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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

2005 Annual Report

1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? What does it matter?
Soybean oil is the major food oil of the U.S. and the rest of the world. In order to provide functional properties and resistance to thermal and oxidative breakdown, soybean oil must be hydrogenated which in turn produces trans fatty acid isomers. The presence of trans isomers in food oils represents a major problem for the industry since trans has been implicated as serum cholesterol elevating agents in humans. On July 11, 2003, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) finalized food labeling regulations. By January 1, 2006, food manufacturers will be required to list trans acids on labels. The trans issue has prompted the industry to seek to formulate food oils including interesterification, plant breeding, and genetic modification.

The primary goal for this project is to provide healthier, safer, nutritious and functional food oil products from commodity vegetable oils. The objectives of this project include: (1) Develop novel processing technologies to reduce trans and saturated acid content of food oils, (2) Develop novel emulsifier systems for fats and oils and develop basic information on the solubility and phase behavior of functional triglycerides in model and complex systems.

Approaches to solving these problems include development of modified hydrogenation techniques through control of selectivity by pressure, temperature, catalyst, and agitation, use of binary gas mixtures, and computer modeling. Starch lipid complexes made by the jet cooking of lecithin and starch will be prepared and incorporated into emulsifier systems for food products. The solubility and phase behavior of simple and complex triglycerides will be determined to ascertain their functional roles in food products.

This project contributes to National Program 306 on “Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products” under Component 1 for “Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement,” Problem Area 1a., “Definition and Basis for Quality.” This research contributes to developing new knowledge to understand the roles of product composition, molecular structure, and physical state for optimum end use performance of edible vegetable oils. Technologies are developed to produce new food oil products with increased nutrition and other quality traits consistent with consumer demands. The research also contributes to meeting the ARS goal for genetic improvement of oilseeds for quality attributes for good quality products.

2.List the milestones (indicators of progress) from your Project Plan.
Objective 1. Year 1: Identify and establish parameters necessary to suppress trans acid formation during the catalytic hydrogenation of substrates. Complete work on binary gas mixtures and novel substrates.

Years 2 and 3: Investigate computer modeling to prepare candidates for food applications. Prepare and evaluate food products for consumer acceptance, performance and sensory/texture attributes.

Years 4 and 5: Complete all studies, transfer technology through presentations, technical publications and technology transfer activities with the edible oil/food industry.

Objective 2. Year 1: Prepare starch lipid complexes from various lecithin sources. Prepare and evaluate starch lipid complexes as emulsifiers for food oil products.

Years 2 and 3: Prepare and evaluate food products from promising candidates. Synthesize and characterize functional triglycerides with respect to solubility, phase behavior and crystallization properties in model and complex systems.

Years 4 and 5: Complete all studies and technology transfer activities. Complete computer modeling of physical property structure relationships.

4a.What was the single most significant accomplishment this past year?
The effects of operating parameters on trans acid formation during the catalytic hydrogenation of soybean oil were investigated. The results provide technologies for significant reductions in the trans fatty acid content of spread oils. Soybean oils prepared by pressure controlled hydrogenation will meet FDA nutrition labeling for zero grams trans fat/serving. Over the ranges of 140-170 C, at pressures of 13.6 bars and the use of commercial nickel supported catalysts, reaction times are equivalent to or faster than those observed in commercial practice. Adaptation to commercial practice will only require retooling of existing equipment to handle the higher pressures required.

4b.List other significant accomplishments, if any.

4c.List any significant activities that support special target populations.

4d.Progress report.

5.Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact.
Technologies developed to produce foods with zero or low trans acid content are of much interest to consumers and the edible oil industry because of health/nutritional issues and food labeling regulations effective January 1, 2006. Studies on the formulation of margarines/spreads from hi-stearic acid soybean oils have shown that products formulated from them have suitable physical and sensory properties, thus providing an outlet for these crops estimated to have a market value in excess of $130,000,000.

Pressured controlled hydrogenation and hydrogenation in binary gas systems (CO2 and H2) have shown great promise in reducing and suppressing trans acid formation. In contrast to commercially prepared basestocks containing 40% trans, hydrogenation at moderately high pressures produces products containing about 17% trans. When blended with additional liquid oil, soft spreads with about 5% trans result. Typically trans acid contents of less than 5% will meet labeling requirements for trans fatty acids.

6.What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end-user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products?
A confidentiality agreement has been signed to allow formulation of low fat spreads with Fantesk as an emulsifier. The work is expected to commence soon. A draft Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) has been established to develop low trans hydrogenation techniques. The CRADA is dependent on funding from the industrial partner.

7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below).
List, G. R. and King, J. W. 2005. Hydrogenation. In: Modifying Lipids for Food Use. Ed. F.D. Gunstone, Woodhead Press (Book chapter).

List, G. R. and Reeves, R. M. 2005. Dietary guidelines, processing and reformulation for trans reduction. AOCS Press, Champaign, IL, pp. 71-86 (Book chapter).

Kodali, D. and List, G. R. 2005. Editors, Trans fat alternatives. AOCS Press, Champaign, IL, pp. 1-137 (Book).

Orthoefer, F. and List, G. R. 2005. Lecithin, In Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods. Ed. F. Shahidi, Marcel Dekker. Accepted 3/05 (Book chapter).

List, G. R., Wang, T. and Shukla, V. J. 2005. Storage, handling and transport of edible oils. In Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products. Volume 5, pp. 191-229. Ed. F. Shahidi, John Wiley and Sons, New York (Book chapter).

List, G. R., Adlof, R. O. and King, J. W. 2005. Trans acids in specialty lipids. In Nutraceutical and Functional Foods. Ed. F. Shahadi, Marcel Dekker Press. Accepted 3/05 (Book chapter).

List, G. R. 2004. Trans alternatives. In Proceedings, Texas A&M Short Course on Vegetable Oil Processing, College Station, TX.

List, G. R. 2004. Trans fatty acids: Health nutrition, labeling and processing/reformulation. In Proceedings, Relevant Regulatory and Analytical Challenges for Food and Dietary Supplements Symposium, Madison, WI.

List, G. R. and Adlof, R. O. 2004. Composition, formulation and properties of some low/zero trans functional lipids, spreads and shortenings. In Proceedings, Worldnutra, San Francisco, CA.

List, G. R. 2005. Giants from the past. Harvey W. Wiley (1844-1930). Inform 16:111-112.

List, G. R. 2004. Processing and reformulation for nutritional labeling of trans fatty acids. Lipid Technol. 16:173-177. (Invited review article)

List, G. R. 2005. Chemistry and analysis of fats and oils, Part I. General overview. In Proceedings, Institute of Food Technologists’ Short Course, The New Environment for Foods Fats and Oils, Orlando, FL.

List, G. R. 2005. Chemistry and analysis of fats and oils, Part II. Nutrition Labeling for Trans Fatty Acids. In Proceedings, Institute of Food Technologists’ Short Course, The New Environment for Food Fats and Oils, Orlando, FL.

List, G. R. 2005. What alternatives are there to hydrogenated oils? In Proceedings, Institute of Food Technologists’ Short Course, The New Environment for Food Fats and Oils, Orlando, FL.

List, G. R. 2005. Nutrition labeling dilemma: Trans or saturated acids. Proceedings, AOCS Symposium, Business Success Through Technical Innovations, Chicago, IL.

Adlof, R. O. 2005. Silver-ion HPLC utilizing acetonitrile in hexane as solvent: Temperature effects on lipid elution orders/resolution, in New Techniques and Applications in Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics. Eds., Mossoba, Kramer, Brenna and McDonald, AOCS Press (Book chapter).

Review Publications
Michaud, A.L., Lawrence, P., Adlof, R.O., Brenna, J. 2005. On the formation of conjugated linoleic acid diagnostic ions with acetonitrile chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of American Society for Mass Spectrometry. 19:363-368.

Peterson, S.C., Fanta, G.F., Adlof, R.O., Felker, F.C. 2005. Identification of complexed native lipids in crystalline aggregates formed from jet cooked cornstarch. Carbohydrate Polymers. 61(2):162-167.

List, G.R., Byrdwell, W.C., Steidley, K.R., Adlof, R.O., Neff, W.E. 2005. Triglyceride structure and composition of hydrogenated soybean oil margarine and shortening basestocks. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 53:4692-4695.

List, G.R., Adlof, R.O., Carriere, C.J., Dunn, R.O. 2004. Melting properties of some structured lipids native to high stearic acid soybean oil. Grasas Y Aceites Monograph. 2:135-137.

Eller, F.J., List, G.R., Teel, J.A., Steidley, K.R., Adlof, R.O. 2005. Preparation of spread oils meeting FDA labeling requirements for trans fatty acids via pressure controlled bydrogenation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 53(15):5982-5984.

Last Modified: 4/18/2014
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