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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: VALUABLE POLYSACCHARIDE-BASED PRODUCTS FROM SUGAR BEET PULP AND CITRUS PEEL
2005 Annual Report


1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? What does it matter?
The citrus juice and beet sugar industries are critical components of the U.S. rural economy which are under stress due to world market competition. An executive of the Florida Citrus Processors Association stated that finding new ways to profitably utilize the enormous amount of low valued byproducts from fruit processing was critical for the future profitability of the industry. Total economic impacts associated with the Florida citrus industry for 2001 were estimated at $9.13 billion in industry output, $4.18 billion in value added, and 89,700 jobs. Economic activity by the beet sugar industry is estimated at $260 billion. Enormous quantities of residues are generated from U.S. beet sugar and citrus juice processing that are prepared and sold as low value animal feed or must be disposed with added expense. Typically the U.S. citrus juice industry produces about 1.4 million tons of pulp and meal per year, while the U.S. beet sugar industry generates about 400 million tons of wet pulp annually. It is now recognized that finding new ways to profitably utilize the enormous amount of low valued by-products from sugar beet and citrus processing is critical for the future profitability of both industries. Preparation of beet or citrus pulp as animal feed is an economic means for its disposal, providing recovery of some of the processing costs required to reduce the water content following sucrose or juice extraction. This is an energy-intensive process and a major cost to sugar beet factories and juice processing plants. This processing cost is recovered by selling it as animal feed, but the value averages about $100/ton. Although low in value, this market is critical for the economics of beet sugar production. About half of beet pulp is sold domestically for use as animal feed; the remainder is exported to Japan and Europe. This export market is threatened with the introduction of GM-beet, since pulp from GM plants may be unacceptable by these customers. Further erosion of the feed market is anticipated with increased availability of Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) from expanding domestic bioethanol production. Cell wall polysaccharides represent the major component of citrus and beet pulp. These polysaccharides, cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin, represent an enormous reservoir of untapped value-added products if they can be developed and marketed. Food grade pectin alone sells for about $12,000 - $16,000 per ton. It is estimated that 150,000 to 250,000 dry tons of pectin could be obtained from citrus residue and 400,000 to 625,000 dry tons of pectin could be obtained from the residue of sugar beet processing. However, only the highest quality pectin is used for the food market, and this market is relatively small and mature. The U.S. market consumes about 8 million pounds annually. Despite the abundance of feedstocks, pectin is no longer produced domestically, but is imported from foreign factories. Little or no work has been reported in the U.S. on using cellulose and hemicellulose from sugar beets or citrus fruit for the fabrication of value-added products. Essential to utilization of sugar beet and citrus hemicellulose and cellulose is their extraction and separation with their desirable functional properties intact or enhanced. A diverse range of new products in both food and non-food areas will be required to develop a broad market for these polysaccharides. It is critically necessary that the finished value-added products have unique functionalities and be competitive in cost with comparable environmentally non-sustainable products in the marketplace. During plant growth and development, cell wall polysaccharides undergo extensive chemical modifications, resulting in unique chemical, physical, structural and functional properties. These modifications are necessary for the ripening process of fruit or in the case of storage roots, to enhance the cell wall as a physical barrier for protecting accumulated nutrients such as sucrose from pests and pathogens. Such structural modifications are mediated by endogenous enzymes. Survey of the scientific literature reveals no information on cell wall polysaccharide-modifying enzymes in sugar beet. These enzymes will be isolated to understand the function of cell wall polysaccharides and to determine if their unique properties can be utilized to design new value-added bioproducts from sugar beet pulp. This project responds directly to National Program 306, Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products. Specifically 100% of the planned research is devoted to address issues and objectives in Component 2 of the Action Plan: New Processes, New Uses, and Value Added Biobased Products. Problem Areas covered include: 2a, New Product Technology; 2b, New Uses for Agricultural By-products; and 2c, New and Improved Processes and Feedstocks.


2.List the milestones (indicators of progress) from your Project Plan.
FY 2005 1a. Identify citrus PME isozymes using peptide mass fingerprinting with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. 2a. Continue ongoing isolation and characterization of pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose from sugar beets and citrus to determine potential for value-added products“ 3a. Initiate studies on synthesis, characterization and fabrication of plant polysaccharides (PPS) derived matrices for colon-specific drug delivery, personal care and household applications. 3b.Determine and develop strategies to fix potential problems related to toxicity and cost of PPS derived matrices from sugar beet and citrus processing 4a. Initiate experiments to prepare polysaccharide-polyaldehyde in order to synthesize polysaccharide based composites with other polymers. 4b. Complete ongoing post extrusion studies on PVOH/Pectin composites to determine potential for making biobased products 5a. Conduct in vitro prebiotic property and carbohydrate structural analysis of orange peel oligosaccharides to evaluate their potential as functional feed ingredients.

FY 2006 1a. Prepare sugar beet root extracts and screen esterase activity profiles. 2a. Complete ongoing isolation and characterization of pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose from sugar beets and citrus to determine potential for value-added products 3a. Evaluate the efficacy of PPS derived matrices in colon-specific drug delivery, personal care and household applications. 3b. Initiate experiments of fabricating PPS into porous structures for tissue repair, environmentally sensitive hydrogels for analytical applications. 3c. Identify and develop strategies to fix potential problems related to physical and biological activity of PPS derived porous structures and smart hydrogels for biomedical and analytical applications. 4a. Scale-up and complete experiments to prepare polysaccharide-polyaldehyde in order to synthesize polysaccharide based composites with other polymers. 4b. Initiate reactive extrusion-molding composites of polysaccharide with other polymers to form engineering materials. 4c. Initiate studies on biaxial pectin/ PVOH films to develop biodegradable packaging materials. 5a. Conduct in vitro prebiotic property and carbohydrate structural analysis of sugar beet pectic oligosaccharides to evaluate their potential as functional feed ingredients.

FY 2007 1a. Evaluate sugar beet root protein fractions by mass spectrometry to identify at least one polysaccharide modifying enzyme. 2a. Initiate scale up to produce pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose for testing as potential value added product 3a. Continue to evaluate the efficacy of PPS derived matrices in colon-specific drug delivery, personal care and household applications. 3b. Continue research to fabricate porous structures of PPS for use in tissue repair and environmentally sensitive hydrogels for analytical applications. 3c. Continue to identify and develop strategies to fix potential problems related to physical and biological activity of PPS derived porous structures and smart hydrogels for biomedical and analytical applications. 3d. Evaluate the efficacy of PPS derived porous structures in biomedical and analytical applications. 4a. Complete reactive extrusion-molding composites of polysaccharide with other polymers to form engineering materials. 4b. Continue the study on porous composite materials by extrusion-injection molding method for engineering applications. 4c. Complete biaxial studies and transfer technology on pectin/ PVOH films to develop biodegradable packaging materials. 5a. Scale up production of prebiotic oligosaccharides and conduct swine feeding trial with citrus pulp pellets and pectic oligosaccharides to determine their in vivo prebiotic properties and potential as functional feed ingredients.

FY 2008 1a. Generate enzyme-modified polysaccharides for structural/functional/biological activity evaluation. 2a. Complete scale up and initiate measurement of functional properties of the value added products; pectin, cellulose and hemicellulose to determine their potential as value added products. 3a. Complete the study on synthesis, characterization and fabrication of PPS derived matrices for colon-specific drug delivery, personal care and household applications. 3b. Continue to fabricate PPS into porous structures for tissue repair, environmentally sensitive hydrogels for analytical applications 3c. Continue to identify and develop strategies to fix potential problems related to physical and biological activity of PPS derived porous structures and smart hydrogels for biomedical and analytical applications. 3d. Evaluate the efficacy of PPS derived smart hydrogels in biomedical and analytical applications. 4a. Complete reactive extrusion-molding composites of polysaccharide with other polymers to form engineering materials 4b. Continue the study on porous composite materials by extrusion-injection molding method for engineering applications 5a. Conduct isolation, production, structural analysis, and in-vitro prebiotic evaluation of hemicellulosic and cellulosic oligosaccharides to evaluate their potential as high-valued functional feed ingredients.

FY 2009 1a. Complete purification and characterization of at least one cell wall modifying enzyme (pectin esterase) from sugar beets. 1b. Complete evaluation of alternative enzymes useful for cell wall polysaccharide modification from systems such as citrus, corn/barley, and/or microbial sources. 2a. Complete measurement of functional properties and disseminate information for the purpose of transferring technology 3a. Complete the study on PPS derived porous structures and smart hydrogels for biomedical and analytical applications 4a. Complete the synthesis and evaluation of porous composite materials by extrusion-injection molding method as engineering materials. 5a. Complete evaluation of sugar beet and orange peel pectic oligosaccharides as potential functional feed ingredients. 5b. Complete cost analysis for production of most promising prebiotic oligosaccharides


4a.What was the single most significant accomplishment this past year?
New prebiotics were found in orange peels for use as healthy food and feed ingredients. To increase the use of U.S. orange peels, ARS scientists in Wyndmoor, PA in collaboration with Drs. Robert Rastall and Glenn Gibson at the University of Reading, UK, demonstrated that pectin fragments from orange peel are "prebiotics" that have health promoting effects in animals and humans. Orange peel pectic prebiotics caused selective fermentation by health beneficial gut bacteria at the expense of pathogenic bacteria. These health promoting bacteria have been reported as important in the prevention of ulcerative colitis and colon cancer. If orange peel pectic oligosaccharides can be commercialized as a prebiotic product, they may be able to be used as a functional food and feed ingredient with multiple health promoting roles.


4b.List other significant accomplishments, if any.
Discovery of a new enzyme to "naturally" modify the properties of pectin: ARS scientists in Wyndmoor, PA, in collaboration with those in Winter Haven, FL, using "state of the art" analytical techniques discovered a novel dual functional enzyme capable of modifying the properties of pectin, a plant polysaccharide used as a food ingredient to stabilize beverages, yogurts and add texture to foods. Modifying pectin by this "natural" technique has the potential of expanding the demand for pectin, a by-product of citrus and sugarbeet processing, which will improve competitiveness of a U.S. pectin manufacturer interested in commercializing the enzyme. New biodegradable polymeric composites containing sugar beet pulp produced: Currently there is a demand for biodegradable, inexpensive, light weight construction materials. ARS scientists in Wyndmoor, PA have used sugar beet pulp, a by-product from beet sugar processing, to develop new composites with poly(lactic acid). The composites are fully biodegradable and have similar tensile properties to pure polylactic acid but are less expensive. A possible outcome of this study is the development of new markets for sugarbeet pulp.

Developed a mild rapid extraction of pectin from sugarbeets: To add value to sugarbeet pulp, ARS scientists in Wyndmoor, PA developed a relatively low temperature, rapid extraction of pectin from sugarbeet pulp. Previously sugarbeet pulp had to be heated for an hour or longer to obtain significant yields of pectin, a value added polysaccharide which is useful as a biodegradable film former, coating or emulsifying agent. The new extraction method lowers heating times to as little as 3 minutes and can provide pectins with a range of properties. Adoption of this method has the potential to lower the cost of producing sugarbeet pectin and increase the range of materials into which it may be incorporated and thus increase use of sugarbeet pulp as a value added material.


4c.List any significant activities that support special target populations.
None.


4d.Progress report.
1935-41000-068-01T-This report serves to document research conducted under a trust agreement between ARS and ISTO Technologies (St. Louis, MO). We have developed a new method to prepare three-dimensional porous matrices from pectin and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) [p(LGA)]. This novel technology consists of a two-step procedure, in which the temperature of lyophilization differs for each step. In a joint research plan, devices from pectin and p(LGA), as well as hyaluronate and p(LGA) were fabricated by this new method. Preliminary in vivo rabbit tests for biocompatibility and bioactivity for tissue regeneration gave encouraging results. Based on these results the company expressed a willingness to continue this collaboration in the coming year.


5.Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact.
This project commenced on 7/20/04. Thus accomplishments outlined in sections 4 A, B and D are the major accomplishments over the life of the project. Furthermore, these accomplishments meet primary objectives for National Program 306 Action Problem Area 2b and aid in meeting the milestones outlined in the project plan.


6.What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end-user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products?
An invention disclosure was filed on the discovery of a novel bifunctional enzyme with potential utility for commercial processing of pectin. Information related to this was transferred through a Confidentiality Agreement with a major food hydrocolloids business. A CRADA is under development for commercialization of this enzyme. Provided information on the prebiotic activity of orange peel pectic oligosaccharides and flash extraction to a major US-based agrichemical company, a major orange juice processor and two modified citrus pectin/nutraceutical companies. Analyzed the modified citrus pectin produced by one of these companies and assisted them to find a US company that could produce their product using domestic citrus peel. A CRADA is under development with one of these companies and a Material Transfer Agreement is planned with another company. Transferred to U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases pectin microspheres incorporated with model protein drugs for testing as a drug carrier for intranasal delivery. The microspheres were found to be biocompatible. Transferred technology for the flash extraction of pectin by steam injection to a small producer of nutraceuticals. Analyzed physical properties of carrot and lemon pectin produced by this technology.


7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below).
Jio, S. Orange rinds pack more than just color. Health Magazine, April 2005, p. 160.

Three scientists on the project gave an overview of Information on sugarbeet pulp research related to CRIS 1935-41000-068, Objectives 3 and 4 via telephone to Ms. Lois Kerr, Ag Roundup, Sidney, Montana. June 13, 2005.

Information and research updates were presented by all four team scientists to scientists and managers of a major food ingredient company in a round table meeting on March 17, 2005, San Diego, CA. This included information on sugarbeet pulp research related to biomedical applications, the use of atomic force microscopy to measure the quality of pectin sugar acid gels, prebiotic properties of pectic oligosaccharides, and pectin-modifying enzymes having commercial applicability.

Scientists presented seminars on orange peel pectic oligosaccharides and flash extraction to various organizations.

Scientists presented information to a large industrial chemical manufacturer on the potential use of pectin as a paint additive.

Scientists presented information to a large chemical company and large confectionary company on the potential of pectin composites as coatings for foods.


Review Publications
Fishman, M.L., Coffin, D.R. 2005. Biodegradable films from pectin/starch and pectin/poly(vinyl alcohol). Book Chapter in Polymer Biocatalysis and Biomaterials. Ed. H. N. Cheng, R. Gross, ACS Symposium Series. Volume 900. American Chemical Society Publ., Washington D.C. p.119-140. 2005.

Fishman, M.L., Cooke, P.H., Chau, H.K., Coffin, D.R. Global structure of high methoxyl pectin deposited from solution and in sugar acid gels. Abstract, American Chemical Society 229th National Meeting, San Diego, CA, March 13-17, 2005. AGFD 19.

Suleiman, H., Chau, H.K., Fishman, M.L. Microwave extraction of pectin and characterization using high-performance size exclusion chromatography. Abstract for 37th Middle Atlantic Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, May 22-25, 2005.

Savary, B.J., Hicks, K.B., Fishman, M.L., Hotchkiss, A.T., Liu, L.S. 2004. Sustainable technologies and valuable new polysaccharide-based products from sugar beet pulp. Sugar Processing Research Conference Proceedings of the Sugar Processing Research Institute Conference, p.80-86.

Savary, B.J., Nunez, A. 2004. Application of a new gc-ms method for determining ester contents following alkaline or enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp and pectin. Meeting Abstract in Proceedings of the Sugar Processing Research Institute Conference, p.449-453.

Cameron, R.G., Savary, B.J., Hotchkiss, A.T., Fishman, M.L. 2005. Isolation, characterization and pectin modifying properties of a thermally tolerant pectin methylesterase from valencia oranges. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 53:2255-2260.

Liu, L.S., Fishman, M.L., Hicks, K.B., Kende, M. Interaction of various pectin formulations with porcine colonic tissues. Biomaterials.26 (2005)p.5907-5916.

Liu, L.S., Chen, G., Fishman, M.L., Hicks, K.B. Pectin gel vehicles for citronellal delivery. Controlled Release Journal.2005. Drug Delivery. 12:p.149-157.

Liu, L.S., Chen, G., Fishman, M.L. A single sorbent for tetracycline enrichment and following solid-matrix time-resolved luminescence. 2005. Analytica Chimica Acta:528: p.261-268.

Liu, L.S., Fishman, M.L., Hicks, K.B. Pectin derivatives as a carrier for colon-specific drug delivery. Abstract for American Chemical Society 229th National Meeting, San Diego, 13-19, 2005.

Liu, L.S., Onwulata, C.I., Fishman, M.L., Savary, B.J., Hicks, K.B. Evaluation of sugar beet pulp and poly(lactic acid) biodegradable composites. UJNR Food & Agricultural Panel Proceedings. 2004. p.80-90.

Hotchkiss, A.T., Widmer, W.W., Fishman, M.L. Flash extraction of pectin. Abstract for American Chemical Society 229th National Meeting, San Diego, CA, March 13-19, 2005. Cell 96.

Savary, B.J., Nunez, A., Cameron, R.G. Mass spectroscopy profiling of tryptic-peptides for identifying pectin methylesterases isolated from valencia orange [(citrus sinensis (l.) osbeck] fruit. Abstract 229TH NATIONAL MEETING, AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, SAN DIEGO, CA., March 13-17, 2005. Cell 118.

Last Modified: 4/20/2014
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