2009 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Objective 1: Discover new, natural product-based antifungal agents for use in disease control.
Objective 2: Conduct small-scale efficacy studies and limited mode of action studies of lead compounds for use as new plant protectants for small fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
The CRIS research will focus in novel plant-derived fungicides for control of important minor crop pathogens. These compounds will be (1) tested in in vitro assays and on plants for efficacy as plant protectants and (2) evaluated for potential to prevent decay in fruits.
International collaborations with Turkish colleagues continue to progress well. Currently three specific projects involving, Mentha spp., linalool enantiomers, thymol and carvacrol were completed. Other medicinal and aromatic herbs from Turkey including Labiatae, Umbelliferae and Compositae were initiated in 2009. Two peer-reviewed papers were submitted and one is in the final stages of preparation.
International collaborations in China are progressing slowly. Work related to Traditional Chinese Medicine plants (Angelica spp) continued with colleagues in Beijing, China and new samples recently received for further studies.
Collaborations with ARS and other colleagues demonstrated the strong mosquito deterrent activity of z-ligustilide obtained from Angelica sinensis obtained from China.
Research involvement in the Deployed War-Fighter Protection (DWFP) Program that began in 2007, continued to expand in 2008-09 as Natural Products Utilization Research Unit (NPURU) increased its output of extracts and pure compounds to CMAVE labs in this program. Several natural compounds, extracts and fractions were tested for mosquito adulticide activity, repellency and larvacidal activity.
More than 20 Jatropha species obtained from the southwestern U.S. demonstrated larvacidal activity against Aedes aegypti.
Salvia, Ocimum, and Hedycium projects were initiated in 2008 with National Center for Natural Products Research (NCNPR) Medicinal Plant Garden, the University of Mississippi, Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden, Texas and USDA-ARS, Southern Horticultural Laboratory, Poplarville, MS. Samples are being studied for their fungicidal, insecticidal and mosquito adulticide and larvacidal activity.
Research in Hypericum collected in the USA and in Europe is being evaluated for antifungal and insecticidal activity. Bioassay guided fractionation initiated in 2009 showed that antifungal and insecticidal activity is present in Hypericum.
Overpressured Layer Chromatography is used as a tool to separate and determine bioactive compounds in non-polar and complex mixtures. Several collaborative projects were initiated in 2009 with the Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.
5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
Fusarium disease control article was written specifically for the International Commercial Orchid Growers Organization to improve production methods of orchids and nurseries in the USA and abroad that supply U.S. growers. This article provides growers with useful guidance regarding the reduction of non-effective fungicides, use of newer effective fungicides, and identification of Fusarium wilt symptoms on orchids.
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Wedge, D.E., Tabanca, N., Sampson, B.J., Werle, C.T., Demerci, B., Baser, K., Nan, P., Duan, J., Liu, Z. 2009. Antifungal and Insecticidal Activity from Two Juniperus Essential Oils. Natural Product Communications. 4(1):123-127.
Wedge, D.E., Klun, J.A., Tabanca, N., Demirci, B., Ozek, T., Baser, K., Liu, Z., Zhang, S., Cantrell, C.L., Zhang, J. 2009. Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation and GC/MS Fingerprinting of Angelica sinensis and Angelica archangelica Root Components for Antifungal and Mosquito Deterrent Activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 57(2):464-470.