2005 Annual Report
Wheat is the number one food crop in the world. Efficient and innovative use of wheat grain depends on both controlling and exploiting variation in its basic quality traits. Variation provides opportunities, but variation must also be understood, monitored and controlled. We seek to deploy desirable quality traits via cooperative breeding efforts and release of superior varieties. Through these means, the wheat utilization and food industries are supplied with superior raw material. The value of the farmer's crop and the efficiency and profitability of the processing and food industries are enhanced. U.S. agriculture also gains competitiveness abroad in export markets.
This project is conducted under NP306, New Uses, Quality, and Marketability of Plant Products, through the "Intrinsic Product Quality" and "New Processes, New Uses and, Value-Added Products" components; and contributes to NP 301, Plant Genetic Resources, Genomics, And Genetic Improvement through the "Genetic Resource Management" and "Genomic Characterization, Manipulation, and Genetic Improvement" components. Subordinate CRIS projects include: 5348-43440-003-07S, "Fundamental Basis of Wheat Grain Quality", 5348- 43440-003-01T, "Modification of cereal grain hardness via expression of puroindoline proteins", 5348-43440-003-10T, " Delineation of the role of polyphenol oxidase in the discoloration of Asian noodles" and 5348-43440-003-08T, "Assess Quality of Oregon Wheat Breeding Lines."
For each year during the 5-year project, we anticipate evaluating the quality of approximately 7,000 breeding samples of various sizes. Typically, samples are received beginning in late September through December with the last analyses, evaluations, and statistical analyses completed by early August of the following calendar year. Based on prior experience, we anticipate that collaborating breeding programs will release 2-4 new cultivars per year. Key milestones during each crop year are the PNW Wheat Quality Council collaborative sample review in late January, WSU Variety Release Committee review in early February, and commencement of spring planting in late February.
• Objective 2: Understand and genetically manipulate wheat kernel texture (hardness), including the role of puroindolines, puroindoline-like proteins, and pentosans (arabinoxylans).
Year 1. Obtain germ plasm and begin analysis of "world" wheats, Aegilops tauschii accessions, and CIMMYT synthetic hexaploids. Begin greenhouse plant culture, and vernalization; begin SKCS hardness analysis; begin DNA isolation and puroindoline and GSP-1 gene sequencing; continue with back-crossing of near-isogenic lines. Identify ESTs and physical location of arabinoxylan genes; obtain the appropriate deletion stocks, parents, and other genetic stocks; begin propagation in greenhouse.
Year 2. Continue obtaining puroindoline and GSP-1 gene sequences, make preliminary assessments of results; perform 2nd or 3rd round of greenhouse plant culture; propagate mixed-hardness cultivars, propagate and attempt to cross synthetic accessions with unique sequences and/or kernel phenotypes; continue with back-crossing of near-isogenic lines. As timing permits, plant spring and winter wheat lines for arabinoxylan studies in the field. Obtain arabinoxylan gene sequences.
Year 3. Continue obtaining puroindoline and GSP-1 gene sequences, make preliminary analyses of data and draft manuscripts describing results; perform 4th to 6th round of greenhouse plant culture if needed; propagate mixed-hardness or problematic cultivars, continue to propagate and cross synthetic accessions with unique sequences and/or kernel phenotypes; continue with back-crossing of near-isogenic lines. Grow any F1 progeny resulting from synthetic hexaploid crosses. As timing permits, plant spring and winter wheat lines for arabinoxylan studies in the field. If identified as useful, plant mapping population(s) in the field. Complete arabinoxylan gene sequences.
Year 4. Analyze kernel texture data and puroindoline and GSP-1 gene sequence data, prepare manuscripts. Continue with back-crossing of near-isogenic lines. Grow any F1 or subsequent progeny resulting from synthetic hexaploid crosses. Depending on timing, may still be growing spring or winter wheat lines for arabinoxylan studies in the field.
Year 5. Continue with back-crossing of near-isogenic lines. Conduct kernel texture, milling, flour quality and baking tests on "arabinoxylan" lines; analyze data with gene sequences, prepare manuscripts. Continue propagating any crosses derived from synthetic hexaploids, begin evaluating F3 kernels from individual F2 plants.
Gedye, K.R., Morris, C.F., Bettge, A.D., Freston, M.J., King, G.E. 2004. Synthetic hexaploid wheats can expand the range of puroindoline haplotypes and kernel texture in triticum aestivum. Cereal Conference Royal Australian Chemical Institute Proceedings. pp 220-222.
Morris, C.F. 2004. Proteins, hardness and allergens. International Wheat Quality Conference. pp. 65-72.
Morris, C.F. 2004. Cereals/ grain - quality attributes. IN: Encyclopedia of Grain Science. C. Wrigley, H. Corke and C.E. Walker (eds.) Elsevier Science, London, UK. pp. 238-254.
Xia, L., Chen, F., He, Z., Chen, X., Morris, C.F. 2005. Occurrence of puroindoline alleles in chinese winter wheats. Cereal Chem 82:38-43.
Gedye, K.R., Bettge, A.D., King, G.E., Morris, C.F. 2005. Evaluation of maternal parent and puroindoline allele on kernel texture in a reciprocal cross between two hard spring wheat cultivars. Euphytica 141:121-127.
Ziska, L.H., Morris, C.F., Goins, E.W. 2004. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of selected wheat varieties released since 1903 to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide: can yield sensitivity to carbon dioxide be a factor in wheat performance?. Global Change Biology 10:1810-1819.
Massa, A.N., Morris, C.F., Gill, B.S. 2004. Sequence diversity of puroindoline-a, puroindoline-b and the grain softness protein genes in Aegilops tauschii coss. Crop Sci. 44:1808-1816.