2007 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Isolate and characterize biologically active constituents in grains, legumes, nuts and vegetables, and their co-products. Optimize processing and storage conditions to enhance flavor and health-promoting phytonutrients. Add value to grains, legumes, and/or vegetables by extrusion technology using processing parameters and texture-modifying ingredients to control or enhance nutritional, textural and sensory properties.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Extrusion processing will be used to produce new value-added foods with enhanced nutritional and sensory properties. Extrusion operational parameters such as moisture content, temperature, feed rate, screw speed and screw element configuration will be optimized. Ingredients from corn, rice, potato, tapioca and apple will be added to legume flours to enhance the physiochemical properties of the extruded products. To understand the influence of processing on flavor, phytonutrients and antioxidant activity, qualitative and quantitative studies will be performed on the agricultural products before and after processing. Impact flavor constituents will be localized, characterized and quantified using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), calculation of odor units, and preparation of aroma models. Biosynthetic precursors of aroma compounds such as glycosides will be identified and model systems will be used to explore precursors of some aroma compounds formed during processing. The investigators will develop and apply capillary electrochromatography (CEC) to rapidly and efficiently characterize phytonutrients such as carotenoids in foods. Phytonutrients will be separated, characterized and quantified using HPLC-DAD, HPLC-MS and proton and carbon NMR spectroscopy. Antioxidant activity will be measured by the ability of extracts of specific constituents to scavenge the free radical DPPH and the ability to inhibit the oxidation of methyl linoleate and hexanal. Replaces 5325-41000-042-00D (12/04).
Value-added extruded products with improved textural and sensory attributes were produced with garbanzo beans. These products were convenient ready-to-eat snacks with a desirable crunchy texture, and high protein and high fiber contents which are associated with important health benefits. A novel patent covering the extrusion processing and formulations of various legumes products was submitted under the title, “Extruded Legumes”, Patent Serial No. 11/641,318. This patent is expected to be licensed to commercial partners to economically benefit our national growers and food processors.
Anthocyanins impart the desirable red, purple, mauve and blue colors in grapes and have received increasing attention due to their potential health benefits in reducing the risks of chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and Alzheimer’s disease. Determining the structure of the anthocyanins present in grapes is critical since their color, stability and nutritional benefits (absorption/metabolism) are strongly determined by their chemistry. We investigated the anthocyanin content and composition of the skin and flesh of new red grape cultivars developed by David Ramming (Research Supervisory Horticulturist, Parlier, CA). We found wide variation in the content and composition of anthocyanins in skin and flesh of different red grapes. The skin contained higher levels of acylated anthocyanins compared to the flesh. This information can be used to optimize the nutritional benefits and color quality and stability of grapes and their co-products.
Value-added garbanzo beans based foods. Development of new value added foods with enhanced nutritional and sensory properties are needed to create domestic and export markets for U.S. farm products. Formulations and processing parameters for the fabrication of value-added, novel and healthy extruded products from garbanzo beans were optimized by scientists in the PFR, Albany, CA. The coated and uncoated samples of ball shaped (breakfast cereal type product) and rod shaped products (snack type product) made from garbanzo bean based formulations were test tasted during the 2006 National Lentil Festival in Pullman, WA. The high liking of the extruded garbanzo bean products (above 80%) and their high buying preference (above 66%), represent good indicators of the acceptance of these type of products by the consumers and provide incentive for the potential commercialization of these products through growers associations and/or food manufacturers. This will help growers to compete favorably in international markets and to establish new domestic markets opportunities. This research supports NP306, Component II, New Processes, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods and Biobased Products, a) Products and b) New Product Technology.
5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
|Number of invention disclosures submitted||1|
|Number of patent applications filed||1|
|Number of non-peer reviewed presentations and proceedings||5|
Son, D-J., Lim, Y., Park, Y-H., Chang, S-K, Yun, Y-P., Hong, J-T., Takeoka, G.R., Lee, K-G., Lee, S-E, Kim, M-R., Kim, J-H, Park, B-S. 2006. Inhibitory effects of tabebuia impetiginosa inner bark extract on platelet aggregation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation through suppressions of arachidonic acid liberation and ERK1/2 MAPK activation. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 108(1):148-151.