Location: Natural Products Utilization Research
2005 Annual Report
There is a need to search for alternative pesticides that will meet safety standards. Natural products are tapped, as they present not only a huge potential in the discovery of bioactive compounds in general, but is probably the best source of novel structures with novel modes of action (of paramount importance in the development of active compounds against organisms resistant to currently used pesticides).
In addition to being a source of pest management agents, natural products are also a rich source of nutraceuticals. Natural compounds imparting health benefits can be used to substitute or complement synthetic medicinal agents. Nutraceutical properties of natural products can be utilized to enhance the value of existing crops or to develop alternative crops.
The primary goal of this project is to discover and identify natural products with pest management and/or nutraceutical properties. A secondary goal is to support the development of crops with enhanced capability to synthesize the herbicidal, insecticidal, fungicidal, and/or nutraceutical constituent.
Year 2 (FY 2005) Continue identification of allelochemicals in allelopathic rice varieties. Continue work on identification of natural compounds for activity against the Formosan subterranean termite. Develop technology to enhance resistance of blueberries to fungal pathogens through transformation of binary vector containing genes that will synthesize disease-resistance conferring compound(s). Continue work to discover constituents for pesticidal and nutraceutical use. Develop new methods and analytical procedures to identify phytochemicals, neutraceuticals, and other biologically active agents.
Year 3 (FY 2006) Perform chemical analysis of disease-resistance conferring compounds in transformed plants. Determine biosynthesis of rice allelochemicals through microarray technologies. Determine enzyme activity, as related to synthesis of known allelochemicals in rice. Isolate and identify antifungal compounds from Lasiodiplodia species. Continue studies on the mosquito repellent constituents isolated from the American beautyberry. Perform additional repellency studies using callicarpenal to determine its potential use as a broad spectrum insect repellent. Continue work to discover constituents for pesticidal and nutraceutical use. Develop new methods and analytical procedures to identify phytochemicals, neutraceuticals, and other biologically active agents.
Year 4 (FY 2007) Develop techonology for use of identified active pesticide in field applications. Continue work to discover constituents for pesticidal and nutraceutical use. Develop new methods and analytical procedures to identify phytochemicals, neutraceuticals, and other biologically active agents.
Year 5 (FY 2008) Continue development of techonology for the use of identified highly active pesticides in field applications. Transfer techonology for the use of identified highly active pesticides in field applications. Continue work to discover constituents for pesticidal and nutraceutical use. Develop new methods and analytical procedures to identify phytochemicals, neutraceuticals, and other biologically active agents.
Apiol, extracted from wild celery (Ligusticum hultenii), cnicin, isolated from spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa), and vulgarone B, from Artemisia douglasiana, were found to be highly active against the invasive Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus.
Rimando, A.M. et al. "Pterostilbene as a new Agonist for the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha.” Provisional patent filed 8/19/04. Formal patent application in process.
Kumudini Meepagla’s work on natural termiticides: “Natural plant extracts seem deadly to Formosan termites,” appeared in Golden Harvest Organics, http://www.ghorganics.com 05/29/05; The New Farm, http://www.newfarm.org/research/2005/apr05/plant.shtml, 4/26/05.
Agnes Rimando’s work on pterostilbene’s cholesterol lowering properties and its occurrence in blueberries has attracted international attention. Her research was reported on ABC, BBC, CBS, CNN, FOX, NBC and other major TV and radio news stations, and ACS informed her that more than 100 television stations mentioned her research, as of August 24, 2004. She began to get reports from her colleagues that her research was being reported on radio stations in Canada, Chile, Poland, etc. Her work was written up in several major U.S. newspapers, e.g., USA Today, The New York Times, The Boston Globe, The San Diego Union Tribune, etc., as well as Canadian newspapers (e.g., Montreal Gazette, Ottawa Citizen, Vancouver Sun), British newspapers (Birmingham Post, Daily Mail, Daily Telegraph, the Guardian), and many others throughout the world (e.g., China, Japan, Italy, Mexico, Pakistan, Russia, etc.).
Many websites provide information on her work: e.g., ABCNews.com, BBC.co.uk, Cybermed.it (Italian), betterhumans.com, BioToday.com (Japanese), Chinaview.cn (China), drkoop.com, FoodAndDrinkEurope.com, foodlineweb.co.uk, FoodNavigator.com (France), Forbes.com, Forskning.no (Norway), HealthCentral.com, Health.In.Gr (Greek), healthtalk.ca (Canada), healthday.com, heartcenteronline.com, Internet Broadcasting Systems (websites for many local television stations), IC Wales (The national website of Wales), lef.org, MedicalNewsToday.com, Medlineplus.com, medicalnewstoday.com, ScienceBog.com, WebMd.com, MSNBC.com, news-medical.net, Officialwire.com (Washington, D.C.), PRAVDA.Ru (news in Russia), pressetext.austria (Austrian), Reutershealth.com, wissenschaft.de (German), WebMd.com.
Several other media resources that describe her work are: Alternative Magazine - Nov/Dec 2004 issue, ARS website, ARS Food and Nutrition News, EurekaAlert!, G.I.T. Laboratory Journal (Germany) - Dec. 2004 issue, Men's Life Best Life magazine - Dec. 2004 issue, Reuters, Scripps Howard News Service.
It was in the Nov. 14, 2004 Parade Magazine issue and listed in the "Best Food News of the Year," as one of six most important articles for 2004 under the title "True Blue Benefits". Note: Parade Magazine is the most widely distributed magazine in the U.S. being circulated with most all Sunday newspapers nationwide.
The Dec. 6, 2004 issue of Time Magazine included her finding under the Front Page Heading "The Year in Medicine From A to Z".
Cantrell, C. L. "NPURU-FST Collaborative Research Efforts." Formosan Subterranean Termite Technical Committee Thirteenth Meeting, March 16th, 2005; New Orleans, LA.
Rimando, A. M. “Bioactive Natural Products in Vaccinium (Blueberries) and Sorghum bicolor,” March 11, 2005; USDA ARS Western Regional Research Center, Albany, CA.
Rimando, A. M. “Discovery of the Cancer Chemopreventive and Hypocholesterolemic Properties of Pterostilbene.” 2005 In Vitro Biology Meeting, June 5 - 8, 2005; Baltimore, MD.
Rimando, A. M. “Analysis of Pterostilbene in Blueberries and Studies on its Pharmacological Properties.” Aug. 24, 2005, USDA ARS BARC-WEST, Beltsville, MD.
Rimando, A. M. “Discovery of the Cancer Chemopreventive and Cholesterol Lowering Properties of Pterostilbene, a Blueberry Constituent.” Aug. 25, 2005; College of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, NJ.
Rimando, A. M.; Yokoyama, W. “Small Natural Product Molecules in Vaccinium Berries with Pharmacological Activity.” Annual meeting of the Amer. Assn. of Cereal Chemists, September 11-14, 2005, Orlando, FL.
Research works has also been presented at conferences including the 2005 Phytochemical Society of North America, 2005 American Society of Pharmacognosy, Spring and Fall 2005 American Chemical Society.
Rimando, A.M., Perkins Veazie, P.M. 2005. Determination of citrulline in watermelon rind. Journal of Chromatography A. 1078:196-200.
Meepagala, K.M., Sturtz, G., Wedge, D.E., Schrader, K., Duke, S.O. 2005. Phytotoxic and antifungal compounds from two apiaceae species, lomatium californicum and ligusticum hultenii, rich sources of z-ligustilide and apiol, respectively.. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 31:1567-1578.
Rimando, A.M., Rangaswamy, N., Feller, D.R., Yokoyama, W.H. 2005. Pterostilbene, a new agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha isoform, lowers plasma lipoproteins and cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic hamster. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 53:3403-3407.
Rimando, A.M., Kagan, I., Dayan, F.E., Czarnota, M.A., Weston, L.A. 2005. Chemical Basis for Weed Suppressive Activity of Sorghum. In: American Chemical Society Symposium Series: Semiochemicals in Pest and Weed Control. Petroski, R.J., Tellez, M.R. and Behle, R.W., Editors. Washington, DC. American Chemical Society. 906:59-70.
Osbrink, W.L., Lax, A.R., Cantrell, C.L. 2005. Comparison of natural and conventional insecticides against formosan termites (isoptera: rhinotermitidae). International Conference on Urban Pests p. 213-223.
Osbrink, W.L., Tellez, M.R., Kobaisy, M.M., Lax, A.R. Assessment of natural products for control of formosan subterranean termites. Book Chapter 6: 73-87.