2008 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Isolate and characterize biologically active constituents in grains, legumes, nuts and vegetables, and their co-products. Optimize processing and storage conditions to enhance flavor and health-promoting phytonutrients. Add value to grains, legumes, and/or vegetables by extrusion technology using processing parameters and texture-modifying ingredients to control or enhance nutritional, textural and sensory properties.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Extrusion processing will be used to produce new value-added foods with enhanced nutritional and sensory properties. Extrusion operational parameters such as moisture content, temperature, feed rate, screw speed and screw element configuration will be optimized. Ingredients from corn, rice, potato, tapioca and apple will be added to legume flours to enhance the physiochemical properties of the extruded products. To understand the influence of processing on flavor, phytonutrients and antioxidant activity, qualitative and quantitative studies will be performed on the agricultural products before and after processing. Impact flavor constituents will be localized, characterized and quantified using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), calculation of odor units, and preparation of aroma models. Biosynthetic precursors of aroma compounds such as glycosides will be identified and model systems will be used to explore precursors of some aroma compounds formed during processing. The investigators will develop and apply capillary electrochromatography (CEC) to rapidly and efficiently characterize phytonutrients such as carotenoids in foods. Phytonutrients will be separated, characterized and quantified using HPLC-DAD, HPLC-MS and proton and carbon NMR spectroscopy. Antioxidant activity will be measured by the ability of extracts of specific constituents to scavenge the free radical DPPH and the ability to inhibit the oxidation of methyl linoleate and hexanal. Replaces 5325-41000-042-00D (12/04).
Novel extrusion processing conditions and formulations were developed in collaboration with scientists from Washington State University. New value-added, shelf-stable, tasty, and convenient snacks and cereal breakfast-type products high in protein and dietary fibers, low in fat and gluten free were produced from peas, lentils, garbanzo and other legume seeds. The developed extruded products had a low glycemic index, based on human studies, and reduced cholesterol, based on in vitro studies. The technology and products developed under this research project were submitted for patentability under title “Extruded Legumes”, Patent Serial No. 11/641,318. Six national companies and three international companies indicated their interest to license the patent. One national minority-owned company submitted a license application. Additionally, we have started collaborating with a commercial cooperator interested in marketing developed extruded lentil-snack products. Component 2 (New Processes, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods and Biobased Products) of NP 306 was addressed by utilizing extrusion processing to produce new value-added foods with enhanced nutritional and sensory properties.
Under CRADA Agreement 5325-41000-050-03T, using extrusion technology, high protein, high fiber, and low in fat, legume-nutritional yeast-based snacks were developed by researchers in the Processed Foods research Unit, Albany, Ca, in collaboration with a national food company. The developed value-added legume-based products were evaluated for their sensory attributes and received a high level of acceptance by tasters. Component 2 (New Processes, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods and Biobased Products) of NP 306 was addressed by utilizing extrusion processing to produce new value-added foods with enhanced nutritional and sensory properties.
Phenolics are widely distributed plant metabolites that are of great interest due to their potential protective role against oxidative damage diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. We investigated the phenolics and antioxidant activity of the skin and flesh of new white grape genotypes developed by an ARS Researcher, Parlier, CA. We found a wide variation in the total phenolics and antioxidant activity in the skin and flesh of different white grapes. This information can be used to develop and select genotypes with the highest level of phytonutrients and health benefits. This accomplishment aligns with Component 1 (Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement), Problem Area 1a (Definition and Basis for Quality) of NP 306 National Program by identifying and quantifying flavor constituents and correlating these results with sensory evaluation.
Chemical and sensory analyses of tomatoes.
The tomato is the second largest vegetable crop in dollar value in the U.S. with a fresh market value of $1.6 billion in 2005. Using chemical and sensory analyses, the nineteen most important odorants responsible for fresh tomato flavor were identified and quantified by ARS scientists in the Processed Foods Research Unit in Albany, CA. It was shown that the differences between highly appetizing and less appetizing tomatoes were due to variations in the concentrations of certain flavor compounds. Higher amounts of the (E,E)- and (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal isomers and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (Furaneol®) had a positive influence on preference, whereas high concentrations of methional, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-phenylethanol or 2-isobutylthiazole had a negative influence. This fundamental knowledge will help plant breeders and growers to select cultivars with the highest consumer preference. This accomplishment aligns with Component 1 (Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement), Problem Area 1a (Definition and Basis for Quality) of NP 306 National Program by identifying and quantifying flavor constituents and correlating these results with sensory evaluation.
New value-added lentil products.
Lentil growers are in need of new value-added products in order to compete effectively with imported lentils. These problems can be ameliorated by development of new value-added foods with unique nutritional and sensory properties. Using extrusion technology, novel, high protein, lentil-based snacks and breakfast cereals were developed by researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, in collaboration with the Departments of Food Science and Human Nutrition, and Biosystems Engineering at Washington State University in support of growers represented by the U.S. Dry Pea and Lentil Council. The developed value-added lentil products received great acceptance by consumers during a large-scale taste-test at the Annual Lentil Festival in Pullman, WA. The products and technology developed under this accomplishment have been protected under Patent Serial No. 11/641,318, “Extruded Legumes”, which is in the process of being licensed. The commercialization of value-added lentil products will benefit U.S. growers and processors by increasing the demand for this commodity, and improving their ability to compete in the global marketplace. Component 2 (New Processes, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods and Biobased Products) of NP 306 was addressed by utilizing extrusion processing to produce new value-added foods with enhanced nutritional and sensory properties.
5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
|Number of New CRADAS||1|
|Number of the New MTAs (providing only)||1|
|Number of Non-Peer Reviewed Presentations and Proceedings||3|
|Number of Newspaper Articles and Other Presentations for Non-Science Audiences||8|
Hernandez-Izquierdo, V.M., Reid, D.S., Mc Hugh, T.H., Berrios, J.D., Krochta, J.M. 2008. Thermal Transitions and Extrusion of Glycerol-Plasticized Whey Protein Mixtures. Journal of Food Science. V73(4):169-175.
Lee, S-E., Kim, M-R., Kim, J-H., Takeoka, G.R., Kim, T-W., Park, B-S. 2008. Antimalarial Activity of Anthothecol Derived from Khaya anthotheca (Meliaceae). Phytomedicine 15:533-535.
Mayer, F., Takeoka, G.R., Buttery, R.G., Whitehand, L.C., Naim, M., Rabinowitch, H.D. 2008. Studies on the Aroma of Five Fresh Tomato Cultivars and the Precursors of the cis- and trans-4,5-Epoxy-(E)-2-Decenals and Methional. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56:3749-3757.
Takeoka, G.R., Dao, L.T. 2008. Anthocyanins. Book Chapter. In: Methods of Analysis for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, 2nd Edition, Hurst, J., Ed.: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group: Boca Raton. 247-276.
Takeoka, G.R., Dao, L.T., Rodriguez, D.M., Patterson, R. 2008. Headspace Volatiles of Scutellaria californica A. Gray Flowers. Journal of Essential Oil Research. 20:169-171.
Park, B-S., Son, D-J., Choi, W-S., Takeoka, G.R., Han, S.O., Kim, T-W., Lee, S-E. 2008. Antiplatelet Activities of Newly Synthesized Derivatives of Piperlongumine. Phytotherapy Research. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2432.