2007 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Develop processing technologies to reduce the saturated and trans acids in foods and food oils consistent with desired functional, consumer and health needs. Develop knowledge of the phase behavior of model triglyceride systems and study starch lipid complexes as emulsifier systems.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Study the catalytic hydrogenation of edible oils under condition where trans isomer formation is suppressed or minimized; develop kinetic models for the reaction and characterize the products. Potential starch/lipid complex emulsifier systems will be prepared and evaluated as candidates for lowfat spread systems. The phase behavior of model triglycerides will be studied by Pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and their solubilities determined from melting point and other thermal data.
Several processing technologies were developed to produce fats having very low trans acid contents. The research involves the catalytic hydrogenation of common vegetable oils including soybean, cottonseed, corn and canola to low iodine values. Typically, prior state-of-the-art consisted of hydrogenation of soybean oil to iodine value of 65-80 and trans fat contents of 32-40%. These oils serve as spread/baking shortening stocks. By further reducing the iodine value to the 40-45 range, trans bonds are reduced with some increases in saturated areas. The low iodine value oils, when blended with liquid oil, serve as low trans products meeting the nutrition labeling guidelines for zero grams trans fat/serving, i.e. 70.5 gms. Spread and shortening oils can be prepared with trans fatty acids in the 2-4% range, respectively, with only modest increases in saturated acids. Two patent disclosures have been filed and an industrial partner has been identified and consulted with to bring the technologies forward.
The second technology involves reducing the iodine value to about 75 with a commercially available nickel catalyst, followed by a second hydrogenation to iodine values in the 45 range using a platinum-on-carbon-supported catalyst. Both technologies use conditions of temperature, pressure and agitation well within the ranges used commercially.
Low trans/low saturate spread and shortening oils prepared. A two-stage low trans hydrogenation technique using two catalysts has been developed. Electrochemical hydrogenation work completed and published. The synthesis and physical properties of a number of functional triglycerides has been completed and published. Low trans spread and shortening oils via hydrogenation of soybean oil/catalyst switching strategy/electrohydrogenation. Nutrition labeling regulations require trans fatty acids to be listed on food labels (January 1, 2006). To meet these requirements, the industry must develop new technologies to reduce trans fats. We have shown that carrying the hydrogenation to lower iodine values, substantial reductions in trans fat can be achieved under conditions now practical by the industry and with commerically available nickel catalysts. It is expected that there will be considerable interest in this technology. Electrochemical hydrogenation was shown to be a promising technique to reduce trans fats in food products. The work was published in 2007. This accomplishment contributes to National Program 306 on "Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products" under Component 1 for "Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement," Problem Area 1a., "Definition and Basis for Quality."
5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
|Number of invention disclosures submitted||2|
|Number of non-peer reviewed presentations and proceedings||5|
List, G.R., Warner, K.A., Pintauro, P.N., Gil, M.P. 2007. Low trans shortening and spread fats produced by electrochemical hydrogenation. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 84:497-501.
List, G.R., Pelloso, T. 2007. Zero/low trans margarine, spreads and shortening. In: List, G.R., Kritchevsky, D., Ratnayke, N., editors. Trans Fats in Foods. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press. p. 155-176.
Adlof, R.O., List, G.R. 2007. Synthesis and characterization of EOE and EEO, triacylglycerols containing elaidic and oleic fatty acids. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 84:427-431.
Adlof, R.O., List, G.R. 2007. Analysis and characterization of trans isomers by silver-ion HPLC. In: List, G., Kritchevsky, D. and Ratnayake, N., editors. Trans Fats in Foods. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press. p. 195-224.
Orthoefer, F.T., List, G.R. 2007. Initial quality of frying oil. In: Erickson, M.D., editor. Deep Frying Chemistry, Nutrition and Practical Applications, 2nd edition. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press. p. 33-50.
Orthoefer, F.T., List, G.R. 2007. Dynamics of frying. In: Erickson, M.D., editor. Deep Frying Chemistry, Nutrition and Practical Applications, 2nd edition. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press. p. 253-275.
Orthoefer, F.T., List, G.R. 2007. Evaluation of used frying oil. In: Erickson, M.D., editor. Deep Frying Chemistry, Nutrition and Practical Applications, 2nd edition. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press. p. 329-342.
List, G.R., Jackson, M.A., Eller, F.J., Adlof, R.O. 2007. Low trans spread and shortening oils via hydrogenation of soybean oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 84:609-612.