirculated tank production [abstract]. Aquaculture America 2006 Book of Abstracts. p. 346.

Rawles, S.D., Snyder, S.G., Gaylord, T.G., McEntire, M.E., Freeman, D.W. 2006. The influence of dietary protein and energy on the performance of hybrid striped bass reared at extreme temperature [abstract]. Aquaculture America 2006 Book of Abstract. p. 345.

Rawles, S.D., Riche, M.A., Webb, J., Gaylord, T.G., Freeman, D.W., Davis, M. 2005. Evaluation of poultry by-product meal in commercial diets for hybrid striped bass in recirculated tank production [abstract]. International Sustainable Marine Fish Culture Conference and Workshop Book of Abstracts. p. 15.

Subhadra, B., Lochmann, R., Rawles, S.D., Chen, R. 2006. Effect of dietary lipid source on the growth, tissue composition and hematological parameters of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Aquaculture. 255:210-222.

Subhadra, B., Lochmann, R., Rawles, S.D. 2006. Effect of dietary lipid sources on the growth, tissue composition and hematological parameters of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) fed diets with poultry meal as the primary protein source [abstract]. Aquaculture America 2006 Book of Abstracts. p. 307.

Davis Jr., K.B., McEntire, M.E. 2006. Comparison of the cortisol and glucose stress response to acute confinement and resting insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations among white bass, striped bass and sunshine bass [abstract]. Aquaculture America 2006 Book of Abstracts. p. 79.

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