2005 Annual Report
The primary goal for this project is to provide healthier, safer, nutritious and functional food oil products from commodity vegetable oils. The objectives of this project include: (1) Develop novel processing technologies to reduce trans and saturated acid content of food oils, (2) Develop novel emulsifier systems for fats and oils and develop basic information on the solubility and phase behavior of functional triglycerides in model and complex systems.
Approaches to solving these problems include development of modified hydrogenation techniques through control of selectivity by pressure, temperature, catalyst, and agitation, use of binary gas mixtures, and computer modeling. Starch lipid complexes made by the jet cooking of lecithin and starch will be prepared and incorporated into emulsifier systems for food products. The solubility and phase behavior of simple and complex triglycerides will be determined to ascertain their functional roles in food products.
This project contributes to National Program 306 on “Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products” under Component 1 for “Quality Characterization, Preservation, and Enhancement,” Problem Area 1a., “Definition and Basis for Quality.” This research contributes to developing new knowledge to understand the roles of product composition, molecular structure, and physical state for optimum end use performance of edible vegetable oils. Technologies are developed to produce new food oil products with increased nutrition and other quality traits consistent with consumer demands. The research also contributes to meeting the ARS goal for genetic improvement of oilseeds for quality attributes for good quality products.
Years 2 and 3: Investigate computer modeling to prepare candidates for food applications. Prepare and evaluate food products for consumer acceptance, performance and sensory/texture attributes.
Years 4 and 5: Complete all studies, transfer technology through presentations, technical publications and technology transfer activities with the edible oil/food industry.
Objective 2. Year 1: Prepare starch lipid complexes from various lecithin sources. Prepare and evaluate starch lipid complexes as emulsifiers for food oil products.
Years 2 and 3: Prepare and evaluate food products from promising candidates. Synthesize and characterize functional triglycerides with respect to solubility, phase behavior and crystallization properties in model and complex systems.
Years 4 and 5: Complete all studies and technology transfer activities. Complete computer modeling of physical property structure relationships.
Pressured controlled hydrogenation and hydrogenation in binary gas systems (CO2 and H2) have shown great promise in reducing and suppressing trans acid formation. In contrast to commercially prepared basestocks containing 40% trans, hydrogenation at moderately high pressures produces products containing about 17% trans. When blended with additional liquid oil, soft spreads with about 5% trans result. Typically trans acid contents of less than 5% will meet labeling requirements for trans fatty acids.
List, G. R. and Reeves, R. M. 2005. Dietary guidelines, processing and reformulation for trans reduction. AOCS Press, Champaign, IL, pp. 71-86 (Book chapter).
Kodali, D. and List, G. R. 2005. Editors, Trans fat alternatives. AOCS Press, Champaign, IL, pp. 1-137 (Book).
Orthoefer, F. and List, G. R. 2005. Lecithin, In Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods. Ed. F. Shahidi, Marcel Dekker. Accepted 3/05 (Book chapter).
List, G. R., Wang, T. and Shukla, V. J. 2005. Storage, handling and transport of edible oils. In Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products. Volume 5, pp. 191-229. Ed. F. Shahidi, John Wiley and Sons, New York (Book chapter).
List, G. R., Adlof, R. O. and King, J. W. 2005. Trans acids in specialty lipids. In Nutraceutical and Functional Foods. Ed. F. Shahadi, Marcel Dekker Press. Accepted 3/05 (Book chapter).
List, G. R. 2004. Trans alternatives. In Proceedings, Texas A&M Short Course on Vegetable Oil Processing, College Station, TX.
List, G. R. 2004. Trans fatty acids: Health nutrition, labeling and processing/reformulation. In Proceedings, Relevant Regulatory and Analytical Challenges for Food and Dietary Supplements Symposium, Madison, WI.
List, G. R. and Adlof, R. O. 2004. Composition, formulation and properties of some low/zero trans functional lipids, spreads and shortenings. In Proceedings, Worldnutra, San Francisco, CA.
List, G. R. 2005. Giants from the past. Harvey W. Wiley (1844-1930). Inform 16:111-112.
List, G. R. 2004. Processing and reformulation for nutritional labeling of trans fatty acids. Lipid Technol. 16:173-177. (Invited review article)
List, G. R. 2005. Chemistry and analysis of fats and oils, Part I. General overview. In Proceedings, Institute of Food Technologists’ Short Course, The New Environment for Foods Fats and Oils, Orlando, FL.
List, G. R. 2005. Chemistry and analysis of fats and oils, Part II. Nutrition Labeling for Trans Fatty Acids. In Proceedings, Institute of Food Technologists’ Short Course, The New Environment for Food Fats and Oils, Orlando, FL.
List, G. R. 2005. What alternatives are there to hydrogenated oils? In Proceedings, Institute of Food Technologists’ Short Course, The New Environment for Food Fats and Oils, Orlando, FL.
List, G. R. 2005. Nutrition labeling dilemma: Trans or saturated acids. Proceedings, AOCS Symposium, Business Success Through Technical Innovations, Chicago, IL.
Adlof, R. O. 2005. Silver-ion HPLC utilizing acetonitrile in hexane as solvent: Temperature effects on lipid elution orders/resolution, in New Techniques and Applications in Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics. Eds., Mossoba, Kramer, Brenna and McDonald, AOCS Press (Book chapter).
List, G.R., Byrdwell, W.C., Steidley, K.R., Adlof, R.O., Neff, W.E. 2005. Triglyceride structure and composition of hydrogenated soybean oil margarine and shortening basestocks. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 53:4692-4695.
List, G.R., Adlof, R.O., Carriere, C.J., Dunn, R.O. 2004. Melting properties of some structured lipids native to high stearic acid soybean oil. Grasas Y Aceites Monograph. 2:135-137.
Eller, F.J., List, G.R., Teel, J.A., Steidley, K.R., Adlof, R.O. 2005. Preparation of spread oils meeting FDA labeling requirements for trans fatty acids via pressure controlled bydrogenation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 53(15):5982-5984.