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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: CHARACTERIZATION AND CONTROL OF NUTRITIONAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF RAW AND PROCESSED GRAINS, LEGUMES, AND VEGETABLES

Location: Healthy Processed Foods Research

2006 Annual Report


1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? Why does it matter?
With the development of the worldwide marketplace and changes in farm subsidy programs, domestic farmers are encountering increased competition from overseas producers of grains, grain co-products, legumes, and other agricultural products. The results for the farmers are lower profit margins and reduced demand, and for the country, lower agricultural exports to contribute to our balance of trade. These problems can be ameliorated by development of new value-added foods with unique nutritional and sensory properties. Our first objective is to add value to grains, legumes, and/or vegetables by extrusion technology using processing parameters and texture modifying ingredients to control or enhance their nutritional, textural and sensory properties. Our second objective is to isolate and identify biologically active constituents in grains, legumes, nuts and vegetables and their co-products. The development of new healthful and tasty foods requires knowledge about the flavor precursors and phytonutrients present, and the effects of processing and subsequent storage on flavor and phytonutrient levels. Knowledge determined in this project should lead to the development of new processing technologies which enhance levels of beneficial flavors and phytonutrients at little extra cost.

Attaining these objectives will provide benefits to farmers, processors, scientists and the public which will result in economic growth by increasing domestic and international consumption of underutilized commodities and their co-products. Factors responsible for the stability and instability of flavors and phytonutrients will be better understood allowing processors to control the nutritional and sensory properties of their products. The new analytical methodologies developed will permit more accurate quantification of existing phytonutrients and allow the identification of new phytonutrients in foods. Some phytonutrients in fruits, vegetables and grains are antioxidants that may also provide defenses against the degenerative diseases of aging such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune system decline, cataracts and brain dysfunction. Eighty percent of American children and adolescents, and sixty-eight percent of adults do not eat the five servings of fruits and vegetables per day recommended by the National Cancer Institute and the USDA Dietary Guidelines. Optimizing phytonutrient intake by incorporating raw materials high in phytonutrient content into new appealing products could have a major impact on human health at a low cost. Novel patentable process improvements are anticipated which can be licensed to commercial partners to economical benefit of our national growers and food processors. Consumers will also benefit through the availability of new shelf-stable foods with improved nutritional and flavor qualities.

This program falls within Component 1 (Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement) and Component 2 (New Processes, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods and Biobased Products) of NP 306 (Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products). This project includes elements of Problem Area 1b (Methods to Evaluate and Predict Quality) addressed by developing new analytical methodology to rapidly and efficiently characterize phytonutrients in foods; Problem Area 2a (New Product Technology) addressed by the isolation and characterization of biologically active constituents in agricultural commodities; and Problem Area 2c (New and Improved Processes and Feedstocks) addressed by utilizing extrusion processing to produce new value-added foods with enhanced nutritional and sensory properties.


2.List by year the currently approved milestones (indicators of research progress)
FY06 Complete odor unit calculations and aroma model studies. Complete optimzation studies on grape and tomato samples. Complete in vitro studies on almond hull triterpenoids. Identify and begin collaboration with a commercial cooperator interested in marketing extruded lentil products. Performs sensory evaluation and public surveys on the product's acceptability. Monitor changes in phenolic composition and concentration during processing of lentils and wild rice. Complete antioxidant studies of extracts and phenolics from raw and processed lentils and wild rice.

FY07 Complete aroma precursor studies. Complete interfacing of CEC with mass spectrometer. Complete long-term feeding studies on almond hull triterpenoids. Scale up commercial production of lentil snacks. Perform consumer evaluation studies and define product attributes. Modify and/or adapt conventional and non-conventional extrusion technologies to preserve flavors and phytonutrients in the extrudates. Complete studies on the effect of extrusion and other thermal processing on the composition and concentration of phenolics.

FY08-FY09 Complete studies on effects of processing on aroma precursors and flavor. Finish studies, transfer technology on grape and tomato cartenoids. Finish studies, transfer technology on almond hull triterpenoids. Complete technology transfer through the commercial introduction of lentil snacks into the marketplace. Complete studies on the effect of extrusion and other thermal processing on the composition and concentration of phenolics in lentil snacks and wild rice.


4a.List the single most significant research accomplishment during FY 2006.
Value-added dry pea based foods – Dry Pea growers are in need of a new value-added outlet for their crops to compete effectively with imported dry peas. Formulations and processing parameters for the fabrication of value-added, novel and healthy extruded products from dry peas were optimized by researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, in collaboration with Washington State University, funded by the U.S. Dry Pea and Lentil Council. The coated and uncoated samples made from dry pea-based formulations were taste-tested during the 2006 Washington State Lentil Festival in Pullman, WA. The high positive consumer response of the extruded dry pea products (more than 80% liked the product) and their high buying preference (above 72%), represent good indicators of the acceptance of these type of products by the consumers and provide incentive for the potential commercialization of these products through growers associations and/or food manufacturers. This will help growers to compete favorably in international markets and to establish new domestic markets opportunities. This accomplishment aligns with Component 2 (New Processes, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods and Biobased Products) of NP 306 National Program by utilizing extrusion processing to produce new value-added dry pea based foods with enhanced nutritional and sensory properties.


4b.List other significant research accomplishment(s), if any.
Natural antibacterial agents – Alternatives to synthetic antibacterial agents are highly desired by consumers. The use of plants and/or their constituents offer considerable potential as alternatives to synthetic antibacterial agents. Researchers from the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA and Seoul National University (Korea) investigated the common spice, turmeric, and identified three curcuminoids, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, which were found to be potent inhibitors of sortase A. It is believed that sortase A inhibitors act as anti-infective agents and disrupt the pathogenesis of bacterial infections without affecting microbial viability. We believe that curcumin has potential for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections via inhibition of sortase A activity. This research addresses Component 2 (New Processes, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods and Biobased Products) of NP 306.

Consumers desire new, natural cholesterol-lowering agents and legume protein isolates are one potential source of these health-promoting compounds. Researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, worked with an industrial cooperator on a Specific Cooperative Agreement, 5325-41000-050-01S, entitled "Concentration of Proteins from Legumes on a Pilot Scale". Preliminary studies on the extraction, concentration and isolation of dry bean protein provided basic information for improvement and potential scale up of the process. Optimization of the process will produce protein isolates to feed animals and compared to soy and casein protein isolates in terms of their cholesterol-lowering potential. This research addressed Component 2 (New Processed, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods) of NP306.


4c.List significant activities that support special target populations.
None.


4d.Progress report.
None.


5.Describe the major accomplishments to date and their predicted or actual impact.
New value-added lentil products – Lentil growers are in need of a new value-added outlet for their crops in order to compete effectively with imported lentils. Using extrusion technology, novel, high protein, lentil-based snacks and breakfast cereals were developed by researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA. These products received great acceptance by consumers during a large-scale taste-test at the Annual Lentil Festival in Pullman, WA. This technology and these products were developed through a collaboration with the Departments of Food Science and Human Nutrition, and Biosystems Engineering at Washington State University in support of growers represented by the U.S. Dry Pea and Lentil Council. This research is expected to lead to commercial value-added lentil products that benefit U.S. growers and processors by increasing demand for this commodity, and improving their ability to compete in the global marketplace. Component 2 (New Processed, New Uses, and Value-Added Foods) of NP306 was addressed by this accomplishment.

Discovery of a novel anthocyanin in Beluga lentils – The prevalence of various oxidative and inflammatory diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity and cancer, in the U.S. is a major health care issue. Anthocyanins exhibit both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as the ability to decrease capillary fragility. Researchers in the Processed Foods Research Unit, Albany, CA, identified a new anthocyanin in Beluga black lentils through a collaboration with Kagawa University in Japan. This anthocyanin has a unique structure that makes it very labile to acid hydrolysis. This research demonstrated the importance of low acid cooking in order to preserve this nutrient during processing and retain its health benefits for consumers. This research addressed Component 1 (Quality Characterization, Preservation and Enhancement) of NP 306.


6.What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end-user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products?
Research information and samples of prototypes of value-added, expanded extruded snack products from dry peas were presented to a legume grower association and visitor scientists at national and international meetings. Improved expanded and flavored extruded dry pea snacks were presented and evaluated by the attendees of a State Festival this year. A revised invention on extrusion technology of value-added expanded extruded lentil snack products was submitted for patent consideration this year. Additionally, an invention disclosure on the production of functional foods from potato based extrudates was accepted by the ARS patent committee. Two reimbursable trust agreements support this research program. In addition, a trust agreement with a commodity organization was recently entered into to evaluate the antioxidants and phytonutrients in wild rice.

Our pilot-scale extrusion facility has been toured by graduate students from local universities, by national and international scientists, and by local growers and processor groups. Demonstrations and information about the scope of our extrusion research work have been shared with them, opening the door for future collaborative work with these individuals and organizations. Results of our extrusion research work are available to fellow scientists and industry through scientific presentations at national annual meetings and through journal publications.


7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below).
Agricultural Research/April 2006: “Black Lentils Rich in New Nutrient.”

Chen, D., Fujinari, E. M., Simonis, U., Takeoka, G. R., Hobbs, C. R. 2006. Reversed-phase HPLC separations of biologically active extract by selective optimization approach. HPLC 2006, 30th International Symposium on High Performance Liquid Phase Separations and Related Techniques. Poster P-404-Th. Log Number: 191321.

Berrios, J. De J., Pan, J. 2006. Reduction of oligossacharides in raw and extruded dry bean flours by enzymatic treatment. American Association of Cereal Chemists Meeting.

Patil, R. T., Berrios, J. De J., Tang, J., Swanson B. G., Pan, J. 2006. Effect of cutter speed on the quality characteristics of legume extrudates. American Association of Cereal Chemists Meeting.

Patil, R. T., Berrios, J. De J., Tang, J., Swanson B.G., Pan, J. 2006. Effect of screw speed and feed moisture on the residence time distribution of legume formulation in a twin screw. American Association of Cereal Chemists Meeting.

Rocio G. Hernández-Nava, R. G., Luis A. Bello-Pérez, L. A., Berrios, J. De J., Pan, J. 2006. Chemical characteristics of spaghetti fabricated with different levels of plantain starch addition. American Association of Cereal Chemists Meeting.

Rocio G. Hernández-Nava, R. G., Luis A. Bello-Pérez, L. A., Berrios, J. De J., Pan, J. 2006. Spaghetti with plantain starch addition: Cooking characteristics and sensory evaluation. American Association of Cereal Chemists Meeting.

Yokoyama, W. H., Berrios J. De J. 2006. Reduction of plasma and liver cholesterol in hamsters by extruded legumes. American Association of Cereal Chemists Meeting.

Takeoka, G. R., Dao. L. T., Felker, P. 2005. Volatile constituents of mesquite (Prosopis) pods. International Chemical Congress of Pacific Basin Societies, Pacifichem 2005, Agrochemistry, Paper 0333. Log Number: 181543.

Takeoka, G. R., Fujinari, E. M., Chen, D., Hobbs, C. R. 2006. The optimization of reversed-phase separations of biologically active extracts. 57th Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, Poster 200-42P. Log Number: 187101.


Review Publications
Park, B-S., Kim, J-G., Kim, M-R., Lee, S-E., Takeoka, G.R., Oh, K-B., Kim, J-H. 2005. Curcuma longa L. Constituents Inhibit Sortase A and Staphylococcus aureus Cell Adhesion to Fibronectin. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53:9005-9009.

Park, B., Lee, H., Lee, S., Piao, X., Takeoka, G.R., Wong, R.Y., Ahn, Y., Kim, J. 2005. Antibacterial activity of tabebuia impetiginosa martius ex dc (taheebo) against helicobacter pylori. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 105:255-262.

Takeoka, G.R., Dao, L.T., Wong, R.Y., Harden, L.A. 2005. Identification of Benzalkonium Chloride in Commercial Grapefruit Seed Extracts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 53:7630-7636.

J.D. Berrios, 2006. Extrusion Cooking of Legumes: Dry Bean Flours. Encyclopedia of Agricultural, Food, and Biological Engineering. DOI: 10.1081:1-8.

Kahlon, T.S., Berrios, J.D., Smith, G.E., Pan, J. 2006. Extrusion conditions modify hypocholesterolemic properties of wheat bran fed to hamsters. Cereal Chemistry 83(2):152-156.

Kahlon, T.S., Berrios, J.D., Smith, G.E., Pan, J. 2006. In vitro bile acid binding capacity of wheat bran extruded at five specific mechanical energy levels. Cereal Chemistry, 83(2):157-160.

Last Modified: 4/17/2014
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