Location: Natural Products Utilization Research
2008 Annual Report
Thirty-eight basil accessions were obtained from the ARS National Plant Germplasm Collection and cultivated throughout Mississippi to demonstrate that with supplemental crop irrigation and nutrients, large-scale basil producers could successfully compete in the world basil oil marketplace. The dry basil yield from all 38 accessions was relatively high, most of them exceeding 3,500 pounds per acre, and were generally consistent with yields reported from other studies. In addition, the accessions contained a range of different essential oil compositions and essential oil volumes. The Mississippi basil crops did not appear to be susceptible to insect pests that typically infest basil varieties grown in southeast Europe, which is a significant center of production. The team harvested the basil crops three times during the growing season, when the plants were in full bloom, and observed that harvesting practices affected essential oil content and herbage production. Sweet basil harvests yielded higher levels of essential oils and herbage after a second and third cut, but holy basils (O. sanctum L.) exhibited increased oil and herbage yields with the third cut. All the essential oils were tested for antimicrobial, antimalarial, antileishmanial and cytotoxic activities. No antimicrobial or antimalarial activity was observed. However, all the essential oils were found to inhibit the growth of Leishmania donovani promastigotes. Minor basil oil constituents (+)-d-cadinene, 3-carene, a-humulene, citral, and (-)-trans-caryophyllene were responsible for the antileishmanial activity, while other constituents were ineffective.
This accomplishment addresses NP 306 Problem Area 2a. New Product Technology (Objective: Identify and characterize functional compounds and components in agricultural commodities and their byproducts).2. Discovery of pterostilbene as a natural product that can improve cognitive and motor functions in ageing.
As the population of aged individuals is increasing, problems associated with neurodegenerative disorders are also increasing. Indeed, Alzheimer's disease is listed by the Centers for Disease Control as one of the leading causes of death in the United States. In collaboration with scientists at the USDA ARS Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, a feeding study was conducted to investigate whether pterostilbene can improve performance and memory decrements associated with ageing. Aged rats fed with diet supplemented with pterostilbene showed improved performance, assessed using Morris water maze (MWM) test, as compared to control group fed with diet without pterostilbene. Pterostilbene was found in the hippocampus of the rats. A statistically significant correlation was found between the level of pterostilbene in the hippocampus and performance in the MWM test; i.e., there was a decrease in the latency and distance to find the platform in the MWM test with increased pterostilbene level in the hippocampus, the region of the brain most associated with learning and memory. Pterostilbene is known to occur in blueberries as well as in grapes. While blueberry extracts have previously been demonstrated to reverse performance decrements in aged rats, no single blueberry constituent has been shown to give these effects as effectively as the whole extract. This research provided the first results that pterostilbene can accumulate in brain tissues and at low doses can reverse cognitive and motor function deficits in aged rats. This discovery provides further basis for the development of Vaccinium species and/or grapes as sources of this nutraceutical.
This accomplishment addresses NP 306, Problem Area 1d. (Objective: Enhance nutritional value of agricultural products).
Zheljazkov, V.D., Callahan, A.N., Cantrell, C.L. 2007. Yield and Oil Composition of Thirty-Eight Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Accessions Grown in Mississippi. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56(1):241-245.
Zheljazkov, V.D., Cantrell, C.L., Tekwani, B., Khan, S.I. 2008. Content, Composition and Bioactivity of the Essential Oils of Three Basil Genotypes as a Function of Harvesting. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56:380-385.
Favi, F., Cantrell, C.L., Mebrahtu, T., Kraemer, M.E. 2008. Leaf Peltate Glandular Trichomes of Vernonia galamensis ssp. galamensis var. ethiopica Gilbert: Development, Ultrastructure and Chemical Composition. International Journal of Plant Science. 169(5):605-614.
Evidente, A., Cimmino, A., Andolfi, A., Vurro, M., Zonno, M.C., Cantrell, C.L., Motta, A. 2007. Phyllostictines A-D, Oxazatricycloalkenones Produced by Phyllosticta cirsii, A Potential Mycoherbicide for Cirsium arvense Biocontrol. Tetrahedron. 64:1612-1619.
Zheljazkov, V.D., Cantrell, C.L., Evans, W.B., Ebelhar, M., Coker, C. 2008. Yield and Composition of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum sanctum L. Grown at Four Locations. HortScience. 43(3):737-741.
Kobaisy, M., Cantrell, C.L., Mims, A.B., Lax, A.R., Tellez, M., Osbrink, W.L. 2008. Activity of 1,4-Benzoquinones Against Formosan Subterranean Termites, Coptotermes formosanus. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56:4021-4026.
Vassilyev, J., Gemedjiyeva, N., Sitpaeva, G., Cantrell, C.L., Mamonov, L. 2008. Preparation of Plant Samples for Phytochemical Research and the Study of Their Biological Activities. Book Chapter. In: Introduction to Phytochemical Investigations and Discovering Biological Activities of Phytogenous Substances. Eds. B.M. Butin and B.A. Sarsenbaev. Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Almaty, Kazakhstan. pp. 42-47.
Muzychkina, L., Korulkin, D., Zavadskiy, V., Cantrell, C.L. 2008. Extraction, Separation, Identification and Quantity Analysis of Plant Substances. Book Chapter. Vassilyev, J., Gemedjiyeva, N., Sitpaeva, G., Cantrell, C.L., Mamonov, L. 2008. Preparation of Plant Samples for Phytochemical Research and the Study of Their Biological Activities. Book Chapter. In: Introduction to Phytochemical Investigations and Discovering Biological Activities of Phytogenous Substances. Eds. B.M. Butin and B.A. Sarsenbaev. Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Almaty, Kazakhstan. pp. 87-126.
Cantrell, C.L., Mamonov, L., Vassilyev, J., Mukanova, G., Achmetova, D. 2008. Revealing of Biological Activity in Crude Extracts, Seperated Fractions, Groups of Chemical Substance and Individual Compounds. Book Chapter. In: Introduction to Phytochemical Investigations and Discovering Biological Activities of Phytogenous Substances. Eds. B.M. Butin and B.A. Sarsenbaev. Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Almaty, Kazakhstan. pp. 127-157.
Zavadskiy, V., Gemedjiyeva, N., Mamonov, L., Cantrell, C.L. 2008. Key Rules of the Safety Precautions. Book Chapter. In: Introduction to Phytochemical Investigations and Discovering Biological Activities of Phytogenous Substances. Eds. B.M. Butin and B.A. Sarsenbaev. Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Almaty, Kazakhstan. pp. 170-189.
Cichocki, M., Paluszczak, J., Szaefer, H., Piechowiak, A., Rimando, A.M., Baer-Dubowska, W. 2008. Pterostilbene Is Equally Potent as Resveratrol in Inhibiting 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate Activated NFkappaB, AP-1, COX-2 and iNOS in Mouse Epidermis. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. 52(S1):S62-S70.
Mizuno, C.S., Ma, G., Khan, S., Patny, A., Avery, M.A., Rimando, A.M. 2008. Design, Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Docking Studies of Pterostilbene Analogs Inside PPARa. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry. 16:3800-3808.
Remsberg, C.M., Yanez, J.A., Ohgami, Y., Vega-Villa, K.R., Rimando, A.M., Davies, N.M. 2008. Pharmacometrics of Pterostilbene: Pre-Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism, Anti-Cancer, Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Oxidant, and Analgesic Activity. Phytotherapy Research. 22(2):169-179.
Cantrell, C.L., Duke, S.O., Fronczek, F.R., Osbrink, W.L., Mamonov, L.K., Vassilyev, J.I., Wedge, D.E., Dayan, F.E. 2007. Phytotoxic Eremophilanes from Ligularia macrophylla. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. v. 55:10656-10663.
Cantrell, C.L., Case, B.P., Mena, E., Kniffin, T.M., Duke, S.O., Wedge, D.E. 2008. Isolation and Identification of Antifungal Fatty Acids from the Basidiomycete Gomphus floccosus. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56:5062-5068.
Chen, J., Cantrell, C.L., Duke, S.O., Allen, M.L. 2008. Repellency of Callicarpenal and Intermedeol Against Workers of Imported Fire Ants. Journal of Economic Entomology.101(2):265-271 (2008).