2006 Annual Report
Attaining these objectives will provide benefits to farmers, processors, scientists and the public which will result in economic growth by increasing domestic and international consumption of underutilized commodities and their co-products. Factors responsible for the stability and instability of flavors and phytonutrients will be better understood allowing processors to control the nutritional and sensory properties of their products. The new analytical methodologies developed will permit more accurate quantification of existing phytonutrients and allow the identification of new phytonutrients in foods. Some phytonutrients in fruits, vegetables and grains are antioxidants that may also provide defenses against the degenerative diseases of aging such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune system decline, cataracts and brain dysfunction. Eighty percent of American children and adolescents, and sixty-eight percent of adults do not eat the five servings of fruits and vegetables per day recommended by the National Cancer Institute and the USDA Dietary Guidelines. Optimizing phytonutrient intake by incorporating raw materials high in phytonutrient content into new appealing products could have a major impact on human health at a low cost. Novel patentable process improvements are anticipated which can be licensed to commercial partners to economical benefit of our national growers and food processors. Consumers will also benefit through the availability of new shelf-stable foods with improved nutritional and flavor qualities.
This program falls within Component 1 (Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement) and Component 2 (New Processes, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods and Biobased Products) of NP 306 (Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products). This project includes elements of Problem Area 1b (Methods to Evaluate and Predict Quality) addressed by developing new analytical methodology to rapidly and efficiently characterize phytonutrients in foods; Problem Area 2a (New Product Technology) addressed by the isolation and characterization of biologically active constituents in agricultural commodities; and Problem Area 2c (New and Improved Processes and Feedstocks) addressed by utilizing extrusion processing to produce new value-added foods with enhanced nutritional and sensory properties.
FY07 Complete aroma precursor studies. Complete interfacing of CEC with mass spectrometer. Complete long-term feeding studies on almond hull triterpenoids. Scale up commercial production of lentil snacks. Perform consumer evaluation studies and define product attributes. Modify and/or adapt conventional and non-conventional extrusion technologies to preserve flavors and phytonutrients in the extrudates. Complete studies on the effect of extrusion and other thermal processing on the composition and concentration of phenolics.
FY08-FY09 Complete studies on effects of processing on aroma precursors and flavor. Finish studies, transfer technology on grape and tomato cartenoids. Finish studies, transfer technology on almond hull triterpenoids. Complete technology transfer through the commercial introduction of lentil snacks into the marketplace. Complete studies on the effect of extrusion and other thermal processing on the composition and concentration of phenolics in lentil snacks and wild rice.
Consumers desire new, natural cholesterol-lowering agents and legume protein isolates are one potential source of these health-promoting compounds. Researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, worked with an industrial cooperator on a Specific Cooperative Agreement, 5325-41000-050-01S, entitled "Concentration of Proteins from Legumes on a Pilot Scale". Preliminary studies on the extraction, concentration and isolation of dry bean protein provided basic information for improvement and potential scale up of the process. Optimization of the process will produce protein isolates to feed animals and compared to soy and casein protein isolates in terms of their cholesterol-lowering potential. This research addressed Component 2 (New Processed, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods) of NP306.
Discovery of a novel anthocyanin in Beluga lentils – The prevalence of various oxidative and inflammatory diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity and cancer, in the U.S. is a major health care issue. Anthocyanins exhibit both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as the ability to decrease capillary fragility. Researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, identified a new anthocyanin in Beluga black lentils through a collaboration with Kagawa University in Japan. This anthocyanin has a unique structure that makes it very labile to acid hydrolysis. This research demonstrated the importance of low acid cooking in order to preserve this nutrient during processing and retain its health benefits for consumers. This research addressed Component 1 (Quality Characterization, Preservation and Enhancement) of NP 306.
Our pilot-scale extrusion facility has been toured by graduate students from local universities, by national and international scientists, and by local growers and processor groups. Demonstrations and information about the scope of our extrusion research work have been shared with them, opening the door for future collaborative work with these individuals and organizations. Results of our extrusion research work are available to fellow scientists and industry through scientific presentations at national annual meetings and through journal publications.
Chen, D., Fujinari, E. M., Simonis, U., Takeoka, G. R., Hobbs, C. R. 2006. Reversed-phase HPLC separations of biologically active extract by selective optimization approach. HPLC 2006, 30th International Symposium on High Performance Liquid Phase Separations and Related Techniques. Poster P-404-Th. Log Number: 191321.
Berrios, J. De J., Pan, J. 2006. Reduction of oligossacharides in raw and extruded dry bean flours by enzymatic treatment. American Association of Cereal Chemists Meeting.
Patil, R. T., Berrios, J. De J., Tang, J., Swanson B. G., Pan, J. 2006. Effect of cutter speed on the quality characteristics of legume extrudates. American Association of Cereal Chemists Meeting.
Patil, R. T., Berrios, J. De J., Tang, J., Swanson B.G., Pan, J. 2006. Effect of screw speed and feed moisture on the residence time distribution of legume formulation in a twin screw. American Association of Cereal Chemists Meeting.
Rocio G. Hernández-Nava, R. G., Luis A. Bello-Pérez, L. A., Berrios, J. De J., Pan, J. 2006. Chemical characteristics of spaghetti fabricated with different levels of plantain starch addition. American Association of Cereal Chemists Meeting.
Rocio G. Hernández-Nava, R. G., Luis A. Bello-Pérez, L. A., Berrios, J. De J., Pan, J. 2006. Spaghetti with plantain starch addition: Cooking characteristics and sensory evaluation. American Association of Cereal Chemists Meeting.
Yokoyama, W. H., Berrios J. De J. 2006. Reduction of plasma and liver cholesterol in hamsters by extruded legumes. American Association of Cereal Chemists Meeting.
Takeoka, G. R., Dao. L. T., Felker, P. 2005. Volatile constituents of mesquite (Prosopis) pods. International Chemical Congress of Pacific Basin Societies, Pacifichem 2005, Agrochemistry, Paper 0333. Log Number: 181543.
Takeoka, G. R., Fujinari, E. M., Chen, D., Hobbs, C. R. 2006. The optimization of reversed-phase separations of biologically active extracts. 57th Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, Poster 200-42P. Log Number: 187101.
Takeoka, G.R., Dao, L.T., Wong, R.Y., Harden, L.A. 2005. Identification of Benzalkonium Chloride in Commercial Grapefruit Seed Extracts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 53:7630-7636.
J.D. Berrios, 2006. Extrusion Cooking of Legumes: Dry Bean Flours. Encyclopedia of Agricultural, Food, and Biological Engineering. DOI: 10.1081:1-8.
Kahlon, T.S., Berrios, J.D., Smith, G.E., Pan, J. 2006. Extrusion conditions modify hypocholesterolemic properties of wheat bran fed to hamsters. Cereal Chemistry 83(2):152-156.
Kahlon, T.S., Berrios, J.D., Smith, G.E., Pan, J. 2006. In vitro bile acid binding capacity of wheat bran extruded at five specific mechanical energy levels. Cereal Chemistry, 83(2):157-160.