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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: CHARACTERIZATION AND CONTROL OF NUTRITIONAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF RAW AND PROCESSED GRAINS, LEGUMES, AND VEGETABLES

Location: Healthy Processed Foods Research

2009 Annual Report


1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Isolate and characterize biologically active constituents in grains, legumes, nuts and vegetables, and their co-products. Optimize processing and storage conditions to enhance flavor and health-promoting phytonutrients. Add value to grains, legumes, and/or vegetables by extrusion technology using processing parameters and texture-modifying ingredients to control or enhance nutritional, textural and sensory properties.


1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Extrusion processing will be used to produce new value-added foods with enhanced nutritional and sensory properties. Extrusion operational parameters such as moisture content, temperature, feed rate, screw speed and screw element configuration will be optimized. Ingredients from corn, rice, potato, tapioca and apple will be added to legume flours to enhance the physiochemical properties of the extruded products. To understand the influence of processing on flavor, phytonutrients and antioxidant activity, qualitative and quantitative studies will be performed on the agricultural products before and after processing. Impact flavor constituents will be localized, characterized and quantified using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), calculation of odor units, and preparation of aroma models. Biosynthetic precursors of aroma compounds such as glycosides will be identified and model systems will be used to explore precursors of some aroma compounds formed during processing. The investigators will develop and apply capillary electrochromatography (CEC) to rapidly and efficiently characterize phytonutrients such as carotenoids in foods. Phytonutrients will be separated, characterized and quantified using HPLC-DAD, HPLC-MS and proton and carbon NMR spectroscopy. Antioxidant activity will be measured by the ability of extracts of specific constituents to scavenge the free radical DPPH and the ability to inhibit the oxidation of methyl linoleate and hexanal. Replaces 5325-41000-042-00D (12/04).


3.Progress Report
Novel value-added, shelf stable, tasty, and convenient lentil-based snacks and cereal breakfast-type products, fortified with gluten-free dietary fiber, were developed using innovative formulations and extrusion processing conditions in collaboration with scientists from Washington State University. The novel products contained about 2 to 3 times more total dietary fiber than most popular snacks and breakfast cereals on the market. Also, they were shelf-stable, had a desirable crunchy texture, and were highly acceptable to a sensory panel. The technology and products developed under this research project were drafted and will be submitted as a Continuation-in-Part (CIP) to filed invention entitled "Extruded Legumes", Patent Serial No. 11/641,318, for which three national companies and one international company have applied for non-exclusive license rights. Additionally, we have started collaborating with a commercial cooperator interested in marketing the novel extruded lentil snack products.

Phenolics are plant metabolites that are of great interest due to their potential protective role against oxidative damage diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. We investigated the levels of phenolics and anthocyanins, and the antioxidant activity of fifteen rhubarb varieties. We found wide variations in total phenolics, total anthocyanins and antioxidant activity in the different rhubarb varieties. This information can be used to develop and select genotypes with the highest level of phytonutrients and health benefits.


4.Accomplishments
1. New value-added lentil products. In the U.S., 1 in 133 consumers is considered to be allergic to gluten (Celiac disease). According to the USDA, the gluten-free market is currently valued at approximately $700 million and is expected to increase to $1.7 billion by the year 2010. Using extrusion technology, novel, lentil-based snacks rich in gluten-free dietary fiber and protein were developed by ARS researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, in collaboration with the Departments of Food Science and Human Nutrition, and Biological Systems Engineering at Washington State University and in support of growers represented by the U.S. Dry Pea and Lentil Council. The value-added, lentil-based snacks had a high acceptance rating by a sensory panel. The products and technology developed under this accomplishment will be submitted as part of an invention entitled "Extruded Legumes." The commercialization of value-added lentil-based, gluten-free products will benefit a large number of consumers allergic to gluten, and will increase demand for this commodity.

2. Phenolics and antioxidant activity of the skin and flesh of new white table grape genotypes. Phenolics are widely distributed plant metabolites that are of great interest due to their potential protective role against oxidative damage diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer and Alzheimer’s disease but in many cases, the levels present are unknown. ARS scientists at Albany, CA, investigated the levels of phenolics and antioxidant activity of the skin and flesh of 27 new white table grape genotypes developed by ARS scientists at Parlier, CA. More than half of the new grape genotypes had higher total phenolics and antioxidant activity than Thompson Seedless, which is by far the most widely planted grape variety in California. This information can be used to develop and select genotypes with the highest levels of phytonutrients and health benefits.


6.Technology Transfer

Number of Active CRADAs1
Number of the New/Active MTAs (providing only)1

Review Publications
Hernandez-Nava, R.G., Berrios, J.D., Pan, J., Osorio-Diaz, P., Bello-Perez, L.A. 2009. Development and Characterization of Spaghetti with High Resistant Starch Content Supplemented with Banana Starch. Food Science and Technology International. 15(1):73-78.

Takeoka, G.R., Wong, R.Y., Dao, L.T., Felker, P. 2009. Identification of 5,6-dihydro-6-propyl-2H-pyran-2-one as the Major Volatile Constituent in Mesquite (Prosopis) Flour. Food Chemistry. 115:1025-1027

Last Modified: 9/10/2014
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