2008 Annual Report
Research is continuing on the development of polymeric membranes for the use in nerve regeneration (CRADA #58-3K95-4-1042). In collaboration with Rutgers University scientists, we are developing nano-encapsulation structures from polysaccharides. We addressed current problems of plant polysaccharide-derived porous structures and smart hydrogels (mechanical properties, water stability, pH sensibility, thermostability, enzyme sensibility, and biological activity) by altering the composition, as well as improving fabrication methods. For example, pectin/zein hydrogel degradation time in colonic simulations can be controlled from 30 minutes to 10 hours. In another example, the mechanical properties of polylactic acid (PLA)/pectin porous membranes were up/down-regulated by the processing conditions when pectin was incorporated. We continued to evaluate the physical, chemical, and biological activities of pectin/zein hydrogel beads (a type of enzyme-specific hydrogel) in collaboration with scientists in Tajikistan Chemical Institute and Vanderbilt University. A series of polysaccharide/protein-complex hydrogels were developed and we demonstrated for the first time that smart pectin/zein beads could encapsulate a probiotic bacterial protein that was released in the colon following oral-administration in mice. This protein protected the mice from detergent-induced colitis. The results also demonstrated the biocompatibility and non-toxicity of the pectin/zein beads. Salts were used to create pores and were co-extruded with a mixture of pectin, PLA, and antimicrobial agents for active packaging plastic materials. The antimicrobial agent release profiles can be tailored by the amount and the type of the pore creating reagents. This research supports the ARS National Program 306, Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products Action Plan Component 2, New Processes, New Uses and Value-Added Foods and Biobased Products.
The active structure of pectic oligosaccharides with prebiotic activity was defined. Using a combination of monosaccharide and glycosyl-linkage analysis, MALDI-TOF MS following graphitized carbon chromatography and HPAEC-PAD analysis, structure/function relationships for pectic oligosaccharides from orange and lemon peel were established for prebiotic activity. Comparisons were drawn with pectic oligosaccharides from sugar beet pulp which did not possess prebiotic activity. Prebiotic hemicellulosic oligosaccharides from orange peel were also characterized. This research supports the ARS National Program 306, Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products Action Plan Component 2, New Processes, New Uses and Value-Added Foods and Biobased Products.
5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
Zhao, Z.Y., Liang, L., Fan, X., Yu, Z., Hotchkiss, A.T., Wilk, B.J., Eliaz, I. 2008. The role of modified citrus pectin as a safe and effective chelator of lead in children hospitalized with toxic lead levels. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 14(4):34-38.
Liu, L.S., Finkenstadt, V.L., Liu, C., Jin, Z.T., Fishman, M., Hicks, K.B. 2007. Preparation of poly(lactic acid) and pectin composite films intended for application in antimicrobial packaging. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 106(2)801-810.
Fishman, M., Chau, H.K., Cooke, P.H., Hotchkiss, A.T. 2008. Global structure of microwave-assisted flash extracted sugar beet pectin. 2008. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 56(4):1471-1478.