2009 Annual Report
We prepared a series of hydrogel microparticles from pectin/zein and pectin/whey protein, and evaluated their physical, chemical, and biological activity in vivo with scientists in Tajikistan. The resultant pectin/protein hydrogels are enzyme-sensitive. The study on plant polysaccharides (PPS) derived matrices for personal care applications is in progress with the collaboration of scientists in Rutgers University. We are investigating composite nanostructures from PPS and nanoclay for nano-encapsulation applications. The thermal conductivity of porous composite membranes fabricated by co-extrusion of PPS with poly (lactic acid), a biomass-derived thermoplastic, and pore forming reagents, was adjusted by altering its composition and structure. Selective biologically-active substances and plasticizers were also co-incorporated into mixtures of poly(lactic acid) and PPS during the extrusion process. The membranes obtained were antimicrobial and possessed the tensile strength similar to conventional thermoplastics. The membranes can be used as active packaging materials. Finally, composite materials containing 70% sugar beet pulp and 30% poly(lactic acid) were extruded in the presence of chemical cross-linkers. The mechanical properties of the resultant materials are similar to poly(lactic acid), but the reproducibility needs to be improved. To date, citrus arabino-oligosaccharide-rich pectic oligosaccharides had the best in-vitro prebiotic activity. A patent application was filed on the oligosaccharide structure and prebiotic activity. A Swiss company has commercially produced the citrus arabino-oligosaccharide-rich pectic oligosaccharides. We need to obtain 20 kg of this product for in vivo analysis. The Swiss company currently has an exclusivity agreement with a German company. The cost of this product is too high, prohibiting its use as a functional feed or food ingredient. An Italian orange juice company and CRADA partner has produced lower cost arabino-oligosaccharide-rich pectic oligosaccharide samples, but they only have limited in vitro prebiotic activity.
Hotchkiss, A.T., Liu, L.S., Call, J.E., Cooke, P.H., Luchansky, J.B., Rastall, R.A. 2008. Synbiotic matrices derived from plant oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. In N. Parris, L. Liu, C. Song and P. Shastri (eds.), New Delivery Systems for Controlled Drug Release from Naturally-Occurring Materials, American Chemical Society Symposium Series, Washington, DC. pp.69-77.
Fishman, M., Chau, H.K., Cooke, P.H., Yadav, M.P., Hotchkiss, A.T. 2009. Physico-chemical characterization of alkaline soluble polysaccharides from sugar beet pulp. Food Hydrocolloids. 23:1554-1562.
Liang, S., Liu, L.S., Huang, Q., Yan, K.L. 2009. Unique rheological behavior of chitosan modified nanoclay at highly hydrated state. Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 113(17):5823-5828.
Liang, S., Liu, L.S., Huang, Q., Yam, K.L. 2009. Preparation of single or double-network chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) gel films through selective cross-linking method. Carbohydrate Polymers. 77:718-724.
Yoo, S., Lee, B., Savary, B., Lee, S., Lee, H.G., Hotchkiss, A.T. 2009. Characteristics of enzymatically-deesterified pectin gels produced in the presence of monovalent ionic salts. Food Hydrocolloids 23. p.1926-1929.
Rhoads, J., Manderson, K., Hotchkiss, A.T., Gibson, G.R., Formentin, K., Beer, M., Rastall, R.A. 2008. Pectic oligosaccharide mediated inhibition of the adhesion of pathogenic escherichia coli strains to human gut culture cells. Journal of Food Protection 71:2272-2277.
Hotchkiss, A.T., Rastall, R., Gibson, G., Eliaz, I., Liu, L.S., Fishman, M. 2009. New bioactive and biobased product applications of pectin. Book Chapter In: Schols, H.A., Visser, R.G.F., Voragen, A.G.J., editors. Pectins and Pectinases. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publisher. p. 305-312.
Chen, F., Liu, L.S., Cooke, P., Hicks, K.B., Zhang, J. 2008. Performance enhancement of a Poly(lactic acid) and sugar beet pulp composites by improving interfacial adhesion and penetration. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemical Research. 47:8667-8675.