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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

2007 Annual Report

1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
1) Develop thermal (50-90 C) and non-thermal (<25 C) extrusion-based processes that alter the structures of whey proteins (texturize), identify the process conditions, and develop models that relate the conditions to the quality attributes of texturized proteins. .
2)Create co-products linking the texturized whey proteins with carbohydrate and protein polymers such as soy proteins to make health-enhancing products. Characterize the rheological and viscoelastic properties of the texturized whey protein co-products as specialized ingredients with improved quality and functionality.

1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Changes in texture of whey protein concentrates and isolates, alone or in combination with starches and polysaccharides, will be induced through thermal and non-thermal processing. Thermal and non-thermal extrusion process parameters that affect structure and function relative to texturization of whey proteins will be determined. The properties of the shear-texturized proteins, such as elasticity, gelling strength, expansion, foaming and porosity will be evaluated, along with the rheology and network structure shear-induced viscosity changes that result from changes in protein structure. The thermal and non-thermal texturized proteins will be used alone or to create co-products which will be linked with other polymers such as soy, carbohydrates and other dairy proteins, to create functionalized foods such as low carbohydrate or low-glycemic index snacks, meat extenders and meat analogs.

3.Progress Report
1935-41000-065-02S—Specific Cooperative Agreement with Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. The objective was to use ARS developed texturized whey protein ingredients in pectin jellies, to demonstrate that adding texturized whey protein to jellies will improve translucence, color and texture, and provide a nutritious high quality protein enhanced product. Progress was monitored through e-mails, conference calls, and interaction at Annual Meeting.

1935-41000-065-03R-This report documents research conducted under a Reimbursable Cooperative Agreement with USDA Foreign Agriculture Service to develop health-enhancing snack products using extrusion technology. The objectives are to develop nutrient enriched low glycemic snack products for the School Lunch program in the US and Brazil. Analyses of the initial products, partially cooked extruded “half products” using low glycemic starches including cassava and whey proteins indicate differences in texture and glycemic response in the presence of whey proteins. The half products expanded readily by frying and by baking in a conventional oven. The textures varied from hard to crisp depending on the starch source with cassava and quinoa being the hardest. The relative glycemic index values was quinoa (51), corn (55), cassava(58), and barley (48), but inclusion of whey proteins and cashew pulp suppressed glycemic values by about 20 to 30%. Progress was monitored through visits to Brazil, e-mails, conference calls, and interaction at International Meeting.

High protein snack product: Texturized whey protein is a new patented whey protein ingredient developed at ERRC, Wyndmoor, PA, created by shear or extrusion processing. The process alters the functionality of whey protein isolate and whey protein concentrates allowing them to be used to fortify a wide variety of food products without changing, and in many cases, improving the functional properties of the food. Whey protein can improve the amino acid balance and complements starches and grain-derived flours. A CRADA partner and licensee has opened a processing plant to manufacture the protein-enriched snack products that are currently being marketed nationwide. This research will provide a healthy new snack product for consumers and increase market opportunities for dairy products. This research addresses Action Plan Component 2. New Processes, New Uses and Value – Added Foods, and Biobased Products. Problem Areas 2a. New Product Technology and 2c. New and Improved Processes and Feedstocks.

5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations

6.Technology Transfer

Number of active CRADAs and MTAs1
Number of invention disclosures submitted1
Number of patent applications filed1
Number of new commercial licenses granted1
Number of non-peer reviewed presentations and proceedings7
Number of newspaper articles and other presentations for non-science audiences5

Review Publications
Fishman, M.L., Coffin, D.R., Onwulata, C.I., Willett, J.L. Two-stage extrusion of plasticized pectin/pvoh blends. 2006. Carbohydrate Polymers 65,p.421-429.

Tunick, M.H., Onwulata, C.I. Rheological properties of extruded milk powders. International Journal of Food Properties. p.835-844.

Last Modified: 4/16/2014
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