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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: CHEMISTRY OF NATURAL PRODUCTS FOR PEST MANAGEMENT AND CROP DEVELOPMENT

Location: Natural Products Utilization Research

2007 Annual Report


1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Objective.
1)Identify bioactive natural compounds for herbicidal, insecticidal, fungicidal, antimicrobial and nutraceutical use from Vaccinium species, allelopathic rice varieties, and other sources. Objective.
2)Determine and manipulate the biosynthetic pathways of bioactive compound(s) in blueberry and rice.


1b.Approach (from AD-416)
General procedures for isolation of secondary metabolites will be employed such as solvent extractions, distillations, column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Identification of biologically active compounds will be done using spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, MS, NMR). Extracts, fractions, and pure compounds will be tested for phytotoxic, antifungal, algaecidal and/or termiticidal activities. Phytotoxicity, antifungal and algaecidal assays being carried out routinely at NPURU will be utilized. Activity against the Formosan subterranean termite will be performed at the USDA-ARS, Formosan Subterranean Research Unit, New Orleans, LA. Biosynthetic studies will be performed by feeding with 13C-labelled precursors and incorporation will be determined by 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Molecular biology experiments will be performed using standard protocols.


4.Accomplishments
1. Pterostilbene was found to be a colon cancer preventive natural product. Colon cancer is the second most prevalent form of cancer. Dietary (especially fruits and vegetables) intervention has been shown as an effective measure to reduce colon cancer risk. Pterostilbene, found in Vaccinium species (e.g., blueberries) and grapes, was shown to prevent colon cancer in rat model of colon cancer. Pterostilbene was shown in earlier studies to have lipid-lowering property. Discovery of its colon-cancer preventive activity provides further basis for the development of Vaccinium species and/or of grapes as sources of this nutraceutical. This accomplishment addresses NP306, Problem Area 1d. Preservation and/or Enhancement of Quality and Marketability (Objective: Enhance nutritional value of agricultural products).

2. Termiticides. Devastation caused by Formosan subterranean termites in the North America has been estimated to be one billion dollars a year. Selective, environmentally friendly, biodegradable termite controlling agents are needed to replace currently used synthetic termiticides that are being banned by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) due to environmental/health concerns. We have isolated and identified a natural product from a plant that is moderately active against Formosan termites. A series of analogs (~28) were synthesized and some of these compounds exhibited significantly higher termite mortalities (100% at 0.5% wt/wt). If adopted by industry, these compounds would have significant market share should they prove safer/more effective than current chemistries. Savings to homeowners by reduced damage to structures by the termite(s) would also be substantial. This accomplishment addresses NP 306 Problem Area 2a. New Product Technology (Objective: Identify and characterize functional compounds and components in agricultural commodities and their byproducts).

3. Blueberry skins lower lipid levels. High levels of lipids in the blood have been associated with cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in the U.S. Blueberry skins were shown to lower the levels of LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in hypercholesterelomic hamsters. The skins were analyzed and found to contain phenolic compounds that have been reported to have lipid-lowering properties. This study provides information on the use of agricultural waste product for health benefits. This accomplishment addresses NP306 Problem area 2b. New Uses for Agricultural By-products (Objective: Identify and characterize by-product components for potential value-added products).


5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
None.


6.Technology Transfer

Number of new CRADAs and MTAs3
Number of active CRADAs and MTAs6
Number of patent applications filed2
Number of non-peer reviewed presentations and proceedings20
Number of newspaper articles and other presentations for non-science audiences15

Review Publications
Cantrell, C.L., Mamonov, L.K., Ryabushkina, N., Kustova, T.S., Fischer, N.H., Schrader, K. 2007. Bioassay-guided Isolation of Anti-Algal Constituents from Inula Helenium and Limonium Myrianthum. Archives for Organic Chemistry (ARKIVOC). vii:65-75.

Medina-Bolivar, F., Condori, J., Rimando, A.M., Hubstenberger, J., Shelton, K., O'Keefe, S.F., Bennett, S., Dolan, M.C. 2007. Production and Secretion of Resveratrol in Hairy Root Cultures of Peanuts. Phytochemistry. 68(14):1992-2003.

Mikstacka, R., Przybylska, D., Rimando, A.M., Baer-Dubowska, W. 2007. Inhibition of Human Recombinant Cytochromes P450 CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 by Trans-resveratrol Methyl Ethers. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. 51(5):517-524.

Nandula, V.K., Reddy, K.N., Rimando, A.M., Duke, S.O., Poston, D.H. 2007. Glyphosate resistant and susceptible soybean (Glycine max) and canola (Brassica napus) dose response and metabolism relationships with glyphosate. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55:3540-3545.

Wu, H., Du Toit, E.S., Reinhardt, C.F., Rimando, A.M., Van Der Kooy, F., Meyer, J. 2007. The Phenolic, 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid, is an Endogenous Regulator of Rooting in Protea Cynaroides. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation. 52(3):207-215.

Carroll, J.F., Cantrell, C.L., Klun, J.A., Kramer, M.H. 2007. Repellency of two terpenoid compounds isolated from Callicarpa americana (Lamiaceae) against Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum ticks. Experimental and Applied Acarology. 41:215-224.

Pridgeon, J.W., Meepagala, K.M., Becnel, J.J., Clark, G.G., Pereira, R.M., Linthicum, K. 2007. Structure-Activity Relationships of 33 Piperidines as Adulticides against Aedes aegypti(Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology. 44(2):263-269.

Suh, N., Paul, S., Hao, X., Simi, B., Xiao, H., Rimando, A.M., Reddy, B.S. 2007. Pterostilbene, an Active Constituent of Blueberries, Suppresses Aberrant Crypt Foci Formation in the Azoxymethane-Induced Colon Carcinogenesis Model in Rats. Clinical Cancer Research. 13(1):350-355.

Zheljazkov, V.D., Cantrell, C.L., Ebelhar, M., Coker, C., Evans, W.B. 2007. Quality Assessment and Yield of Baikal Skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis) Grown at Multiple Locations Across Mississippi. HortScience. 42(5):1183-1187.

Last Modified: 4/18/2014
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