2006 Annual Report
The primary goal for this project is to provide healthier, safer, nutritious and functional food oil products from commodity vegetable oils. The objectives of this project include: (1) Develop novel processing technologies to reduce trans and saturated acid content of food oils, (2) Develop novel emulsifier systems for fats and oils and develop basic information on the solubility and phase behavior of functional triglycerides in model and complex systems.
Approaches to solving these problems include development of modified hydrogenation techniques through control of selectivity by pressure, temperature, catalyst, and agitation, use of binary gas mixtures, and computer modeling. Starch lipid complexes made by the jet cooking of lecithin and starch will be prepared and incorporated into emulsifier systems for food products. The solubility and phase behavior of simple and complex triglycerides will be determined to ascertain their functional roles in food products.
This project contributes to National Program 306 on "Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products" under Component 1 for "Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement," Problem Area 1a., "Definition and Basis for Quality." This research contributes to developing new knowledge to understand the roles of product composition, molecular structure, and physical state for optimum end use performance of edible vegetable oils. Technologies are developed to produce new food oil products with increased nutrition and other quality traits consistent with consumer demands. The research also contributes to meeting the ARS goal for genetic improvement of oilseeds for quality attributes for good quality products.
Years 2 and 3: Investigate computer modeling to prepare candidates for food applications. Prepare and evaluate food products for consumer acceptance, performance and sensory/texture attributes.
Years 4 and 5: Complete all studies, transfer technology through presentations, technical publications and technology transfer activities with the edible oil/food industry.
Objective 2. Year 1: Prepare starch lipid complexes from various lecithin sources. Prepare and evaluate starch lipid complexes as emulsifiers for food oil products.
Years 2 and 3: Prepare and evaluate food products from promising candidates. Synthesize and characterize functional triglycerides with respect to solubility, phase behavior and crystallization properties in model and complex systems.
Years 4 and 5: Complete all studies and technology transfer activities. Complete computer modeling of physical property structure relationships.
Pressured controlled hydrogenation and hydrogenation in binary gas systems (CO2 and H2) have shown great promise in reducing and suppressing trans acid formation. In contrast to commercially prepared basestocks containing 40% trans, hydrogenation at moderately high pressures produces products containing about 17% trans. When blended with additional liquid oil, soft spreads with about 5% trans result. Typically trans acid contents of less than 5% will meet labeling requirements for trans fatty acids.
These accomplishments are part of NP 306 under Component 1 for "Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement."
Orthoefer, F., List, G.R. 2006. Phospholipids/lecithin: A class of nutraceutical lipids. In: Shahidi, F., editor. Nutraceutical and specialty lipids and their co-products. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 509-530.
List, G.R. 2006. Giants of the past: Hippolyte Mege (1817-1880). Inform. 17:264.
Adlof, R.O. 2006. Silver ion HPLC using acetonitrile in hexane as solvent. Lipid Technology. 18(6):136-138.
Orthoefer, F., Cooper, D., List, G.R. 2006. Initial quality of frying oil. In: Deep fat frying. AOCS Press. (submitted)
Orthoefer, F., Gurkin, S., Lui, K., List, G.R. 2006. Dynamics of frying. In: Deep fat frying. AOCS Press. (submitted)
Orthoefer, F., Cooper, D., List, G.R. 2006. Evaluation of used frying oil. In: Deep fat frying. AOCS Press. (submitted) List, G.R., Warner, K.A., Pintauro, P.N., Gil, M. 2006. Low trans shortening and spread oils via electrochemical hydrogenation. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society (submitted)
Adlof, R.O., List, G.R. 2006. Synthesis and physical properties of EOE and EEO, triacylglycerols containing elaidic and oleic acid. Lipids. (submitted)
Adlof, R.O., List. G.R. 2006. The analysis of structured lipids synthesized and in commercial formulations by SPF/Ag HPLC. Journal of Chromatography A (submitted)